Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods

 
 
Academic Press
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803974-8 (ISBN)
 
Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • Niederlande
Elsevier Science
  • 13,67 MB
978-0-12-803974-8 (9780128039748)
0128039744 (0128039744)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of tables
  • List of figures
  • List of examples
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction
  • Chapter 2 - Some basic statistical concepts
  • Populations
  • Lots and samples
  • Average sample populations
  • Statistics and parameters
  • Variance and error
  • The central limit theorem
  • References
  • General reading
  • Chapter 3 - Frequency distributions
  • Types of frequency distribution
  • Statistical probability
  • The binomial distribution (s2 µ)
  • Relationships between the frequency distributions
  • Transformations
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - The distribution of microorganisms in foods in relation to sampling
  • Random distribution
  • Tests for agreement with a Poisson series
  • Confidence limits for a Poisson variable
  • Fisher index of dispersion (I)
  • The likelihood ratio index (G2 test)
  • The ? 2 test for goodness of fit
  • Regular distribution
  • The binomial distribution as a model for a regular dispersion
  • Contagious (heterogeneous) distributions
  • The negative binomial as a model for contagious distribution
  • Test for agreement of large samples (n > 50) with a negative binomial
  • Test for agreement of small samples (n < 50) with a negative binomial
  • The lognormal and other contagious distribution models
  • Effects of sample size
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Statistical aspects of sampling for microbiological analysis
  • Attributes and variables sampling
  • Binomial and trinomial distributions
  • The binomial distribution (two-class sample plan)
  • The trinomial distribution (three-class sample plans)
  • Precision of the sample estimate
  • Variation in sample size
  • Acceptance sampling by attributes
  • Two-class plans
  • Three-class plans
  • Operating characteristics (OC) curves
  • Acceptance sampling by variables
  • Some statistical considerations about drawing representative samples
  • Stratified sampling
  • Sampling frames
  • Single or multiple sampling schemes
  • Addendum
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - Errors associated with preparing samples for analysis
  • Laboratory sampling errors
  • Diluent volume errors
  • Pipette volume errors
  • Other sources of error
  • Calculation of the relative dilution error
  • Effects of gross dilution series errors on the derived colony count
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Errors associated with colony count procedures
  • Specific technical errors
  • Pour plate and similar methods
  • Surface plating methods
  • Pipetting and distribution errors
  • Pipette errors
  • Distribution errors
  • Limiting precision and confidence limits of the colony count
  • General technical errors
  • Incubation errors
  • Counting errors
  • Worker's error
  • Comparability of colony count methods
  • Overall error of colony count methods
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Errors associated with quantal response methods
  • Dilution series and most probable number counts
  • Single-tube dilution tests
  • Multiple tests at a single dilution level
  • Multiple test dilution series
  • Multiple tests at several dilution levels
  • Stevens' method for multiple dilution levels
  • The most probable number method for multiple dilution levels
  • Differences between MPN values
  • Special applications of multiple-tube dilution tests
  • Quantification based on relative prevalence of defectives
  • Other statistical aspects of multistage tests
  • The test procedure
  • Compositing of samples
  • Selection of colonies for identification
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Statistical considerations of other methods in quantitative microbiology
  • Direct microscopic methods
  • Howard mould count
  • Electrical counting of cells (flow cytometry)
  • Indirect methods
  • Impedance methods
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction methods
  • RT-qPCR
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Measurement uncertainty in microbiological analysis
  • Accuracy, trueness and precision
  • Measurement uncertainty
  • How is uncertainty estimated?
  • Quantitative tests
  • Qualitative tests
  • Reporting of uncertainty
  • Sampling uncertainty
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Estimation of measurement uncertainty
  • The 'generalised uncertainty method' or 'bottom-up' procedure
  • Errors associated with the microbial distribution in the sample matrix
  • Errors associated with the sampling process
  • Errors associated with use of a microbiological method
  • The 'top-down' approach to estimation of uncertainty
  • Analysis of variance
  • Tests for 'normality'
  • Tests for outliers
  • The standard ANOVA procedure
  • Robust methods of ANOVA
  • Measurement of intermediate reproducibility
  • Matrix and other effects
  • Estimation of uncertainty associated with quantal methods
  • Estimation of variance based on binomial distribution
  • MPN estimates
  • Level of detection estimates
  • Use of reference materials in quantal testing
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Statistical process control using microbiological data
  • What is statistical process control?
  • Trend analysis
  • Tools for statistical process control
  • SPC performance standards
  • Setting control limits
  • Shewhart's control charts for variables data
  • x and R charts
  • x and s charts
  • Interpretation of x, s and R charts
  • CUSUM charts
  • The CUSUM signal chart
  • The moving windows average
  • Control charts for attribute data
  • Recent developments in statistical process control
  • References
  • Chapter 13 - Validation of microbiological methods for food
  • The stages of method development
  • What is validation?
  • Harmonisation
  • Validation of qualitative methods
  • Selectivity testing
  • Method comparison
  • Probability of detection - AOAC
  • Relative level of detection - ISO 16140-2
  • Sensitivity - ISO 16140-2
  • Validation of quantitative methods
  • Examination of data for outliers
  • Graphical representation of data
  • Performance parameters
  • Difference of means-AOAC
  • Accuracy profile- ISO 16140-?2
  • Relative trueness - ISO 16140-2
  • Future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Risk assessment and microbiological criteria for foods
  • Risk assessment and food safety objectives
  • Microbiological criteria
  • How should microbiological criteria be set?
  • Collection of data
  • Setting criteria limits
  • Establishing sampling plans
  • The relevance of measurement uncertainty to MC
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Subject Index
  • Back Cover

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