A Companion to Science, Technology, and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 19. Januar 2016
  • |
  • 1120 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-37304-0 (ISBN)
 
A Companion to Science, Technology, and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome brings a fresh perspective to the study of these disciplines in the ancient world, with 60 chapters examining these topics from a variety of critical and technical perspectives.
* Brings a fresh perspective to the study of science, technology, and medicine in the ancient world, with 60 chapters examining these topics from a variety of critical and technical perspectives
* Begins coverage in 600 BCE and includes sections on the later Roman Empire and beyond, featuring discussion of the transmission and reception of these ideas into the Renaissance
* Investigates key disciplines, concepts, and movements in ancient science, technology, and medicine within the historical, cultural, and philosophical contexts of Greek and Roman society
* Organizes its content in two halves: the first focuses on mathematical and natural sciences; the second focuses on cultural applications and interdisciplinary themes
2 Volumes
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
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  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 11,15 MB
978-1-118-37304-0 (9781118373040)
1118373049 (1118373049)
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Georgia L. Irby is Associate Professor of Classical Studies at the College of William and Mary. Among her publications, she is the coeditor, with Paul T. Keyser, of the Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists: The Greek Tradition and its Many Heirs (2008) and Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era: A Sourcebook (2002).
  • Intro
  • Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contributor Biographies
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • 1. "Science" in Antiquity
  • 2. A Very Brief History of the "History of Greco-Roman Science"
  • 3. The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Greek and Roman Science, Medicine, and Technology
  • 4. Transliterations and Translations
  • 5. Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part I: Physics and Cosmogony
  • Chapter 1: The Creation and Destruction of the World
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Myth and Hesiod
  • 3. The Milesians
  • 4. Heraclitus
  • 5. The Hippocratics
  • 6. Eleatics
  • 7. Empedocles
  • 8. Anaxagoras
  • 9. Leucippus and Democritus
  • 10. Plato
  • 11. Aristotle
  • 12. Epicurus and Lucretius
  • 13. Stoics
  • 14. Early Christians
  • 15. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 2: Matter
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Matter in the Presocratics
  • 3. Socrates and Plato
  • 4. Aristotle
  • 5. Hellenistic Philosophy
  • 6. Neoplatonism
  • 7. Christian Thought
  • 8. Summary
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 3: Motion and Energy
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mathematical Mechanics up to Archimedes
  • 3. Philosophical Ideas about Motion
  • 4. Archimedes on Motion
  • 5. Mechanics in the Hellenistic Period
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 4: Nature and the Divine
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Myth and the Birth of "Gods and Earth"
  • 3. Presocratics
  • 4. Plato
  • 5. Stoics
  • 6. Aristotle
  • 7. Neoplatonists
  • 8. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Part II: The Mathematical Sciences
  • Chapter 5: Mathematics
  • 1. Defining Ancient Greek Mathematics
  • 2. In Lieu of Historical Narrative: Questions of Chronology, Geography, Demography
  • 3. Themes of Greek Mathematics
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 6: Astronomy
  • 1. Some Historiographical Issues
  • 2. Pre-Greek Astronomy
  • 3. Euctemon and Meton
  • 4. Plato
  • 5. Eudoxus
  • 6. Callippus
  • 7. Aristotle
  • 8. Aristarchus
  • 9. Hipparchus
  • 10. Ptolemy
  • 11. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 7: Astrology
  • 1. Astrology as the "Science of the Stars"
  • 2. Formation of Tradition: Mesopotamian Astrology
  • 3. Classical Astrology
  • 4. Astrology in the Roman Empire
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 8: Ancient Optics: Theories and Problems of Vision
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Four Kinds of Visual Theory
  • 3. Theories of Color
  • 4. Perception of Size, Shape, Contour, and Distance
  • 5. The Science of Mirrors
  • 6. A Grand Synthesis: Ptolemy's Optics
  • 7. Postscript
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 9: Hydrostatics and Pneumatics in Antiquity
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Technology
  • Practical Knowledge in the Frame of Pneumatics
  • 3. Science
  • 4. Accumulation and Network
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 10: The Science of Harmonics and Music Theory in Ancient Greece
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Organization of Musical Space
  • 3. Pythagoreans and Harmonikoi
  • 4. Aristoxenus
  • 5. The Euclidean Sectio Canonis
  • 6. Later Developments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part III: Earth Sciences
  • Chapter 11: Hydrology: Ocean, Rivers, and Other Waterways
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Circumambient Ocean
  • 3. The Nature of the Oceans and Seas
  • 4. Rivers
  • 5. Springs and Fountains
  • 6. Floating Islands
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Note
  • Chapter 12: Classical Geology and the Mines of the Greeks and Romans
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Concepts of the Material World
  • 3. Mining
  • 4. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 13: Greco-Egyptian and Byzantine Alchemy
  • 1. Collecting Alchemical Writings in Byzantium: The Art Called Chemeia
  • 2. The Earliest "Alchemists" (First to Third Centuries CE)
  • 3. Zosimus of Panopolis (fl. circa 250-300 CE)
  • 4. Alchemy after Zosimus (Fourth to Seventh Centuries CE)
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 14: Meteorology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Coping with the Weather
  • 3. Meteorologia: Explaining Meteorological Phenomena
  • 4. Predicting Weather
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 15: Geography
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Early Greek Geography
  • 3. Pytheas, Alexander the Great, and Dicaearchus
  • 4. Eratosthenes
  • 5. Hipparchus
  • 6. The Rise of Rome
  • 8. Strabo
  • 9. After Strabo
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part IV: Life Sciences
  • Chapter 16: Greek and Roman Botany
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Naming Plants in Greece
  • 3. Theophrastus and the Beginning of Scientific Botany
  • 4. After Theophrastus
  • 5. Dioscorides
  • 6. Transition to the Roman World
  • 7. Pliny the Elder
  • 8. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 17: Zoology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. A Science Is Born
  • 3. After Aristotle
  • 4. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 18: "Ecology" in the ancient Mediterranean
  • 1. Ancient Near Eastern Approaches
  • 2. Greek and Roman Theories of "Ecology"
  • 3. Human Impact on Ancient Mediterranean Environments
  • 4. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 19: The Failure of Evolutionary Thinking in Antiquity
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Empedocles of Acragas
  • 3. Plato
  • 4. Aristotle
  • 5. Galen
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 20: Embryology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Approaches to Empirical Research
  • 3. Male and Female Seeds
  • 4. The Origin of the Seed
  • 5. Conception and Embryological Etiology
  • 6. "Preformation" and "Epigenesis"
  • 7. Animation
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part V: Healing and the Human Body
  • Chapter 21: Anatomy and Physiology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Babylonian and Egyptian Initiatives
  • 3. The Presocratics and Plato
  • 4. The Hippocratics and Aristotle
  • 5. Hellenistic Initiatives: Human Dissection and Vivisection
  • 6. Codification of Anatomical Knowledge
  • 7. Galen
  • 8. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 22: Gynecology
  • 1. Greek and Roman Gynecological Theory
  • 2. Greek and Roman Gynecological Prescriptions
  • 3. Greek and Roman Practitioners of Gynecology and Obstetrics
  • 4. Religious and Magical Approaches to Women's Medicine
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 23: Surgery
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The First Literary Sources
  • 3. The Alexandrian Revolution and Egyptian Myth
  • 4. Surgery in Roman Times: Celsus' Latin Encyclopedia
  • 5. The Galenic Corpus
  • 6. Later Compilations
  • 7. Surgery as Craft
  • 8. Ethical Questions
  • 9. Tools and Techniques
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 24: Physicians and "Schools"
  • 1. The Ancient Physician
  • 2. "Schools" of Medicine
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 25: Pharmacy
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Pharmaceutical Writings
  • 3. Drug Trade
  • 4. Folklore
  • 5. Practitioners
  • 6. Compounding Pharmaceuticals
  • 7. Administration
  • 8. Alexipharmaka (Antidotes) and Anesthesia
  • 9. Conclusions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 26: Magic, Curses, and Healing
  • 1. Polytheistic Context
  • 2. Natural Magic
  • 3. Extended World
  • 4. The Historiography of Magic
  • 5. What Is Magic?
  • 6. Greek and Roman Words
  • 7. Homer and Hesiod
  • 8. Binding Magic and Curses
  • 9. Disease
  • 10. General Attack?
  • 11. Macrocosm and Microcosm
  • 12. Prognosis and Prophesy
  • 13. Shamanism in Classical Antiquity?
  • 14. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 27: Healing Shrines
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Healing Deities and Their Shrines
  • 3. Incubation: "The Medical Art Consists of Sacred Dream-Visions"
  • 4. Isis, Sarapis, and Hemithea
  • 5. Apollo Epikourios
  • 6. Heros Iatros and Amphiaraos
  • 7. Anatomical Votives and Specialist Healing Temples
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 28: Regimen and Athletic Training
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Paidotribes
  • 3. Gymnastes
  • 4. The Hippocratic Corpus
  • 5. Gymnastic Writing in the Hellenistic and Early Imperial Periods
  • 6. Galen
  • 7. Philostratus
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 29: Epidemiology and Pathology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Written Sources
  • 3. Artistic Representations
  • 4. Osteoarchaeological Evidence
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 30: Psychology and Physiognomics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ontology and Physics
  • 3. Psychology in the "Modern Sense"
  • 4. Physiognomics
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 31: Anthropology: Knowledge of Man
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Origins
  • 3. Prehistory and the Development of Society
  • 4. Lucretius
  • 5. Ethnography
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part VI: Food Sciences
  • Chapter 32: Greek and Roman Agriculture
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Earth, Water, and Time
  • 3. Cereals and Legumes
  • 4. Vines and Tree Crops
  • 5. Vegetables, Herbs, and Other Plants
  • 6. Animals
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 33: Animal Husbandry
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ovicaprids: Sheep and Goats
  • 3. Cattle
  • 4. Pigs
  • 5. Horses
  • 6. Mules
  • 7. Donkeys
  • 8. Dogs
  • 9. Small Animal Husbandry
  • 10. Aquatic Husbandry
  • 11. Exotics
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 34: Oil and Wine Production
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Origin and Domestication of the Vine (Vitis vinefera L)
  • 3. The Origin of the Olive (Olea europaea L.)
  • 4. Olive and Vine Cultivation
  • 5. Pickled Olives and Raisins
  • 6. The Production of Wine and Oil
  • 7. Oil Presses and True Wine Presses
  • 8. Written Sources
  • 9. Oil Separation
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 35: Cooking and Baking Technology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Paleolithic
  • 3. Neolithic
  • 4. Bronze Age (circa 3000-1100 BCE)
  • 5. Bronze Age Bread Baking
  • 6. Iron Age (circa 1100-700 BCE)
  • 7. Archaic and Classical Periods (circa 700-323 BCE)
  • 8. The Archaic and Classical "Kitchen"
  • 9. Archaic and Classical Baking
  • 10. Hellenistic Period (323-31 BCE)
  • 11. Republican and Imperial Rome (circa 200 BCE to 480 CE)
  • 12. Roman Baking
  • 13. Late Antiquity
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 36: Food Storage Technology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Storage Containers
  • 3. Built Structures
  • 4. Storing Wine and Oil
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 37: Culinary and Medicinal Uses of Wine and Olive Oil
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Processing and Production of Wine and Olive Oil
  • 3. Culinary Uses of Wine
  • 4. Culinary Uses of Olive Oil
  • 5. Greco-Roman Medicine and Health
  • 6. Medicinal Uses of Wine
  • 7. Medicinal Uses of Oil
  • 8. The Question of Efficacy
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 38: Nutrition
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Hippocrates, Galen, and the "Powers" of Foods
  • 3. The Hippocratic Corpus
  • 4. Galen
  • 5. Bioarchaeology and Nutrition
  • 6. Advances through Technology
  • 7. Bioarchaeology and Nutritional Deficiencies
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part VII: Technology of Human Life
  • Chapter 39: Greek Public and Religious Architecture
  • 1. Materials and Forms
  • 2. Patrons and Architects
  • 3. Construction
  • 4. Building and Knowledge
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 40: Greek Domestic Architecture
  • Building Technology: Domesticating Raw Materials
  • Architectural Syntax: Domesticating Space
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 41: Greek Interior Decoration: Materials and Technology in the Art of Cosmesis and Display
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Private Interior Space: Function and Decoration
  • 3. Elements of Fixed Interior Decoration
  • 4. Movable Artworks and Artifacts
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 42: Roman Monumental and Public Architecture
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Beginnings
  • 3. Building Materials
  • 4. Innovative Building Types
  • 5. The Arch, Vault, and Dome
  • 6. Architecture as Power: Rome in the Last Years of the Republic
  • 7. Early Roman Building outside Rome
  • 8. Augustan and Julio-Claudian Rome
  • 9. The Role of the Allied Kings
  • 10. Roman Architecture in the Provinces
  • 11. Later Roman Architecture
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 43: Roman Domestic Architecture
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Treatises on Architecture and Building Manuals
  • 3. Design
  • 4. Construction Techniques and Building Materials
  • 5. The Roman Domus: Between Theory and Practice
  • 6. Beyond the Atrium House
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 44: Roman Interior Design
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Roman Rooms
  • 3. Painting
  • 4. Stucco
  • 5. Color (Pigments and Dyes)
  • 6. Mosaics
  • 7. Glass
  • 8. Windows
  • 9. Stone
  • 10. Metals
  • 11. Wood
  • 12. Summary
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 45: Textile Technology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Historiographical Note
  • 2. Sources, Methods, and Advances
  • 3. State of the Art of Knowledge on Textile and Clothing Technologies
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 46: Urban Infrastructure in the Roman World
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Water Supply
  • 3. Road Construction
  • 4. Bridge Construction
  • 5. Tunnel Construction
  • 6. Shipping Canals
  • 7. Summary
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 47: Siegeworks and Fortifications
  • 1. Fortifications
  • 2. Siegeworks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 48: Arms and Weapons
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Bronze Age
  • 3. The Dark Ages, Geometric, and Archaic Periods
  • 4. The Classical and Hellenistic Age
  • 5. The Roman Empire
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part VIII: Travel
  • Chapter 49: Greek and Roman Cartography
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Challenges
  • 3. Utility
  • 4. Homer
  • 5. Milesian Maps
  • 6. Herodotus
  • 7. Eratosthenes and Hipparchus
  • 8. Ptolemy
  • 9. Periploi, Itineraries, and Chorographies
  • 10. Celestial and Terrestrial Globes
  • 11. Physical Maps
  • 12. "Maps" in Greek and Roman Culture
  • 13. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 50: Land Transport and Vehicles
  • 1. Historiography and Epistemological Problems
  • 2. Putting Methods and Sources into Perspective
  • 3. Comparative Ethnology and Ethno-History
  • 4. Mechanics of Forces
  • 5. The Energy Potential of Portage and Traction
  • 6. Functional Typology of Harnessed Transport
  • 7. The Diversity of Vehicles
  • 8. Customs, Contexts and Costs: Reality and Practical Applications in the Transportation of People and Merchandise (Raepsaet 2002)
  • 9. Roads
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 51: Navigation and the Art of Sailing
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Officers of the Deck: Kybernetes, Keleustes, and Prorates
  • 3. Moving the Vessel
  • 4. Anchorages and Harbors
  • 5. Sea Conditions: The Sailing Season, Winds, and Storms
  • 6. Navigation
  • 7. Maritime Highways and "Charts"
  • 8. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 52: Ships and Boats
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Sources
  • 3. Shipbuilding
  • Summary
  • 4. Mediterranean Sailing Rigs
  • Oared Propulsion
  • Square Sails
  • 5. Patterns of Technological Change
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part IX: Telling Time
  • Chapter 53: Greek Calendars
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Sources for the Study of the Greek Calendar
  • 3. The Calendar and the Sky
  • 4. Months and Years across Greece
  • 5. The Athenian Prytany Calendar
  • 6. Meton, Cycles, and the Influence of Astronomical Calendars
  • 7. The Greek Calendar in Flux
  • 8. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 54: Roman Calendars
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Pre-Julian Calendar
  • 3. The Julian Calendar
  • 4. Intercalation in the Julian Calendar
  • 5. Festivals in the New Calendar
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 55: Time-Telling Devices
  • 1. Sundials
  • 2. Timers
  • 3. Water Clocks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part X: Synthesis and Response
  • Chapter 56: The Crossroads of Hellenistic and Sanskrit Science
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Pre-Hellenistic Scientific Developments
  • 3. Mathematics
  • 4. Alexander in India
  • 5. Yavana Jataka
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 57: Roman Responses to Greek Science and Scholarship as a Cultural and Political Phenomenon
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Cicero
  • 3. Vitruvius
  • 4. Columella
  • 5. Pliny the Elder
  • 6. Responses to Non-Greek Science
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 58: Scientific Encyclopedias
  • 1. Introduction: Defining the Term "Scientific Encyclopedia"
  • 2. Encyclopedism and Science under the Peripatetic School
  • 3. The Tradition of Latin Encyclopedism
  • 4. Greco-Roman Imperial Culture
  • 5. Conclusion: The Role of Scientific Encyclopedias in the Transmission of Greco-Roman Science
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Notes
  • Chapter 59: Translation and Transmission of Ancient Scientific Texts
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Translators and Modes of Translating
  • 3. Multivalent Texts
  • 4. Institutions
  • 5. Narrating the Translation and Transformation of the Ancient Sciences
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 60: The Reception of Greco-Roman Science in the Renaissance: Assimilation(s), Transformation(s), Rejection, Hybridization
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Reception of Greek Logic and Epistemology in Early Modern Debates on Method
  • 3. Physics
  • 4. Mechanics
  • 5. Medicine
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Note
  • Appendix: Major Scientific, Technical, and Medical Writers and Thinkers of Ancient Greece and Rome
  • General Index
  • Index of Authors, Thinkers, and Primary Sources
  • Index of Toponyms
  • EULA

Contributor Biographies


Tejas S. Aralere attends the College of William and Mary, from which he holds degrees in Latin and neuroscience. His research focuses on early Indian science and the parallels between ancient Indic and Greek sciences.

Bradley A. Ault is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of Buffalo. His publications include The Houses: The Organization and Use of Domestic Space. Excavations at Ancient Halieis, 2 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005); and, co-edited with L.C. Nevett, Ancient Greek Houses and Households. Chronological, Regional, and Social Diversity (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005).

Hariclia Brecoulaki is an archaeologist and holds a research position at the Institute of Historical Research, Department of Greek and Roman Antiquity (The National Hellenic Research Foundation). Her work mainly focuses on Greek painting from the Late Bronze Age to the Roman period, with a particular interest in the technological aspects of ancient polychromy. Her publications include the books L'esperienza del colore nella pittura funeraria dell'Italia preromana V-III secolo a.C. (Electa: Naples, 2001), La peinture funéraire de Macédoine. Emplois et fonctions de la couleur, IV-IIème s. av. J.-C. (The Institute of Historical Research: Athens, 2006) and Mycenaean Painting in Context. New Discoveries, Old Finds Reconsidered (co-editors J.L. Davis and S.R. Stocker) (The Institute of Historical Research: Athens, 2015).

Sonja Brentjes holds a doctorate in the history of mathematics from Karl Marx University in Leipzig. Her research interests include history of science (mathematics, mapmaking, institutions) in Islamicate societies; cross-cultural exchange of knowledge; portolan charts; early modern travel accounts about the Ottomans and Safavids; and narrative of science in Islamicate societies. She is now a researcher at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin.

Lauren Caldwell is Associate Professor of Classical Studies at Wesleyan University. Her research is in Roman history, Greco-Roman medicine, and Roman law. Her book, Roman Girlhood and the Fashioning of Femininity (Cambridge 2014), investigates Roman medical perspectives on women's health, particularly female adolescent health, and examines how medical perspectives were both influenced and shaped by social values.

Gordon Campbell is a lecturer in Ancient Classics at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth. He works on ancient philosophical poetry, anthropology, cosmology, and in particular on Lucretius and Empedocles

Paul T. Craddock graduated in Chemistry from the University of Birmingham in 1966 and joined the British Museum Research Laboratory, where he remained for his whole career, currently in an emeritus role. While there he obtained further qualifications in prehistoric archaeology and metallurgy, obtaining his PhD from the Institute of Archaeology in 1975 on classical bronze alloys. Most of his work has been concerned with metals through all stages of their production, from mining and smelting the ores, as exemplified by Rio Tinto, through to their final embellishment, as exemplified by studies on Corinthian bronze. He is currently working on a monograph investigating the technology of large hollow lost wax castings in Egyptian and classical antiquity

Robert I. Curtis is Professor Emeritus of Classics in the Department of Classics, University of Georgia. His primary research interests include food technology, Roman social and economic history, and Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Raffaele D'Amato is a Turin-based expert of the ancient and medieval military world. After achieving his first PhD in Romano-Byzantine law, he earned a second doctorate in Roman military archaeology. He is currently a visiting professor at the Fatih University of Istanbul, working for the Turkish government on a project upon the arms and armour of Byzantium in Turkey.

Jean De Groot is Associate Professor in the School of Philosophy at The Catholic University of America, where she teaches ancient science and philosophy, as well as twentieth-century philosophy and philosophy of science. Her present interests focus on the history of mechanics, particularly in pre-Classical and Classical antiquity. She is also interested in the materiality of scientific culture in western Magna Graecia. She has written articles and book chapters on Aristotle's natural philosophy and on Eudoxan proportion theory in astronomy and mechanics. Her books include Aristotle's Empiricism: Experience and Mechanics in the Fourth Century BC (Parmenides, 2014) and Aristotle and Philoponus on Light (1991, reprint by Routledge, Summer 2015).

Nathalie de Haan is Assistant Professor of Ancient History at Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands. Her research focuses on Roman baths and bathing culture, Pompeii, Roman housing, and reception studies. She is the author of Römische Privatbäder. Entwicklung, Verbreitung, Struktur und sozialer Status (Peter Lang Verlag, 2010).

John F. Donahue is Professor in the Department of Classical Studies, College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA (USA). His works include The Roman Community at Table during the Principate (2004) and Food and Drink in Antiquity: A Sourcebook of Readings from the Greco-Roman World (2015), as well as various articles and reviews on ancient health and diet, Latin epigraphy, and Roman history.

Thorsten Fögen is Reader (Associate Professor) at Durham University (UK) and "Privatdozent" at Humboldt University of Berlin. He is the author of "Patrii sermonis egestas": Einstellungen lateinischer Autoren zu ihrer Muttersprache (Munich & Leipzig 2000) and of Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung: Zur Struktur und Charakteristik römischer Fachtexte der frühen Kaiserzeit (Munich 2009). He has edited seven volumes, most recently Tears in the Graeco-Roman World (Berlin & New York 2009) and Bodies and Boundaries in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (Berlin & New York 2009).

Rafael Frankel began studying at Tel Aviv University 1969. He has taught at Tel Aviv and Haifa Universities and various colleges and has participated in excavations at Tel Bet Yerah (Khirbet Kerak), Tel Be'er Sheva, and Aphek- Antipatris. He has excavated a Persian period temple at Mount Mizpe Yammim and several oil and wine presses and aqueducts, and he has directed archaeological surveys of Western and Upper Galilee. His main fields of research are archaeology and history of Western and Upper Galilee and of wine, oil, and bread.

Laura Gawlinski is Associate Professor of Classical Studies at Loyola University Chicago. She is the author of The Sacred Law of Andania: A New Text with Commentary (de Gruyter, 2012), and her research generally focuses on combining epigraphy and archaeology to investigate how ancient Greek religion was practiced. She is active in fieldwork and has been associated with the excavations of the Athenian Agora since 1995.

Sophie Gibson is an independent scholar. She received her DPhil in Classics from Oxford University in 2002, and is the author of Aristoxenus of Tarentum and the Birth of Musicology (Routledge 2005). A holder of degrees also in law and music, she lives in Oxford.

Daniel W. Graham is A. O. Smoot Professor of Philosophy at Brigham Young University. He does research on history of philosophy and history of science, and has written, translated, or edited eight books on ancient philosophy and science. He has also published numerous scholarly articles on Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, and the Presocratic philosophers. He is president of the International Association for Presocratic Studies and a member of the editorial board of Apeiron. He has taught at Grinnell College and Rice University and been a visiting fellow at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and a visiting professor of philosophy at Yale University. He has been awarded two NEH fellowships.

Andrew D. Gregory is Professor of the History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Science and Technology Studies at University College London. He has published widely on science in the ancient world, with books including Plato's Philosophy of Science, Ancient Greek Cosmogony, and The Presocratics and the Supernatural.

Klaus Grewe trained as a surveyor and has worked as a surveying engineer. He is Associate Professor at RWTH Aachen University. He has worked extensively in the field and has published broadly on Roman infrastructure (especially in Cologne, Algeria, and Tunisia). In 1988, he was awarded the Frontinus-Medaille by the Frontinus Society.

Robert Hannah is Dean of Arts & Social Sciences at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. Before that he was a member of the Department of Classics at the University of Otago. He is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He has written extensively on the use of astronomy in Greek and Roman cultures. His recent publications include the books Greek and Roman Calendars: Constructions of Time in the Classical World (London, 2005), and Time in Antiquity (London, 2009). His current interests are...

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