Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 4. September 2018
  • |
  • 624 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-02756-0 (ISBN)
 
The revised and expanded text on food fermentation microbiology With this second edition of Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods, Robert Hutkins brings fresh perspectives and updated content to his exhaustive and engaging text on food fermentations. The text covers all major fermented foods, devoting chapters to fermented dairy, meat, and vegetable products, as well breads, beers, wines, vinegars, and soy foods. These insights are enhanced by detailed explanations of the microbiological and biochemical processes that underpin fermentation, while an account of its fascinating history provides readers with richly contextualizing background knowledge. New to this edition are two additional chapters. One discusses the role that fermentation plays in the production of spirits and other distilled beverages, whereas another focuses on cocoa, coffee, and fermented cereal products. Furthermore, key chapters on microorganisms and metabolism have been expanded and elaborated upon, and are complemented by other relevant revisions and additions made throughout the book, ensuring that it is as up-to-date and applicable as possible. This essential text includes: * Discussions of major fermented foods from across the globe * Background information on the science and history behind food fermentation * Information on relevant industrial processes, technologies, and scientific discoveries * Two new chapters covering distilled spirits and cocoa, coffee, and cereal products * Expanded chapters on microorganisms and metabolism Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods, Second Edition is a definitive reference tool that will be of great interest and use to industry professionals, academics, established or aspiring food scientists, and anyone else working with fermented foods.
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Robert W. Hutkins, PhD, is the Khem Shahani Professor of Food Microbiology in the Department of Food Science and Technology at the University of Nebraska. His research is focused on the metabolism of prebiotic carbohydrates by lactic acid and probiotic bacteria, and their role in gastrointestinal health. He has published widely on probiotics, prebiotics, and fermented foods, and he currently serves on the Board of Directors for the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to fermented foods
  • FERMENTED FOODS AND HUMAN HISTORY
  • FERMENTED FOODS: FROM ART TO SCIENCE
  • THE MODERN FERMENTED FOODS INDUSTRY
  • PROPERTIES OF FERMENTED FOODS
  • Preservation
  • Nutrition
  • Functionality
  • Organoleptic
  • Uniqueness
  • ECONOMIC VALUE
  • FERMENTED FOODS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 2 Microorganisms
  • INTRODUCTION
  • A PRIMER ON MICROBIAL CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE
  • The three domains of life
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Nomenclature
  • Microbial taxonomy and methods of analysis
  • BACTERIA USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED FOODS
  • THE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
  • The genera of lactic acid bacteria
  • OTHER BACTERIA IMPORTANT IN FOOD FERMENTATIONS
  • YEASTS AND MOLDS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED FOODS
  • MICROORGANISMS IN FERMENTED FOODS - IT TAKES A COMMUNITY!
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 3 Metabolism and physiology
  • FERMENTATION BASICS
  • SUGAR METABOLISM
  • Sugar transport by lactic acid bacteria
  • Symport and ABC transport systems in lactic acid bacteria
  • Regulation of transport systems
  • Sugar metabolism by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • OTHER METABOLIC SYSTEMS
  • Exopolysaccharide synthesis in lactic acid bacteria
  • Protein metabolism by lactic acid bacteria
  • Thecitrate fermentation
  • The propionic acid fermentation
  • Metabolism by fungi
  • METABOLIC ENGINEERING AND CELL COMMUNICATION
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 4 Starter cultures
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ROLE OF STARTER CULTURES
  • CULTURE HISTORY
  • TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
  • Culture R & D
  • STARTER CULTURE MICROORGANISMS
  • Bacterial starter cultures
  • Yeast starter cultures
  • Fungal starter cultures
  • STRAIN IDENTIFICATION
  • STARTER CULTURE MATH
  • CULTURE DELIVERY: BULK VERSUS DIRECT-TO-VAT
  • CULTURE COMPOSITION
  • DEFINED CULTURES
  • MANUFACTURE OF STARTER CULTURES
  • Culture media and operating conditions
  • Evaluating culture performance
  • Compatibility issues
  • HOW STARTER CULTURES ARE USED
  • Bulk cultures
  • BACTERIOPHAGE AND DAIRY FERMENTATIONS
  • Bacteriophage control strategies
  • STARTER CULTURE TECHNOLOGY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
  • Probiotics
  • Cultures adjuncts
  • ANCILLARY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 5 Cultured dairy products
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CONSUMPTION OF CULTURED DAIRY PRODUCTS
  • Cultured dairy products and probiotic bacteria
  • FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES
  • YOGURT PRODUCTION
  • 1. Mix formulation
  • 2. Heat treatment
  • 3. Yogurt styles
  • 4. Yogurt cultures
  • 5. Culture metabolism
  • 6. Postfermentation
  • 7. Yogurt flavor and texture
  • DEFECTS
  • NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS OF YOGURT
  • FROZEN YOGURT AND OTHER YOGURT PRODUCTS
  • STRAINED (GREEK-STYLE) YOGURT
  • CULTURED BUTTERMILK
  • Cultured buttermilk manufacture
  • Factors affecting diacetyl formation in cultured buttermilk
  • Defects
  • SOUR CREAM
  • Sour cream manufacture
  • KEFIR
  • Kefir manufacture
  • OTHER CULTURED DAIRY PRODUCTS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 6 Cheese
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHEESE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
  • MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES
  • Converting a liquid into a solid
  • Squeezing out water
  • GENERAL STEPS IN CHEESE MAKING
  • Milk
  • Starter cultures
  • Coagulation
  • Cutting and cooking
  • Curd handling
  • Salting
  • Aging
  • TYPES OF CHEESE
  • Acid-coagulated cheeses
  • Cheddar family
  • Cheese with eyes
  • Mozzarella and Pasta Filata cheese
  • Hard Italian cheese
  • Dutch-type cheeses
  • Surface-ripened by bacteria
  • Mold-ripened cheese
  • Brined cheese
  • Process and cold pack cheese
  • CHEESE RIPENING
  • PROTEOLYSIS IN CHEESE
  • CURRENT ISSUES IN CHEESE TECHNOLOGY
  • 1. Bitterness and accelerated ripening
  • 2. Bacteriophages
  • 3. Microbial defects, preservation, and food safety
  • 4. Whey utilization
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 7 Fermented meats
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF THE FERMENTED MEATS INDUSTRY
  • CURRENT STATUS
  • MEAT COMPOSITION
  • FERMENTATION PRINCIPLES
  • Meat starter cultures
  • Protective properties of cultures
  • Non-lactic acid bacteria cultures
  • PRINCIPLES OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTION
  • Ingredients
  • Manufacture of fermented sausage
  • Mold-ripening
  • FLAVOR OF FERMENTED MEATS
  • DEFECTS AND SPOILAGE OF FERMENTED MEATS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 8 Fermented vegetables
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PRODUCTS AND CONSUMPTION
  • PRODUCTION PRINCIPLES
  • THE MICROBIOTA OF FRESH VEGETABLES
  • MANUFACTURE OF SAUERKRAUT
  • 1. Shredding and salting
  • 2. Mixing
  • 3. Fermentation
  • End products
  • Packaging and processing
  • Spoilage and defects
  • KIMCHI
  • PICKLE PRODUCTION PRINCIPLES
  • Manufacture of fermented pickles
  • Pickle fermentation
  • Defects
  • OLIVES: PRODUCTS AND MARKETS
  • Composition
  • Manufacture of fermented olives
  • Defects and spoilage
  • FERMENTED VEGETABLES AND FORMATION OF BIOGENIC AMINES
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 9 Bread
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY
  • WHEAT CHEMISTRY AND MILLING
  • Flour composition
  • BREAD MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES
  • Ingredients
  • Hydration and mixing
  • FERMENTATION
  • Sugar metabolism by baker's yeast
  • Sugar transport
  • Glycolysis
  • End products
  • Factors affecting growth
  • Dividing, rounding, and panning
  • Proofing
  • BAKING
  • Cooling and packaging
  • MODERN BREAD TECHNOLOGY
  • Straight dough process
  • Sponge and dough process
  • Liquid sponge process
  • Chorleywood process
  • SOURDOUGH FERMENTATION
  • BREAD SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION
  • Staling
  • Biological spoilage
  • Controlling mold
  • BREAD QUALITY
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 10 Beer
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BEER, BEER SPOILAGE, AND THE ORIGINS OF MODERN SCIENCE
  • THE MODERN BEER INDUSTRY
  • BEER MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES
  • ENZYMATIC REACTIONS: MALTING AND MASHING
  • Malt enzymology
  • Adjuncts
  • Wort
  • HOPS
  • KETTLE BOIL
  • THE BEER FERMENTATION
  • Fermentor design
  • Inoculation
  • YEAST METABOLISM
  • Flocculation
  • POSTFERMENTATION STEPS
  • Conditioning
  • Clarification
  • Process aids
  • Carbonation
  • PACKAGING AND PASTEURIZATION
  • BEER DEFECTS
  • SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY
  • RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BEER INDUSTRY
  • Low-calorie beer
  • Lambic beer
  • Gluten-free beer
  • Non-alcoholic beer
  • Wheat beer
  • Ice and dry beers
  • High-gravity fermentations
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE BREWING INDUSTRY
  • Strain improvement strategies
  • Examples of modified brewing strains
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 11 Wine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY
  • PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
  • WINE BASICS
  • Viticulture and grape science
  • Grape composition
  • Sugars
  • Organic acids
  • Nitrogenous compounds
  • Polysaccharides
  • Sulfur compounds
  • Phenols, tannins, and pigments
  • WINE MANUFACTURE PRINCIPLES
  • Harvesting and preparing grapes for wine making
  • Crushing and maceration
  • Sulfur dioxide treatment
  • Initiating fermentations
  • Yeast cultures
  • Other pre-treatments
  • Microbial ecology
  • Separation and pressing
  • FERMENTATION
  • YEAST METABOLISM
  • Factors affecting yeast metabolism
  • Sulfur and nitrogen metabolism
  • Stuck fermentations
  • ADJUSTMENTS AND BLENDING
  • Clarification
  • Aging
  • Malolactic fermentation
  • TYPES OF WINE
  • Sweet wines
  • Fortified wines
  • Sparkling wines
  • Champagne
  • WINE SPOILAGE AND DEFECTS
  • Spoilage by molds
  • Spoilage by yeasts
  • Spoilage by bacteria
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 12 Vinegar
  • HISTORY
  • DEFINITIONS
  • VINEGAR MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES
  • Microorganisms
  • METABOLISM AND FERMENTATION
  • CULTURE GENETICS
  • VINEGAR TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION
  • Open vat process
  • Trickling generator processes
  • Submerged fermentation
  • Post-fermentation processing
  • SPOILAGE, BACTERIOPHAGES, AND OTHER PROBLEMS
  • VINEGAR QUALITY
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 13 Distilled spirits
  • SOME DEFINITIONS
  • PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
  • PRINCIPLES OF DISTILLATION
  • HISTORY
  • MANUFACTURE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS
  • Starting materials
  • Fermentation and cultures
  • Distillation engineering
  • Pot stills
  • Continuous stills
  • PRODUCTS
  • Neutral spirits
  • Whiskey
  • Gin
  • Vodka
  • Rum
  • Tequila
  • Brandy
  • OTHER DISTILLED PRODUCTS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 14 Fermented foods from the Far East
  • HISTORY
  • TYPES OF ASIAN FERMENTED FOODS
  • PLANTBASED FERMENTATIONS
  • KOJI MANUFACTURE
  • Raw materials preparation
  • Microorganisms
  • MANUFACTURE OF SOY SAUCE AND RELATED PRODUCTS
  • Koji
  • Mashing
  • Moromi enzymology
  • Fermentation
  • Pressing and refining
  • Pasteurization and packaging
  • Product characteristics
  • The flavor of soy sauce
  • Non-fermented soy sauce
  • Spoilage and defects
  • MISO
  • Manufacture of miso
  • Fermentation
  • Spoilage and defects
  • NATTO
  • Manufacture of natto
  • TEMPEH
  • Manufacture of tempeh
  • Substrate preparation
  • Inoculation
  • Fermentation
  • Tempeh microbiology
  • Tempeh cultures
  • Tempeh biochemistry
  • Tempeh nutrition and safety
  • Spoilage and defects
  • SAKE AND RICE WINES
  • Manufacture of sake and other rice wines
  • FERMENTED FISH-TYPE FOODS
  • Manufacture of fish sauces and pastes
  • Fish sauce microbiology
  • SAFETY OF ASIAN FERMENTED FOODS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 15 Cocoa, coffee, and cereal fermentations
  • GENERAL HISTORY
  • CURRENT ECONOMICS
  • COCOA
  • Cocoa origins
  • Production and consumption
  • Postharvest processing
  • Fermentation principles
  • Cacao microbial ecology
  • Drying
  • Roasting
  • Chocolate processing
  • Chocolate quality
  • Nutritional quality
  • COFFEE
  • Coffee history
  • Production and consumption
  • Coffee processing and fermentation
  • Roasting
  • Grinding
  • Brewing considerations
  • Nutritional benefits
  • CEREAL FERMENTATIONS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Index
  • EULA

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