Causal Powers

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. April 2017
  • |
  • 256 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-251659-6 (ISBN)
 
Causal powers are ubiquitous. Electrons are negatively charged; they have the power to repel other electrons. Water is a solvent; it has the power to dissolve salt. We use concepts of causal powers and their relatives-dispositions, capacities, abilities, and so on-to describe the world around us, both in everyday life and in scientific practice. But what is it about the world that makes such descriptions apt? On one view, the neo-Humean view, there is nothing intrinsic about, say, negative charge, that makes its bearers have the power to repel other negatively charged particles. Rather, matters extrinsic to negative charge, the patterns and regularities in which negatively charged particles are embedded, fix the powers its bearers have. But on a different view, the anti-Humean view, causal powers are intrinsically powerful, bringing with them their own causal, nomic, and modal nature independent of extrinsic patterns and regularities-even fixing those patterns and regularities. This collection brings together new and important work by both emerging scholars and those who helped shape the field on the nature of causal powers, and the connections between causal powers and other phenomena within metaphysics, philosophy of science, and philosophy of mind. Contributors discuss how one who takes causal powers to be in some sense irreducible should think about laws of nature, scientific practice, causation, modality, space and time, persistence, and the metaphysics of mind.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 2,67 MB
978-0-19-251659-6 (9780192516596)
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Jonathan D. Jacobs is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Saint Louis University. His work is primarily in metaphysics (focused on causal powers and their connection with causation, laws of nature, modality, and free will) and philosophy of religion. He has published articles in Philosophical Quarterly, Philosophical Studies, and The Monist, among other places.
  • Cover
  • Causal Powers
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of Figures
  • List of Contributors
  • 1: Introduction
  • 1. The Chapters
  • PART I: Science and Laws of Nature
  • 2: Causal Powers: Why Humeans Can't Even Be Instrumentalists
  • 1. What This Chapter Aims to Do
  • 2. Contributions:WhyWe NeedThem
  • 3. A Powers Ontology
  • 4. Mill-Ramsey-Lewis: An Objection and a Rescue
  • 5. Causal Powers andTheir Markers
  • 6. Why InstrumentalismWill Not Rescue MRL
  • 7. Conclusion
  • 3: Saving the Scientific Phenomena: What Powers Can and Cannot Do
  • 1. Dispositions, Laws, and Scientific Practice
  • 2. Dispositional Realism: Two Contrasts
  • 3. Arguments for Dispositional Realism
  • 4. Arguments from Scientific Explanation
  • 5. Arguments from Scientific Abstraction
  • 6. An Argument from Coherence: Property Identity
  • 7. The Dialectic of Dispositions
  • Acknowledgments
  • 4: Powerful Properties,Powerless Laws
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Categorical Best System Account
  • 2.1. Science-Friendliness
  • 2.2. The Mismatch Objection
  • 2.3. ImpoverishedWorlds Objection
  • 2.4. Metaphysical Oomph Objection
  • 3. Potencies: Fundamental Dispositional Properties
  • 3.1. Potencies are Science-Friendly
  • 4. Potency-Best System Account of Basic Laws
  • 4.1. Why Systematize Properties in non-ActualWorlds?
  • 4.2. A Potency-BSA Matches our TOE
  • 4.3. ImpoverishedWorlds and the Potency-BSA
  • 4.4. Potencies do MetaphysicalWork
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • PART II: Causation and Modality
  • 5: Aristotelian Powers at Work: Reciprocity without Symmetry in Causation
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Powers and Manifestations
  • 2.1. Is There Only Potentiality in aWorld of 'Pure' Powers?
  • 2.2. Are Powers Monadic or Relational Properties?
  • 3. The Interdependencies among Fundamental Powers
  • 3.1. Do Powers Depend on Other Powers forTheir Existence?
  • 3.2. Do Powers Depend on Other Powers for Their Activation?
  • 4. Causal Powers are Relatives
  • 5. The Modality of Powers
  • 6. Causation Is the Mutual Activation of Two (or More) Causal Powers
  • 7. Each Instance of Causation Involves Two (or More) Manifestations
  • 8. Active and Passive Causal Roles
  • 9. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • 6: Mutual Manifestation and Martin's Two Triangles
  • 1. Triggers and Partners
  • 2. Triangles
  • 3. Time and Process
  • 4. Emergence
  • 5. Nonlinearity
  • 6. Contribution and Identity
  • 7. Reckoning
  • 7: Real Modalities
  • 1. Modal Modesty
  • 2. Laws
  • 3. Causation
  • 4. Dispositions
  • 5. Nondeterministic Causation
  • 6. Antidotes, Blockers, Finks, and Absences
  • 7. Modal Truthmakers
  • 8. Counterfactual and Subjunctive Conditionals,and Other Loose Ends
  • 9. Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • 8: Nine Problems (and Even More Solutions) for Powers Accounts of Possibility
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Far Too Strong Powers Account and Its Problems
  • 3. The Moderate Powers Account and Its Response to the Previous Three Problems
  • 4. Powers to Bring about Powers: the Iteration Principle
  • 5. Three Objections to the Conjunction of the Moderate Powers Account with the Iteration Principle
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • PART III: Space, Time, and Persistence
  • 9: Manifesting Time and Space: Background-Free PhysicalTheories
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • (i)
  • (ii)
  • (iii)
  • (iv)
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • Acknowledgments
  • 10: Powerful Perdurance: Linking Parts with Powers
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Parts, Perdurance, and Persistence
  • 3. Immanent Causation and Powers
  • 4. Powers as Identical with their Manifestations
  • 5. Reciprocity and Unilateral Powers
  • 6. Antidotes for Stage-Fright: Static Parts and Dynamic Processes
  • 7. Conclusion
  • PART IV: Mind
  • 11: Conflicts of Desire: Dispositions and the Metaphysics of Mind
  • 1. Desire as Dispositions
  • 2. Alternative Dispositional Structures
  • 3. Choosing between Alternative DispositionalStructures
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • 12: Colors and Appearances as Powers and Manifestations
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. An Analysis in Terms of Powers and Manifestations
  • 3. Denying UP
  • 4. Denying SP, Supposing that Representations of Colors Are Exact: Goodman/Clark
  • 5. Denying SP, Supposing that Representations of Colors Are Inexact: Hardin
  • 6. Denying SP, Supposing that Representations of Colors Are Inexact: Hellie
  • 7. Looks as Manifestations of Powers
  • 8. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • 13: Must Functionalists Be Aristotelians?
  • 1. Functionalism
  • 2. Conditional Functionalisms
  • 2.2. Non-material Conditionals
  • 2.3. Rylean Conception of Dispositions
  • 2.4. Nomological-deductive Model of Powers
  • 3. ThreeTheories of Normativity
  • 3.1. Aristotelian Normativity
  • 3.2. Agential Normativity
  • 3.3. Objections to Evolutionary Accounts of Normativity
  • 4. Conclusions
  • 14: Power for the Mental as Such
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The as-such Objection
  • 3. Sketch of a Powers Ontology
  • 4. Power for the Mental as Such
  • 5. Mental Qualities
  • 6. Too Much Power?
  • Acknowledgments
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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