Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon

Characterization
 
 
Butterworth-Heinemann (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 338 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-805468-0 (ISBN)
 

Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Characterization discusses 12 characterization techniques, focusing on their application to carbon materials, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray small-angle scattering, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, image analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, magnetoresistance, electrochemical performance, pore structure analysis, thermal analyses, and quantification of functional groups.

Each contributor in the book has worked on carbon materials for many years, and their background and experience will provide guidance on the development and research of carbon materials and their further applications.


  • Focuses on characterization techniques for carbon materials
  • Authored by experts who are considered specialists in their respective techniques
  • Presents practical results on various carbon materials, including fault results, which will help readers understand the optimum conditions for the characterization of carbon materials
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,53 MB
978-0-12-805468-0 (9780128054680)
0128054689 (0128054689)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Characterization
  • Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon: Characterization
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Companion Web Site
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 CARBON MATERIALS
  • 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON MATERIALS
  • 1.3 STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENT BOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - X-ray Powder Diffraction
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF CARBON MATERIALS
  • 2.3 PARAMETERS DETERMINED BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • 2.4 INSTRUMENTATION
  • 2.5 SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEASUREMENT
  • 2.5.1 PREPARATION OF SAMPLE FOR X-RAY MEASUREMENTS
  • 2.5.2 MEASUREMENT AND INTENSITY CORRECTION OF DIFFRACTION PROFILES
  • 2.5.3 CORRECTION OF DIFFRACTION ANGLE WITH INTERNAL STANDARD
  • 2.5.4 DETERMINATION OF FULL WIDTH AT HALF MAXIMUM INTENSITY
  • 2.5.5 ACCURACY OF THE VALUES DETERMINED
  • 2.6 DEGREE OF GRAPHITIZATION
  • 2.7 KEY ISSUES FOR MEASUREMENT
  • 2.7.1 DIFFRACTION PATTERN
  • 2.7.2 USE OF INTERNAL STANDARD
  • 2.7.3 USE OF THIN SAMPLE HOLDER
  • 2.7.4 INDEXING THE DIFFRACTION LINE
  • 2.7.5 SEPARATION INTO COMPONENT PROFILES
  • 2.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Small-Angle X-ray Scattering
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 FUNDAMENTALS
  • 3.3 KEY ISSUES FOR THE MEASUREMENTS
  • 3.4 APPLICATIONS FOR CARBON MATERIALS
  • 3.4.1 POROUS CARBON FIBERS
  • 3.4.2 GLASS-LIKE CARBONS
  • 3.4.3 MESOCELLULAR FOAM CARBONS (SILICA-TEMPLATED CARBONS)
  • 3.4.4 OPEN PORES FORMED BY AIR OXIDATION
  • 3.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Transmission Electron Microscopy
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 MODES OF TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY [3-5]
  • 4.2.1 DIFFRACTING MODE
  • 4.2.2 IMAGING MODES
  • 4.3 KEY ISSUES FOR OBSERVATION
  • 4.3.1 OBJECT THICKNESS (WEAK PHASE OBJECT) [6]
  • 4.3.2 CONTRAST TRANSFER FUNCTION OF THE TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE [6]
  • 4.3.2.1 Objective Lens Defects
  • 4.3.2.1.1 Spherical Aberration Cs
  • 4.3.2.1.1 Spherical Aberration Cs
  • 4.3.2.1.2 Objective Lens Aperture
  • 4.3.2.1.2 Objective Lens Aperture
  • 4.3.2.1.3 Ellipticity Astigmatism
  • 4.3.2.1.3 Ellipticity Astigmatism
  • 4.3.2.2 Illumination Defects
  • 4.3.2.2.1 Information Limit (Termination) [12]
  • 4.3.2.2.1 Information Limit (Termination) [12]
  • 4.3.2.2.2 Spatial Coherency
  • 4.3.2.2.2 Spatial Coherency
  • 4.3.3 DIFFUSION CONTRASTS
  • 4.3.4 FRESNEL FRINGES, IE, EDGE FRINGES [4]
  • 4.5 APPLICATIONS FOR CARBON MATERIALS [1,2,5,17-19]
  • 4.5.1 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY MODES TO STUDY CRYSTALLINITY OF CARBON MATERIALS
  • 4.5.2 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY MODES IN THE STUDY OF CARBONIZATION AND GRAPHITIZATION
  • 4.6 CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • 5 - Scanning Electron Microscopy
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 INSTRUMENTATION AND RESOLVING POWER
  • 5.2.1 INSTRUMENTATION
  • 5.2.2 MAGNIFICATION AND RESOLVING POWER OF THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
  • 5.2.3 EDGE EFFECTS APPEARING IN SE MODE IMAGES
  • 5.3 SPECIMEN PREPARATION
  • 5.4 OBSERVATION WITH THE OUT-LENS OBJECTIVE LENS SYSTEM
  • 5.5 OBSERVATION WITH THE SNORKEL OBJECTIVE LENS SYSTEM
  • 5.6 OBSERVATION WITH THE IN-LENS SYSTEM
  • 5.7 ELECTRON CHANNELING EFFECT
  • 5.7.1 ELECTRON CHANNELING EFFECT FOR KISH GRAPHITE
  • 5.7.2 ELECTRON CHANNELING PATTERN FOR KISH GRAPHITE AND HOPG SPECIMENS
  • 5.7.3 MAPPING AND CRYSTAL GRAIN SIZE EVALUATION
  • 5.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Image Analysis
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS
  • 6.2.1 PROCESS OF IMAGE ANALYSIS
  • 6.2.2 ANALYSIS OF SPACE FREQUENCY
  • 6.2.3 THREE-DIMENSIONAL TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
  • 6.2.4 SOFTWARE FOR THE ANALYSIS
  • 6.3 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS THROUGH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
  • 6.3.1 CUP-STACKED TYPE CARBON NANOTUBES
  • 6.3.2 CARBON NANOTUBES LOADED WITH METAL PARTICLES
  • 6.3.3 THIN GRAPHITE
  • 6.3.4 DISORDERED CARBON
  • 6.4 TEXTURE ANALYSIS THROUGH SCANNING ELECTRON MICROGRAPHS
  • 6.5 TEXTURE ANALYSIS THROUGH OPTICAL MICROGRAPHS
  • 6.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Raman Spectroscopy
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 FUNDAMENTALS
  • 7.3 KEY ISSUES FOR THE MEASUREMENTS
  • 7.3.1 LASER PROBE SAMPLING DEPTH
  • 7.3.2 POLARIZATION OF LASER LIGHT
  • 7.3.3 SAMPLING AREA
  • 7.3.4 TEMPERATURE
  • 7.3.5 ELIMINATION OF BACKGROUND INTENSITY
  • 7.3.6 EXCITATION ENERGY DEPENDENCE OF D BAND
  • 7.3.7 CALIBRATION OF RAMAN FREQUENCY
  • 7.3.8 EQUIPMENT
  • 7.4 AS A MEASURE FOR STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION
  • 7.4.1 G BAND
  • 7.4.1.1 G-FWHM
  • 7.4.1.2 G-RF
  • 7.4.2 D AND D´ BANDS
  • 7.4.2.1 D-RF and D-FWHM
  • 7.4.2.2 D´-RF and D´-FWHM
  • 7.4.2.3 ID/IG
  • 7.4.2.4 Second-order bands
  • 7.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.2 PRACTICAL SIDE OF MEASUREMENTS
  • 8.3 STATE ANALYSIS
  • 8.3.1 DETERMINATION OF BINDING ENERGY
  • 8.3.2 BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION
  • 8.3.3 PEAK SEPARATION
  • 8.3.4 STATE ANALYSIS USING CHEMICAL SHIFT
  • 8.4 SEMIQUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
  • 8.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Magnetoresistance
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 GENERAL SCHEME OF ??/?0 CHANGE WITH GRAPHITIZATION
  • 9.3 MEASUREMENT OF MAGNETORESISTANCE
  • 9.3.1 SPECIMEN SHAPE
  • 9.3.2 MAGNETIC FIELD ORIENTATION SCHEMES
  • 9.3.2.1 Planar orientation (Fig. 9.5A)
  • 9.3.2.2 Axial orientation (Fig. 9.5B)
  • 9.3.3 INSTRUMENTS
  • 9.4 MAGNETORESISTANCE PARAMETERS FOR COKE
  • 9.4.1 COKE B AND GILSONITE COKE
  • 9.4.2 COKE PREPARED FROM HYDROGENATED ETHYLENE TAR PITCH
  • 9.5 MAGNETORESISTANCE PARAMETERS FOR CARBON FIBERS AND EXTRUDED COKE
  • 9.5.1 BENZENE-DERIVED VAPOR-GROWN CARBON FIBER AND EXTRUDED COKE
  • 9.5.2 OTHER CARBON FIBERS
  • 9.6 MAGNETORESISTANCE PARAMETERS FOR HIGHLY CRYSTALLIZED GRAPHITE MATERIALS
  • 9.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • SUPPLEMENT: BACKGROUND OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON MATERIALS WITH ??/?0
  • S-1 ORIGIN OF THE SIGN OF ??/?0
  • (a) Negative Magnetoresistance
  • (b) Positive Magnetoresistance
  • S-2 MICROTEXTURE
  • S-3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICROTEXTURE AND MAGNETORESISTANCE
  • (a) Positive Magnetoresistance
  • Planar Orientation
  • Planar Orientation
  • Axial Orientation
  • Axial Orientation
  • (b) Negative Magnetoresistance
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Electrochemical Performance
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 FUNDAMENTALS
  • 10.2.1 CAPACITANCE
  • 10.2.2 CONSTRUCTION OF MEASUREMENT CELL
  • 10.2.3 ELECTROCHEMICALLY ANALYTICAL MODE
  • 10.2.4 DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITANCE AND INTEGRAL CAPACITANCE
  • 10.2.5 DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC CAPACITANCE
  • 10.3 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE
  • 10.3.1 MEASUREMENT CELL
  • 10.3.2 PREPARATION OF CARBON ELECTRODE
  • 10.3.3 AQUEOUS ACID ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM (BY THREE-ELECTRODE CELL)
  • 10.3.4 ORGANIC ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM (BY THREE-ELECTRODE CELL)
  • 10.3.5 ORGANIC ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM (BY TWO-ELECTRODE CELL)
  • 10.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Gas Adsorption/Desorption Isotherm for Pore Structure Characterization
  • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2 FUNDAMENTALS
  • 11.3 KEY ISSUES FOR THE MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSES
  • 11.3.1 SAMPLE AMOUNT FOR THE MEASUREMENT
  • 11.3.2 PRETREATMENT OF SAMPLE
  • 11.3.3 BRUNAUER-EMMETT-TELLER METHOD
  • 11.3.4 aS PLOT
  • 11.3.5 BARRETT-JOYNER-HALENDA METHOD
  • 11.3.6 DUBININ-RADUSHKEVICH METHOD
  • 11.3.7 DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY METHOD
  • 11.4 APPLICATION TO CARBON MATERIALS
  • 11.4.1 MICROPOROUS CARBONS
  • 11.4.2 MESOPOROUS CARBONS
  • 11.4.3 MEASUREMENTS USING VARIOUS GASES AS ADSORBATE
  • 11.4.4 GRAVIMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF ADSORPTION/DESORPTION OF CO2
  • 11.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 12 - Thermal Analysis
  • 12.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 12.2 FUNDAMENTALS IN THERMAL ANALYSES
  • 12.3 KEY ISSUES FOR THE MEASUREMENTS
  • 12.4 APPLICATIONS OF TG AND DTG FOR CARBON MATERIALS
  • 12.4.1 BIOMASSES
  • 12.4.2 PITCHES
  • 12.4.3 ORGANIC POLYMERS
  • 12.4.4 MEASUREMENTS IN OXYGEN
  • 12.5 APPLICATIONS OF DTA AND DSC FOR CARBON MATERIALS
  • 12.5.1 PITCHES
  • 12.5.2 ORGANIC POLYMERS
  • 12.5.3 INTERCALATION REACTIONS
  • 12.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 - Titration Method for the Identification of Surface Functional Groups
  • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13.2 BASIC CONCEPT OF TITRATION METHOD
  • 13.3 INSTRUMENTATION
  • 13.4 SPECIFICATION FOR THE METHODOLOGY
  • 13.4.1 REACTION STEP
  • 13.4.2 FILTRATION STEP
  • 13.4.3 TITRATION STEP
  • 13.5 ANALYSIS OF THE TITRATION RESULTS
  • 13.6 KEY POINTS FOR THE TITRATION MEASUREMENTS
  • 13.6.1 PREPARATION OF THE REACTION MIXTURE FOR THE REACTION STEP
  • 13.6.2 AGITATION METHOD AND PERIOD
  • 13.6.3 TITRATION CONDITION AND END POINT DETERMINATION
  • 13.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 - Temperature Programmed Desorption
  • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 14.2 TPD EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AND APPARATUS
  • 14.3 ASSIGNMENT OF TPD PEAKS TO SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
  • 14.4 SECONDARY REACTIONS DURING A TPD RUN
  • 14.5 EFFECT OF AIR EXPOSURE ON TPD PATTERNS
  • 14.6 EFFECT OF INORGANIC MATTER IN CARBONS
  • 14.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Back Cover

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