Towards Revealing the Origin of Life

Presenting the GADV Hypothesis
 
 
Springer (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 7. Juni 2021
  • |
  • XXIII, 240 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Wasserzeichen-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-3-030-71087-3 (ISBN)
 

The origin of life has been investigated by many researchers from various research fields, such as Geology, Geochemistry, Physics, Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Astronomy and so on. Nevertheless, the origin of life remains unsolved. One of the reasons for this could be attributed to the different approaches that researchers have used to understand the events that happened on the primitive Earth. The origins of the main three members of the fundamental life system, as gene, genetic code and protein, could be only separately understood with these approaches. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the origins of gene, the genetic code, tRNA, metabolism, cell structure and protein not separately but comprehensively under a common concept in order to understand the origin of life, because the six members are intimately related to each other.

In this monograph, the author offers a comprehensive hypothesis to explain the origin of life under a common concept. At the same time, the author offers the [GADV] hypothesis contrasting it with other current hypotheses and discusses the results of analyses of genes/proteins and the experimental data available in the exploration of the current knowledge in the field. This book is of interest for science students, researchers and the general public interested in the origin of life.

1st ed. 2021
  • Englisch
  • Cham
  • |
  • Schweiz
Springer International Publishing
76 farbige Abbildungen, 10 farbige Tabellen, 29 s/w Abbildungen
  • 7,70 MB
978-3-030-71087-3 (9783030710873)
10.1007/978-3-030-71087-3
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Kenji Ikehara received his degree in Industrial Chemistry from Kyoto University in 1968 and obtained his Ph.D. in 1976 at the section of Engineering of Kyoto University. He moved as research associate to Faculty of Science, the University of Tokyo, to associate professor, Nara Women's University and got promoted to full professor, Nara Women's University. He served as Director of the Faculty of Science, Nara Womens's University and as Director of the Nara Study Center of the Open University of Japan. He is also a fellow of the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Japan and Emeritus Professor of Nara Women's University. He served as Local Chair of International Conference, Origin 2014, which was held at Nara in 2014. He has published about 60 publications in international journals and contributed 3 chapters of international books as author, 1 book as author and 1 book as editor. He has participated in more than 100 congresses, presenting main, oral and poster communications in international and national congresses. His main research fields of interest are represented by the studies on origins of protein, genetic code, genes and life.
Introduction1. Why has not the origin of life been solved still now?1.1. The reasons from viewpoint of research methodology1.2. How could the three main members in the fundamental life system be created through random processes?1.3. Then, is it impossible to unravel the riddle of the origin of life?2. My idea about the origin of life2.1. I might be able to solve the riddle of the origin of life from my own viewpoint2.2. The reason why I could reach a novel idea, with which the riddle of the origin of life might be solved3. Overview of this bookReferencesChapter 1: Modern Fundamental Life SystemAbstract1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of life1.1. The mechanism how life is living1.2. Necessary matters for solving the riddle of the origin of life1.3. Significance of theoretical approach2. Overview of [GADV]-protein world hypothesis (GADV hypothesis)2.1. Establishment process of the fundamental life system (Outline)2.2. The steps from chemical evolution to the emergence of lifeReferencesChapter 2: The Origin of ProteinAbstractIntroduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of protein1.1. Necessary matters for exploring the origin of protein1.2. General structural features of modern protein (enzyme)1.3. General functional features of modern protein (enzyme)2. Structure formation of protein under the modern genetic system3. The ideas on the origin of protein advocated by other researchers3.A. The origin of protein-I: How was the first mature protein created?3.B. The origin of protein-II: How have entirely new mature proteins been created?3. 1. Amino acid sequence hypothesis3.2. Protein structure hypothesis3.3. Short peptide (motif) theory3.4. The reason why the origin of protein-II has not been solved still now4. My idea about the origin of protein4.A. The origin of protein-I: How was the first mature protein created?4.1. Chemical evolution4.2. [GADV]-amino acids could be produced at large amounts through prebiotic means4.3. Immature [GADV]-protein could be produced through a random process4.4. [GADV]-amino acid composition is one of protein 0th -order structures4.5. From production of immature protein to formation of double-stranded (GNC)ngene4.6. The formation of the first ds-(GNC)nRNA led to creation of the first mature [GADV]-protein4.7. Immature protein is pluripotent4.B. The origin of protein-II: How has an entirely new mature protein been created?4.8. Creation of an entirely new mature protein through the first double-stranded (GNC)nRNA5. Discussion6. ConclusionReferencesChapter 3: The Origin of Cell StructureAbstract:Introduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of cell structure1.1. Necessary matters for exploration of the origin of cell structure1.2. General structural features of modern cell (cell structure)1.3. General functional features of modern cell (cell structure)2. The ideas on the origin of cell structure advocated by other researchers2.1. Amphiphile membrane theory2.2. Protenoid microsphere theory3. My idea on the origin of modern cell3.1. For what purpose was the first cell structure created?3.2. [GADV]-microsphere hypothesis4. Discussion5. ConclusionReferencesChapter 4: The Origin of MetabolismAbstractIntroduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of metabolism1.1. Necessary matters for exploration of the origin of metabolism1.2. General features of modern metabolism1.3. Basic features of modern metabolism1.4. Significance of establishment of the primitive metabolic system for the emergence of life2. The ideas on the origin of metabolism advocated by other researchers2.A. The origin of metabolism-I: What catalysts were used in the first metabolism?2.1. Surface metabolism theory2.2. Clay world theory:2.3. Hydrothermal vent theory:2.4. Three hypotheses proposed by other researchers and the origin of metabolism2.B. The origin of metabolism-II: From what chemical reactions metabolism originated?3. My idea on the origin of metabolism3.1. For what purpose was the first metabolism created?3.A. The origin of metabolism-I: What catalysts were used in the first metabolism?3.2. The initial metabolism must be formed before the emergence of life3.3. The role of [GADV]-amino acids or protein 0th -order structure in the origin of metabolism3.B. The origin of metabolism-II: From what chemical reactions metabolism originated?3.4. What kinds of catalytic reactions were used in the initial metabolism3.5. Proposition of GoGaPyr hypothesis on the origin of metabolism3.6. Immature proteins, which were produced in the absence of gene, could catalyze all metabolic reactions in theinitial metabolism3.7. Evolution of metabolic pathways from the most primitive metabolic system4. Discussion5. ConclusionReferencesChapter 5: The Origin of tRNAAbstractIntroduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of tRNA1.1. Necessary matters for exploration of the origin of tRNA1.2. General structural features of tRNA1.3. General functional features of tRNA2. The ideas on the origin of tRNA advocated by other researchers2.1. Minihelix theory2.2. Double-hairpin and tRNA split gene hypothesis2.3. A small hairpin-loop RNA hypothesis3. My idea on the origin of tRNA3.1. For what purpose was the first tRNA created?3.2. Exploring the origin of tRNA3.3. Exploring the first primeval AntiC-SL tRNA3.4. Modern tRNA originated from one nonspecific anticodon stem-loop RNA3.5. Properties of the first AntiC-SL tRNA4. Evolutionary process deduced from Anticodon stem-loop hypothesis4.1. Evolutionary pathway of tRNA deduced from mutual relation network of 5' AntiC-stem sequences4.2. Evolutionary process from the primitive AntiC-SL tRNA to L-form tRNA5. Discussion6. ConclusionReferencesChapter 6 The Origin of the Genetic codeAbstractIntroduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of the genetic code1.1. Necessary matters for exploration of the origin of the genetic code1.2. General structural features of the genetic code1.3. General functional features of the genetic code1.4. There are two sides for exploring the origin of the genetic code2. The ideas on the origin of the genetic code advocated by other researchers2.A. The origin of the genetic code-I: From what code the genetic code originated?2.1. RNY hypothesis2.2. GC hypothesis2.3. Four column theory2.4. GCU code hypothesis2.B. The origin of the genetic code-II: How were the correspondences between a codon and an amino acidestablished?2.5. Stereochemical theory2.6. Crick's frozen accident theory3. My idea on the origin of the genetic code3.1. For what purpose was the first genetic code created?3.A. The origin of the genetic code-I: From what code the genetic code originated?3.2. GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis3.B. The origin of the genetic code-II: How were the correspondences between a codon/anticodon and an aminoacid established?3.3. GNC code frozen-accident theory4. Discussion5. ConclusionReferencesChapter 7: The Origin of GeneAbstractIntroduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of gene1.1. Necessary matters for exploration of the origin of gene1.2. General structural features of gene (Basic features of gene)1.3. General functional features of gene1.4. There are two sides for exploring the origin of gene2. The ideas on the origin of gene advocatedby other researchers2. A. The origin of gene-I: How was the first gene created?2. B. The origin of gene-II: How were entirely new genes created from the past to the present?2.1. Gene-duplication theory2.2. Exon-shuffling theory2.3. Self-replicated RNA theory (RNA world theory)3. My idea about the origin of gene3.1. For what purpose was the first genetic information (gene) created?3.A. The origin of gene-I: How was the first gene be created?3.2. Anticodon joining hypothesis3. B. The origin of gene-II: How were entirely new genes created from the past to the present?3.3. Creation of an entirely new gene after formation of the first double-stranded (GNC)nRNA gene3.4. Evidence showing that modern proteins have been produced through essentially random process4. DiscussionThe origin of gene-I: How was the first gene created?4.1. Anticodon joining hypothesisThe origin of gene-II: How were entirely new genes created from the past to the present?4.2. Grounds for pan-GC-NSF(a) hypothesis5. ConclusionReferencesChapter 8: The Origin of LifeAbstractIntroduction1. Towards solving the riddle of the origin of life1.1. Necessary matters for exploration of the origin of life1.2. General structural features of modern life1.3. General functional features of modern life2. The ideas about the origin of life advocated by other researchers2.1. RNA world hypothesis2.2. Hydrothermal vent theory2.3. Protein world theory2.4. Coenzyme world hypothesis2.5. tRNA core hypothesis2.6. Space-origin hypothesis2.7. Common weaknesses of other hypotheses for exploration of the origin of life.3. My idea about the origin of life3.1. [GADV]-protein world hypothesis (GADV hypothesis)3.2. Establishment process of the fundamental life system4. Three keys for solving the riddle of the origin of life4.1. Can biopolymers with ordered sequence be produced through random processes?4.2. How could the three keys for solving the riddle of the origin of life be formed during random processes5. DiscussionThe steps from immature [GADV]-proteins produced with prebiotic means to the emergence of life6. ConclusionReferencesChapter 9: General Discussion1. What is the significance of the origin-life research?2. Establishment process of the fundamental life system3. About another possibility of the establishment process of the fundamental life system4. Bottom-up and top-down approaches for elucidation of the origin of life5. Did the events deduced from GADV hypothesis really occur on the primitive Earth?6. Evolution of Organisms7. Why have so splendid organisms flourished on the present Earth?References

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