Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering

From Fundamentals to Applications
 
 
Wiley-IEEE Press
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. August 2017
  • |
  • 968 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-07953-8 (ISBN)
 
One of the most methodical treatments of electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scattering--including new applications and ideas
Presented in two parts, this book takes an analytical approach on the subject and emphasizes new ideas and applications used today. Part one covers fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scattering. It provides ample end-of-chapter problems and offers a 90-page solution manual to help readers check and comprehend their work. The second part of the book explores up-to-date applications of electromagnetic waves--including radiometry, geophysical remote sensing and imaging, and biomedical and signal processing applications.
Written by a world renowned authority in the field of electromagnetic research, this new edition of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering: From Fundamentals to Applications presents detailed applications with useful appendices, including mathematical formulas, Airy function, Abel's equation, Hilbert transform, and Riemann surfaces. The book also features newly revised material that focuses on the following topics:
* Statistical wave theories--which have been extensively applied to topics such as geophysical remote sensing, bio-electromagnetics, bio-optics, and bio-ultrasound imaging
* Integration of several distinct yet related disciplines, such as statistical wave theories, communications, signal processing, and time reversal imaging
* New phenomena of multiple scattering, such as coherent scattering and memory effects
* Multiphysics applications that combine theories for different physical phenomena, such as seismic coda waves, stochastic wave theory, heat diffusion, and temperature rise in biological and other media
* Metamaterials and solitons in optical fibers, nonlinear phenomena, and porous media
Primarily a textbook for graduate courses in electrical engineering, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering is also ideal for graduate students in bioengineering, geophysics, ocean engineering, and geophysical remote sensing. The book is also a useful reference for engineers and scientists working in fields such as geophysical remote sensing, bio-medical engineering in optics and ultrasound, and new materials and integration with signal processing.
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 17,54 MB
978-1-119-07953-8 (9781119079538)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Akira Ishimaru, PhD, has served as a member-at-large of the U.S. National Committee (USNC) and was chairman of Commission B of the USNC/International Union of Radio Science. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the Optical Society of America, the Acoustical Society of America and the Institute of Physics, U.K. He is also the recipient of numerous awards in his field. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • About the Author
  • Preface
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I Fundamentals
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Chapter 2 Fundamental Field Equations
  • 2.1 Maxwell's Equations
  • 2.2 Time-Harmonic Case
  • 2.3 Constitutive Relations
  • 2.4 Boundary Conditions
  • 2.5 Energy Relations and Poynting's Theorem
  • 2.6 Vector and Scalar Potentials
  • 2.7 Electric Hertz Vector
  • 2.8 Duality Principle and Symmetry of Maxwell's Equations
  • 2.9 Magnetic Hertz Vector
  • 2.10 Uniqueness Theorem
  • 2.11 Reciprocity Theorem
  • 2.12 Acoustic Waves
  • Problems
  • Chapter 3 Waves in Inhomogeneous and Layered Media
  • 3.1 Wave Equation for a Time-Harmonic Case
  • 3.2 Time-Harmonic Plane-Wave Propagation in Homogeneous Media
  • 3.3 Polarization
  • 3.4 Plane-Wave Incidence on a Plane Boundary: Perpendicular Polarization (s Polarization)
  • 3.5 Electric Field Parallel to a Plane of Incidence: Parallel Polarization (p Polarization)
  • 3.6 Fresnel Formula, Brewster's Angle, and Total Reflection
  • 3.7 Waves in Layered Media
  • 3.8 Acoustic Reflection and Transmission from a Boundary
  • 3.9 Complex Waves
  • 3.10 Trapped Surface Wave (Slow Wave) and Leaky Wave
  • 3.11 Surface Waves Along a Dielectric Slab
  • 3.12 Zenneck Waves and Plasmons
  • 3.13 Waves in Inhomogeneous Media
  • 3.14 WKB Method
  • 3.15 Bremmer Series
  • 3.16 WKB Solution for the Turning Point
  • 3.17 Trapped Surface-Wave Modes in an Inhomogeneous Slab
  • 3.18 Medium With Prescribed Profile
  • Problems
  • Chapter 4 Waveguides and Cavities
  • 4.1 Uniform Electromagnetic Waveguides
  • 4.2 TM Modes or E Modes
  • 4.3 TE Modes or H Modes
  • 4.4 Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues
  • 4.5 General Properties of eigenfunctions for Closed Regions
  • 4.6 k-ß Diagram and Phase and Group Velocities
  • 4.7 Rectangular Waveguides
  • 4.8 Cylindrical Waveguides
  • 4.9 TEM Modes
  • 4.10 Dispersion of a Pulse in a Waveguide
  • 4.11 Step-Index Optical Fibers
  • 4.12 Dispersion of Graded-Index Fibers
  • 4.13 Radial and Azimuthal Waveguides
  • 4.14 Cavity Resonators
  • 4.15 Waves in Spherical Structures
  • 4.16 Spherical Waveguides and Cavities
  • Problems
  • Chapter 5 Green's Functions
  • 5.1 Electric and Magnetic Dipoles in Homogeneous Media
  • 5.2 Electromagnetic Fields Excited by an Electric Dipole in a Homogeneous Medium
  • 5.3 Electromagnetic Fields Excited by a Magnetic Dipole in a Homogeneous Medium
  • 5.4 Scalar Green's Function for Closed Regions and Expansion of Green's Function in a Series of Eigenfunctions
  • 5.5 Green's Function in Terms of Solutions of the Homogeneous Equation
  • 5.6 Fourier Transform Method
  • 5.7 Excitation of a Rectangular Waveguide
  • 5.8 Excitation of a Conducting Cylinder
  • 5.9 Excitation of a Conducting Sphere
  • Problems
  • Chapter 6 Radiation from Apertures and Beam Waves
  • 6.1 Huygens' Principle and Extinction Theorem
  • 6.2 Fields Due to the Surface Field Distribution
  • 6.3 Kirchhoff Approximation
  • 6.4 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction
  • 6.5 Fourier Transform (Spectral) Representation
  • 6.6 Beam Waves
  • 6.7 Goos-Hanchen Effect
  • 6.8 Higher-Order Beam-Wave Modes
  • 6.9 Vector Green's Theorem, Stratton-CHU Formula, and Franz Formula
  • 6.10 Equivalence Theorem
  • 6.11 Kirchhoff Approximation for Electromagnetic Waves
  • Problems
  • Chapter 7 Periodic Structures and Coupled-Mode Theory
  • 7.1 Floquet's Theorem
  • 7.2 Guided Waves Along Periodic Structures
  • 7.3 Periodic Layers
  • 7.4 Plane Wave Incidence on a Periodic Structure
  • 7.5 Scattering from Periodic Surfaces Based on the Rayleigh Hypothesis
  • 7.6 Coupled-Mode Theory
  • Problems
  • Chapter 8 Dispersion and Anisotropic Media
  • 8.1 Dielectric Material and Polarizability
  • 8.2 Dispersion of Dielectric Material
  • 8.3 Dispersion of Conductor and Isotropic Plasma
  • 8.4 Debye Relaxation Equation and Dielectric Constant of Water
  • 8.5 Interfacial Polarization
  • 8.6 Mixing Formula
  • 8.7 Dielectric Constant and Permeability for Anisotropic Media
  • 8.8 Magnetoionic Theory for Anisotropic Plasma
  • 8.9 Plane-Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media
  • 8.10 Plane-Wave Propagation in Magnetoplasma
  • 8.11 Propagation Along the DC Magnetic Field
  • 8.12 Faraday Rotation
  • 8.13 Propagation Perpendicular to the DC Magnetic Field
  • 8.14 The Height of the Ionosphere
  • 8.15 Group Velocity in Anisotropic Medium
  • 8.16 Warm Plasma
  • 8.17 Wave Equations for Warm Plasma
  • 8.18 Ferrite and the Derivation of its Permeability Tensor
  • 8.19 Plane-Wave Propagation in Ferrite
  • 8.20 Microwave Devices Using Ferrites
  • 8.21 Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem for Anisotropic Media
  • 8.22 Bi-Anisotropic Media and Chiral Media
  • 8.23 Superconductors, London Equation, and the Meissner Effects
  • 8.24 Two-Fluid Model of Superconductors at High Frequencies
  • Problems
  • Chapter 9 Antennas, Apertures, and Arrays
  • 9.1 Antenna Fundamentals
  • 9.2 Radiation Fields of Given Electric and Magnetic Current Distributions
  • 9.3 Radiation Fields of Dipoles, Slots, and Loops
  • 9.4 Antenna Arrays with Equal and Unequal Spacings
  • 9.5 Radiation Fields from a Given Aperture Field Distribution
  • 9.6 Radiation from Microstrip Antennas
  • 9.7 Self- and Mutual Impedances of Wire Antennas with Given Current Distributions
  • 9.8 Current Distribution of a Wire Antenna
  • Problems
  • Chapter 10 Scattering of Waves by Conducting and Dielectric Objects
  • 10.1 Cross Sections and Scattering Amplitude
  • 10.2 Radar Equations
  • 10.3 General Properties of Cross Sections
  • 10.4 Integral Representations of Scattering Amplitude and Absorption Cross Sections
  • 10.5 Rayleigh Scattering for a Spherical Object
  • 10.6 Rayleigh Scattering for a Small Ellipsoidal Object
  • 10.7 Rayleigh-Debye Scattering (Born Approximation)
  • 10.8 Elliptic Polarization and Stokes Parameters
  • 10.9 Partial Polarization and Natural Light
  • 10.10 Scattering Amplitude Functions f11, f12, f21, AND f22 and The Stokes Matrix
  • 10.11 Acoustic Scattering
  • 10.12 Scattering Cross Section of a Conducting Body
  • 10.13 Physical Optics Approximation
  • 10.14 Moment Method: Computer Applications
  • Problems
  • Chapter 11 Waves in Cylindrical Structures, Spheres, and Wedges
  • 11.1 Plane Wave Incident on a Conducting Cylinder
  • 11.2 Plane Wave Incident on a Dielectric Cylinder
  • 11.3 Axial Dipole Near a Conducting Cylinder
  • 11.4 Radiation Field
  • 11.5 Saddle-Point Technique
  • 11.6 Radiation from a Dipole and Parseval's Theorem
  • 11.7 Large Cylinders and the Watson Transform
  • 11.8 Residue Series Representation and Creeping Waves
  • 11.9 Poisson's Sum Formula, Geometric Optical Region, and Fock Representation
  • 11.10 Mie Scattering by a Dielectric Sphere
  • 11.11 Axial Dipole in the Vicinity of a Conducting Wedge
  • 11.12 Line Source and Plane Wave Incident on a Wedge
  • 11.13 Half-Plane Excited by a Plane Wave
  • Problems
  • Chapter 12 Scattering by Complex Objects
  • 12.1 Scalar Surface Integral Equations for Soft and Hard Surfaces
  • 12.2 Scalar Surface Integral Equations for a Penetrable Homogeneous Body
  • 12.3 Efie and Mfie
  • 12.4 T-Matrix Method (Extended Boundary Condition Method)
  • 12.5 Symmetry and Unitarity of the T-Matrix and the Scattering Matrix
  • 12.6 T-Matrix Solution for Scattering from Periodic Sinusoidal Surfaces
  • 12.7 Volume Integral Equations for Inhomogeneous Bodies: TM Case
  • 12.8 Volume Integral Equations for Inhomogeneous Bodies: TE Case
  • 12.9 Three-Dimensional Dielectric Bodies
  • 12.10 Electromagnetic Aperture Integral Equations for a Conducting Screen
  • 12.11 Small Apertures
  • 12.12 Babinet'S Principle and Slot and Wire Antennas
  • 12.13 Electromagnetic Diffraction by Slits and Ribbons
  • 12.14 Related Problems
  • Problems
  • Chapter 13 Geometric Theory of Diffraction and Low- Frequency Techniques
  • 13.1 Geometric Theory of Diffraction
  • 13.2 Diffraction by a Slit for Dirichlet's Problem
  • 13.3 Diffraction by a Slit for Neumann's Problem and Slope Diffraction
  • 13.4 Uniform Geometric Theory of Diffraction for an Edge
  • 13.5 Edge Diffraction for a Point Source
  • 13.6 Wedge Diffraction for A Point Source
  • 13.7 Slope Diffraction and Grazing Incidence
  • 13.8 Curved Wedge
  • 13.9 Other High-Frequency Techniques
  • 13.10 Vertex and Surface Diffraction
  • 13.11 Low-Frequency Scattering
  • Problems
  • Chapter 14 Planar Layers, Strip Lines, Patches, and Apertures
  • 14.1 Excitation of Waves in a Dielectric Slab
  • 14.2 Excitation of Waves in a Vertically Inhomogeneous Medium
  • 14.3 Strip Lines
  • 14.4 Waves Excited by Electric and Magnetic Currents Perpendicular to Dielectric Layers
  • 14.5 Waves Excited by Transverse Electric and Magnetic Currents in Dielectric Layers
  • 14.6 Strip Lines Embedded in Dielectric Layers
  • 14.7 Periodic Patches and Apertures Embedded in Dielectric Layers
  • Problems
  • Chapter 15 Radiation From A Dipole On The Conducting Earth
  • 15.1 Sommerfeld Dipole Problem
  • 15.2 Vertical Electric Dipole Located Above the Earth
  • 15.3 Reflected Waves in Air
  • 15.4 Radiation Field: Saddle-Point Technique
  • 15.5 Field Along the Surface and the Singularities of the Integrand
  • 15.6 Sommerfeld Pole and Zenneck Wave
  • 15.7 Solution to the Sommerfeld Problem
  • 15.8 Lateral Waves: Branch Cut Integration
  • 15.9 Refracted Wave
  • 15.10 Radiation from a Horizontal Dipole
  • 15.11 Radiation in Layered Media
  • 15.12 Geometric Optical Representation
  • 15.13 Mode and Lateral Wave Representation
  • Problems
  • Part II Applications
  • Chapter 16 Inverse Scattering
  • 16.1 Radon Transform and Tomography
  • 16.2 Alternative Inverse Radon Transform in Terms of the Hilbert Transform
  • 16.3 Diffraction Tomography
  • 16.4 Physical Optics Inverse Scattering
  • 16.5 Holographic Inverse Source Problem
  • 16.6 Inverse Problems and Abel's Integral Equation Applied to Probing of the Ionosphere
  • 16.7 Radar Polarimetry and Radar Equation
  • 16.8 Optimization of Polarization
  • 16.9 Stokes Vector Radar Equation and Polarization Signature
  • 16.10 Measurement of Stokes Parameter
  • Problems
  • Chapter 17 Radiometry, Noise Temperature, and Interferometry
  • 17.1 Radiometry
  • 17.2 Brightness and Flux Density
  • 17.3 Blackbody Radiation and Antenna Temperature
  • 17.4 Equation of Radiative Transfer
  • 17.5 Scattering Cross Sections and Absorptivity and Emissivity of a Surface
  • 17.6 System Temperature
  • 17.7 Minimum Detectable Temperature
  • 17.8 Radar Range Equation
  • 17.9 Aperture Illumination and Brightness Distributions
  • 17.10 Two-Antenna Interferometer
  • Problems
  • Chapter 18 Stochastic Wave Theories
  • 18.1 Stochastic Wave Equations and Statistical Wave Theories
  • 18.2 Scattering in Troposphere, Ionosphere, and Atmospheric Optics
  • 18.3 Turbid Medium, Radiative Transfer, and Reciprocity
  • 18.4 Stochastic Sommerfeld Problem, Seismic Coda, and Subsurface Imaging
  • 18.5 Stochastic Green's Function and Stochastic Boundary Problems
  • 18.6 Channel Capacity of Communication Systems with Random Media Mutual Coherence Function
  • 18.7 Integration of Statistical Waves with Other Disciplines
  • 18.8 Some Accounts of Historical Development of Statistical Wave Theories
  • Chapter 19 Geophysical Remote Sensing and Imaging
  • 19.1 Polarimetric Radar
  • 19.2 Scattering Models for Geophysical Medium and Decomposition Theorem
  • 19.3 Polarimetric Weather Radar
  • 19.4 Nonspherical Raindrops and Differential Reflectivity
  • 19.5 Propagation Constant in Randomly Distributed Nonspherical Particles
  • 19.6 Vector Radiative Transfer Theory
  • 19.7 Space-Time Radiative Transfer
  • 19.8 Wigner Distribution Function and Specific Intensity
  • 19.9 Stokes Vector Emissivity from Passive Surface and Ocean Wind Directions
  • 19.10 VAN Cittert-Zernike Theorem Applied to Aperture Synthesis Radiometers Including Antenna Temperature
  • 19.11 Ionospheric Effects on SAR Image
  • Chapter 20 Biomedical EM, Optics, and Ultrasound
  • 20.1 Bioelectromagnetics
  • 20.2 Bio-Em and Heat Diffusion in Tissues
  • 20.3 Bio-Optics, Optical Absorption and Scattering in Blood
  • 20.4 Optical Diffusion in Tissues
  • 20.5 Photon Density Waves
  • 20.6 Optical Coherence Tomography and Low Coherence Interferometry
  • 20.7 Ultrasound Scattering and Imaging of Tissues
  • 20.8 Ultrasound in Blood
  • Chapter 21 Waves in Metamaterials and Plasmon
  • 21.1 Refractive Index n and µ-? Diagram
  • 21.2 Plane Waves, Energy Relations, and Group Velocity
  • 21.3 Split-Ring Resonators
  • 21.4 Generalized Constitutive Relations for Metamaterials
  • 21.5 Space-Time Wave Packet Incident on Dispersive Metamaterial and Negative Refraction
  • 21.6 Backward Lateral Waves and Backward Surface Waves
  • 21.7 Negative Goos-Hanchen Shift
  • 21.8 Perfect Lens, Subwavelength Focusing, and Evanescent Waves
  • 21.9 Brewster's Angle In NIM and Acoustic Brewster's Angle
  • 21.10 Transformation Electromagnetics and Invisible Cloak
  • 21.11 Surface Flattening Coordinate Transform
  • Chapter 22 Time-Reversal Imaging
  • 22.1 Time-Reversal Mirror in Free Space
  • 22.2 Super Resolution of Time-Reversed Pulse in Multiple Scattering Medium
  • 22.3 Time-Reversal Imaging of Single and Multiple Targets and Dort (Decomposition of Time-Reversal Operator)
  • 22.4 Time-Reversal Imaging of Targets in Free Space
  • 22.5 Time-Reversal Imaging and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition)
  • 22.6 Time-Reversal Imaging with Music (Multiple Signal Classification)
  • 22.7 Optimum Power Transfer by Time-Reversal Technique
  • Chapter 23 Scattering by Turbulence, Particles, Diffuse Medium, and Rough Surfaces
  • 23.1 Scattering by Atmospheric and Ionospheric Turbulence
  • 23.2 Scattering Cross Section per Unit Volume of Turbulence
  • 23.3 Scattering for a Narrow Beam Case
  • 23.4 Scattering Cross Section per Unit Volume of Rain and Fog
  • 23.5 Gaussian and Henyey-Greenstein Scattering Formulas
  • 23.6 Scattering Cross Section per Unit Volume of Turbulence, Particles, and Biological Media
  • 23.7 Line-of-Sight Propagation, Born and Rytov Approximation
  • 23.8 Modified Rytov solution with power conservation, and mutual coherence function
  • 23.9 MCF For line-of-Sight Wave Propagation in Turbulence
  • 23.10 Correlation Distance and Angular Spectrum
  • 23.11 Coherence Time and Spectral Broadening
  • 23.12 Pulse Propagation, Coherence Bandwidth, and Pulse Broadening
  • 23.13 Weak and Strong Fluctuations and Scintillation Index
  • 23.14 Rough Surface Scattering, Perturbation Solution, Transition Operator
  • 23.15 Scattering by Rough Interfaces Between Two Media
  • 23.16 Kirchhoff Approximation of Rough Surface Scattering
  • 23.17 Frequency and Angular Correlation of Scattered Waves From Rough Surfaces And Memory Effects
  • Chapter 24 Coherence in Multiple Scattering and Diagram Method
  • 24.1 Enhanced Radar Cross Section in Turbulence
  • 24.2 Enhanced Backscattering from Rough Surfaces
  • 24.3 Enhanced Backscattering from Particles and Photon Localization
  • 24.4 Multiple Scattering Formulations, the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter Equations
  • 24.5 First-Order Smoothing Approximation
  • 24.6 First- and Second-Order Scattering and Backscattering Enhancement
  • 24.7 Memory Effects
  • Chapter 25 Solitons and Optical Fibers
  • 25.1 History
  • 25.2 KDV (Korteweg-De Vries) Equation for Shallow Water
  • 25.3 Optical Solitons in Fibers
  • Chapter 26 Porous Media, Permittivity, Fluid Permeability of Shales and Seismic Coda
  • 26.1 Porous Medium and Shale, Superfracking
  • 26.2 Permittivity and Conductivity of Porous Media, Archie's Law, and Percolation and Fractal
  • 26.3 Fluid Permeability and Darcy's Law
  • 26.4 Seismic Coda, P-Wave, S-Wave, and Rayleigh Surface Wave
  • 26.5 Earthquake Magnitude Scales
  • 26.6 Waveform Envelope Broadening and Coda
  • 26.7 Coda in Heterogeneous Earth Excited by an Impulse Source
  • 26.8 S-wave Coda and Rayleigh Surface Wave
  • APPENDICES
  • Appendix to Chapter 2
  • 2.A Mathematical Formulas
  • Appendix to Chapter 3
  • 3.A The Field Near The Turning Point
  • 3.B Stokes Differential Equation and Airy Integral
  • Appendix to Chapter 4
  • 4.A Green's Identities and Theorem
  • 4.B Bessel Functions Zv(x)
  • Appendix to Chapter 5
  • 5.A Delta Function
  • Appendix to Chapter 6
  • 6.A Stratton-Chu Formula
  • Appendix to Chapter 7
  • 7.A Periodic Green's Function
  • 7.B Variational Form
  • 7.C Edge Conditions
  • Appendix to Chapter 8
  • 8.A Matrix Algebra
  • Appendix to Chapter 10
  • 10.A Forward Scattering Theorem (Optical Theorem)
  • Appendix to Chapter 11
  • 11.A Branch Points and Riemann Surfaces
  • 11.B Choice of the Contour of Integration and the Branch Cut
  • 11.C Saddle-Point Technique and Method of Stationary Phase
  • 11.D Complex Integrals and Residues
  • Appendix to Chapter 12
  • 12.A Improper Integrals
  • 12.B Integral Equations
  • Appendix to Chapter 14
  • 14.A Stationary-Phase Evaluation of a Multiple Integral I
  • Appendix to Chapter 15
  • 15.A Sommerfeld's Solution
  • 15.B Riemann Surfaces for the Sommerfeld Problem
  • 15.C Modified Saddle-Point Technique
  • Appendix to Chapter 16
  • 16.A Hilbert Transform
  • 16.B Rytov Approximation
  • 16.C Abel's Integral Equation
  • Appendix to Chapter 23
  • 23.A Complex Gaussian Variables, Circularity, and Moment Theorem
  • Appendix to Chapter 26
  • 26.A Wave Propagation in Elastic Solid and Rayleigh Surface Waves
  • 26.B Two-Dimensional Case, Rayleigh Surface Wave
  • References
  • Index
  • IEEE PRESS SERIES ON ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE THEORY
  • EULA

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Many advances in electromagnetic theory were made in recent years in response to new applications of the theory to microwaves, millimeter waves, optics, and acoustics; as a result, there is a need to present a cohesive account of these advances with sufficient background material. In this book we present the fundamentals and the basic formulations of electromagnetic theory as well as advanced analytical theory and mathematical techniques and current new topics and applications.

In Chapter 2, we review the fundamentals, starting with Maxwell's equations and covering such fundamental concepts and relationships as energy relations, potentials, Hertz vectors, and uniqueness and reciprocity theorems. The chapter concludes with linear acoustic-wave formulation. Plane-wave incidence on dielectric layers and wave propagation along layered media are often encountered in practice. Examples are microwaves in dielectric coatings, integrated optics, waves in the atmosphere, and acoustic waves in the ocean. Chapter 3 deals with these problems, starting with reviews of plane waves incident on layered media, Fresnel formulas, Brewster's angle, and total reflection. The concepts of complex waves, trapped surface waves, and leaky waves are presented with examples of surface-wave propagation along dielectric slabs, and this is followed by discussion on the relation between Zenneck waves and plasmons. The chapter concludes with Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouim (WKB) solutions and the Bremmer series for inhomogeneous media and turning points, and WKB solutions for the propagation constant of guided waves in inhomogeneous media such as graded-index fibers.

Chapter 4 deals with microwave waveguides, dielectric waveguides, and cavities. Formulations for transverse magetic (TM), transverse electric (TE), and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, and the k-ß diagram are given, followed by pulse propagation in dispersive media. Dielectric waveguides, step-index fibers, and graded-index fibers are discussed next with due attention to dispersion. It concludes with radial and azimuthal waveguides, rectangular and cylindrical cavities, and spherical waveguides and cavities. This chapter introduces Green's identities, Green's theorem, special functions, Bessel and Legendre functions, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, and orthogonality.

One of the most important and useful tools in electromagnetic theory is Green's functions. They are used extensively in the formulation of integral equations and radiation from various sources. Methods of constructing Green's functions are discussed in Chapter 5. First, the excitation of waves by electric and magnetic dipoles is reviewed. Three methods of expressing Green's functions are discussed. The first is the representation of Green's functions in a series of eigenfunctions. The second is to express them using the solutions of homogeneous equations. Here, we discuss the important properties of Wronskians. The third is the Fourier transform representation of Green's functions. In actual problems, these three methods are often combined to obtain the most convenient representations. Examples are shown for Green's functions in rectangular waveguides and cylindrical and spherical structures.

Chapter 6 deals with the radiation field from apertures. We start with Green's theorem applied to the field produced by the sources and the fields on a surface. Here, we discuss the extinction theorem and Huygens' formula. Next, we consider the Kirchhoff approximation and Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction formulas. Spectral representations of the field are used to obtain Gaussian beam waves and the radiation from finite apertures. The interesting phenomenon of the Goos-Hanchen shift of a beam wave at an interface and higher-order beam waves are also discussed. The chapter concludes with the electromagnetic vector Green's theorem, Stratton-Chu formula, Franz formula, equivalence theorem, and electromagnetic Kirchhoff approximations.

The periodic structures discussed in Chapter 7 are used in many applications, such as optical gratings, phased arrays, and frequency-selective surfaces. We start with the Floquet-mode representation of waves in periodic structures. Guided waves along periodic structures and plane-wave incidence on periodic structures are discussed using integral equations and Green's function. An interesting question regarding the Rayleigh hypothesis for scattering from sinusoidal surfaces is discussed. Also included are the coupled-mode theory and co-directional and contra-directional couplers.

Chapter 8 deals with material characteristics. We start with the dispersive characteristics of dielectric material, the Sellmeier equation, plasma, and conductors. It also includes the Maxwell-Garnett and Polder-van Santen mixing formulas for the effective dielectric constant of mixtures. Wave propagation characteristics in magnetoplasma, which represents the ionosphere and ionized gas, and in ferrite, used in microwave networks, are discussed as well as Faraday rotation, group velocity, warm plasma, and reciprocity relations. This is followed by wave propagation in chiral material. The chapter concludes with London's equations and the two-fluid model of superconductors at high frequencies.

Chapter 9 presents selected topics on antennas, apertures, and arrays. Included in this chapter are radiation from current distributions, dipoles, slots, and loops. Also discussed are arrays with nonuniform spacings, microstrip antennas, mutual couplings, and the integral equation for current distributions on wire antennas. Chapter 10 starts with a general description of the scattering and absorption characteristics of waves by dielectric and conducting objects. Definitions of cross sections and scattering amplitudes are given, and Rayleigh scattering and Rayleigh-Debye approximations are discussed. Also included are the Stokes vector, the Mueller matrix, and the Poincaré sphere for a description of the complete and partial polarization states. Techniques discussed for obtaining the cross sections of conducting objects include the physical optics approximation and the moment method. Formal solutions for cylindrical structures, spheres, and wedges are presented in Chapter 11, including a discussion of branch points, the saddle-point technique, the Watson transform, the residue series, and Mie theory. Also discussed is diffraction by wedges, which will be used in Chapter 13.

Electromagnetic scattering by complex objects is the topic of Chapter 12. We present scalar and vector formulations of integral equations. Babinet's principle for scalar and electromagnetic fields, electric field integral equation (EFIE), and magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) are discussed. The T-matrix method, also called the extended boundary condition method, is discussed and applied to the problem of sinusoidal surfaces. In addition to the surface integral equation, also included are the volume integral equation for two- and three-dimensional dielectric bodies and Green's dyadic. Discussions of small apertures and slits are also included.

Geometric theory of diffraction (GTD) is one of the powerful techniques for dealing with high-frequency diffraction problems. GTD and UTD (uniform geometric theory of diffraction) are discussed in Chapter 13. Applications of GTD to diffraction by slits, knife edges, and wedges are presented, including slope diffraction, curved wedges, and vertex and surface diffractions.

Chapter 14 deals with excitation and scattering by sources, patches, and apertures embedded in planar structures. Excitation of a dielectric slab is discussed, followed by the WKB solution for the excitation of waves in inhomogeneous layers. An example of the latter is acoustic-wave excitation by a point source in the ocean. Next, we give general spectral formulations for waves in patches, strip lines, and apertures embedded in dielectric layers. Convenient equivalent network representations are presented that are applicable to strip lines and periodic patches and apertures.

The Sommerfeld dipole problem is that of finding the field when a dipole is located above the conducting earth. This classical problem, which dates back to 1907, when Zenneck investigated what is now known as the Zenneck wave, is discussed in Chapter 15, including a detailed study of the Sommerfeld pole, the modified saddle-point technique, lateral waves, layered media, and mode representations.

The inverse scattering problem in Chapter 16 is one of the important topics in recent years. It deals with the problem of obtaining the properties of an object by using the observed scattering data. First, we present the Radon transform, used in computed tomography or X-ray tomography. The inverse Radon transform is obtained by using the projection slice theorem and the back projection of the filtered projection. Also included is an alternative inverse Radon transform in terms of the Hilbert transform. For ultrasound and electromagnetic imaging problems, it is necessary to include the diffraction effect. This leads to diffraction tomography, which makes use of back propagation rather than back projection. Also discussed are physical optics inverse scattering and the holographic inverse problem. Abel's integral equations are frequently used in inverse problems. Here, we illustrate this technique...

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