The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Reasoning in Medicine

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 30. November 2018
  • |
  • 368 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-24400-4 (ISBN)
 
The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Reasoning in Medicine is the perfect companion to your time on clinical placements, providing an easy-to-read, highly visual guide to help develop your clinical decision making skills, and transfer your knowledge into practice. Packed full of useful tips, key boxes, exercises and summaries that are designed to help you apply the knowledge gained in clinical practice.

Divided into the common clinical placements that you would find yourself in: Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Geriatrics, Gastroenterology, Nephrology, Endocrinology and Rheumatology, each chapter covers the diagnosis of common clinical conditions, as well as decision-making in their investigation and management.

Written for medical students in their clinical years, as well as new doctors and advanced nurse practitioners, The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Reasoning in Medicine provides students with an accessible resource for honing their clinical reasoning skills.

Take the stress out of clinical decision making with The Hands-on Guide!
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • Reflowable
  • 17,50 MB
978-1-119-24400-4 (9781119244004)

weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Mujammil Irfan MBBS, MRCP(UK), MSc Medical Education, SCE Respiratory Medicine, is a Consultant Respiratory Physician in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Foreword, ix

Preface, xi

Acknowledgements, xiii

Reviewers, xv

Abbreviations, xvii

Normal Reference Ranges, xix

Icons Explained, xxi

About the Companion Website, xxiii

1 Introduction: The Skeleton Laid Bare, 1

Part I Respiratory Medicine, 11

2 History Taking: A Breath of Fresh Air, 13

3 Clinical Examination: The Rustle of Leaves, 20

4 Interpretation of Chest Radiographs: The Light Through the Tunnel, 22

5 Interpretation of Arterial Blood Gases and Pleural Fluid Results: Needling it Out, 26

6 Chronic Cough, 30

7 Acute Breathlessness, 37

8 Acute Chest Pain, 45

9 Acute Haemoptysis, 50

Part II Cardiovascular Medicine, 55

10 History Taking: The Three Pillow Dilemma, 57

11 Clinical Examination: The Orchestra of Sounds, 62

12 Interpretation of Chest Radiographs: Let There Be Light, 67

13 Interpretation of Electrocardiograms: The Rhythm of Life, 70

14 Palpitations, 75

15 Worsening Breathlessness, 80

16 Vague Systemic Symptoms, 85

17 Acute Chest Pain, 89

18 Blurring the Margins, 94

Part III Nephrology, 99

19 History Taking: Blood in the Urine, 101

20 Clinical Examination: Why Is the Kidney Failing?, 107

21 Renal Investigations: The Case of the Frothy Urine, 110

22 Hypertension, 115

23 Haematuria, 120

24 Oedema, 124

25 Non-Specific Symptoms, 128

Part IV Endocrinology, 133

26 History Taking: Why Am I Losing Weight Doctor?, 135

27 Clinical Examination: Looking at the Person as a Whole, 137

28 Investigations: Seeing the Wood for the Trees, 143

29 Weight Gain, 147

30 Palpitations, 151

31 Weight Loss, 155

32 Thirsty and Confused, 159

Part V Neurology, 163

33 History Taking: What a Headache, 165

34 Clinical Examination: Walking Straight, 169

35 Investigations: The Light Bulb, 178

36 Headache, 185

37 Diplopia, 190

38 Leg Weakness, 195

39 Unilateral Weakness, 201

Part VI Geriatric Medicine, 205

40 History Taking: The Haze of Confusion, 207

41 Clinical Examination: Why Do I Keep Falling?, 212

42 Urinary Continence, 215

43 Falls, 220

44 Acute Confusion, 225

45 Dementia, 231

Part VII Gastroenterology, 237

46 History Taking: Where is the Pain?, 239

47 Clinical Examination: I Have Turned Yellow Doctor!, 246

48 Investigations: Journey to the Centre of the Abdomen and Beyond, 250

49 Weight Loss and Diarrhoea, 257

50 Jaundice, 262

51 Haematemesis and Melaena, 266

52 Abdominal Pain, 271

Part VIII Rheumatology, 277

53 History Taking: My Joints Hurt, 279

54 Clinical Examination: A Hot Swollen Joint, 282

55 Investigations: A Glimpse into the Creaky Bones, 286

56 Muscle Aches, 291

57 Joint Pain, 296

58 Back Pain, 301

59 Multi-System Disease, 305

Part IX Common Clinical Conditions, 311

60 Common Clinical Conditions, 313

61 Respiratory Block, 314

62 Cardiology, 318

63 Nephrology, 323

64 Neurology, 326

65 Gastroenterology, 330

66 Geriatric Medicine, 333

67 Endocrinology, 335

68 Rheumatology, 337

Index, 338

Abbreviations


A&E
Accident and emergency unit
A-a
Alveolar-arterial gradient
ABG
Arterial blood gas
ACEi
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
ACPA
Anti-citrullinated protein antigen
ACR
Albumin-creatinine ratio
ACS
Acute coronary syndrome
ACTH
Adreno-corticotropin hormone
ADH
Anti-diuretic hormone
ADL
Activities of daily living
AF
Atrial fibrillation
AG
Anion gap
AIN
Acute interstitial nephritis
AKI
Acute kidney injury
ALP
Alkaline phosphatase
ALS
Advanced life support
ALT
Alanine transferase
AMT
Abbreviated mental test
ANA
Antinuclear antibody
ANCA
Anti-nuclear cytoplasmic antibody
APKD
Adult onset polycystic kidney disease
APTT
Anti-prothrombin clotting time
ARB
Angiotensin receptor blocker
ARDS
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
ARR
Absolute risk reduction
ATN
Acute tubular necrosis
AV
Atrioventricular
AVM
Arteriovenous malformation
AXR
Abdominal X-ray
BE
Base excess
BMI
Body mass index
BMs
Blood sugars
BP
Blood pressure
BPH
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
bpm
Beats per minute
BTS
British Thoracic Society
CABG
Coronary artery bypass graft
CAM
Confusion assessment method
CAP
Community acquired pneumonia
CCF
Congestive cardiac failure
CDT
Clock drawing test
CGA
Comprehensive geriatric assessment
CK
Creatinine kinase
CKD
Chronic kidney disease
CMV
Cytomegalovirus
CNS
Central nervous system
COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CRP
c-reactive protein
CSF
Cerebrospinal fluid
CT
Computerised tomography
CTD
Connective tissue disease
CTPA
Computerised tomography pulmonary angiogram
CVA
Cerebrovascular accident
CVS
Cardiovascular system
CXR
Chest x-ray
DI
Diabetes insipidus
DIP
Distal interphalangeal joint
DKA
Diabetic ketoacidosis
DM
Diabetes mellitus
DNAR
Do not attempt resuscitation
DVT
Deep vein thrombosis
EBM
Evidence based medicine
EBV
Epstein Barr virus
ECF
Extracellular fluid
ECG
Electrocardiogram
EF
Ejection fraction
eGFR
Estimated glomerular filtration rate
EMG
Electromyogram
ESR
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD
End-stage renal disease
ET
Exercise tolerance
GBS
Guillain Barre syndrome
GCA
Giant cell arteritis
GCS
Glasgow coma scale
GERD
Gastro-esophageal reflux
GGT
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
GIB
Gastrointestinal bleed
GI
Gastrointestinal
GN
Glomerulonephritis
GORD
Gastro-oesophageal reflux
GP
General practitioner
GTCS
Generalised tonic clonic seizures
GTN
Nitroglycerine
H/O
History of
HAP
Hospital acquired pneumonia
Hb
Haemoglobin
HBV
Hepatitis B
HCM
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HHS
Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus
HPA
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis
HPOA
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
HR
Heart rate
HRCT
High resolution computerised tomography
HSV
Herpes simplex virus
HT
Hypertension
IBD
Inflammatory bowel disease
IBS
Irritable bowel syndrome
ICD
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
ICH
Intracranial haemorrhage
ICP
Intracranial pressure
ICS
Intercostal space
IGRA
Interferon gamma release assay
IHD
Ischaemic heart disease
IIH
Intracranial hypertension
ILD
Interstitial lung disease
INR
International normalised ratio
IPF
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ITU
Intensive care unit
IV
Intravenous
JVP
Jugular venous pressure
LBBB
Left bundle branch block
LDH
Lactate dehydrogenase
LFT
Liver function test
LGIB
Lower gastrointestinal bleed
LHF
Left heart failure
LIF
Left iliac fossa
LMN
Lower motor neurone
LMWH
Low molecular weight heparin
LP
Lumbar puncture
LR
Likelihood ratio
LV
Left ventricle
LVF
Left ventricular failure
LVH
Left ventricular hypertrophy
MAP
Mean arterial pressure
MC&S
Microscopy, culture and sensitivity
MCI
Mild cognitive impairement
MCV
Mean corpuscular volume
MI
Myocardial infarction
MMSE
Mini mental state examination
MODS
Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MRA
Magnetic resonance angiogram
NASH
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
NCS
Nerve conduction studies
NIV
Non-invasive ventillation
NMJ
Neuromuscular junction
NNT
Number needed to treat
NOAC
Newer oral anticoagulants
NPH
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
NSAIDs
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSTEMI
Non-ST elevation MI
O/E
On examination
OA
Osteoarthritis
OCP
Oral contraceptive pill
OGD
Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
OSCE
Objective structured clinical examination
PA
Per abdomen
P-A
Postero-anterior
PCKD
Polycystic kidney disease
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction
PE
Pulmonary embolism
PESI
Pulmonary embolism severity index
PFT
Pulmonary function test
PMH
Previous medical history
PMN
Polymorphonuclear cell count
PMR
Polymyalgia rheumatica
PND
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
PNS
Peripheral nervous system
PPI
Proton pump inhibitor
PPM
Permanent pacemaker
PR
Per rectal
prn
As required
PSC
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
PT
Prothrombin time
PTH
Parathyroid hormone
PUD
Peptic ulcer disease
PVD
Peripheral vascular disease
py
Pack year
RAAS
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RF
Rheumatoid factor
RHF
Right heart failure
RR
Respiratory rate
RS
Respiratory system
RVH
Right ventricular hypertrophy
SAAG
Serum ascities albumin gradient
SAH
Subarachnoid haemorrhage
SARD
Systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease
sats
Oxygen saturations
SDH
Subdural haemorrhage
SHO
Senior house officer
SIADH
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
SIRS
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
SLE
Systemic lupus erythematosis
SOB
Shortness of breath
SOBOE
Shortness of breath on exertion
SOL
Space occupying lesion
SpA
Spondylarthropathy
SBP
spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
SQs
Semantic qualifiers
STEMI
ST elevation MI
SVCO
Superior vena cava obstruction
TB
Tuberculosis
TFTs
Thyroid function tests
TIA
Transient ischaemic attack
TLOC
Transient loss of consciousness
TSH
Thyroid stimulating hormone
U&E
Urea and electrolytes
UACS
Upper airway cough syndrome
UGIB
Upper gastrointestinal bleed
UMN
Upper motor neurone
UOP
Urinary output
URTI
Upper respiratory tract infection
USG
Ultrasonography
UTI
Urinary tract...
"The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Reasoning in Medicine is a great book aimed at medical students. It uses ideas such as concept maps, activities, and cases to take learners through the diagnostic process in an explicit way. This approach is likely to be more useful than a 'traditional' textbook when it comes to thinking through real patients' problems. The book covers the internal medicine curriculum, and there is also an accompanying website. It's well laid out and easy to read.

It's designed to be an internal medicine textbook written through a clinical reasoning lens - and the result is a practical book that makes learning more likely to happen. I'd recommend it to medical students, junior doctors, advanced clinical practitioners, and others who need to get to grips with the basics of medicine but in a thoroughly practical and applicable way." - Dr Nicola Cooper, Consultant Physician, Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, University Hospitals of Derby & Burton NHS Foundation Trust and University of Nottingham, UK and co-editor of the ABC of Clinical Reasoning.



"The book is written in an informal, conversational style with a friendly and coaching feel ... the questions are thought provoking, with a patient at the centre. The prompts in the text serve as a useful guide to develop skills in clinical reasoning." - British Journal of General Practice, July 2020

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