Speaking is a dynamic, interpersonal process and one that strongly influences how we are perceived by others in a range of formal and everyday contexts. Despite this, speaking is often researched and taught as if it is simply writing delivered in a different mode. In Teaching and Researching Speaking, Rebecca Hughes suggests that we have less understanding than we might of important meaning-making aspects of speech such as prosody, gaze, affect, and the ways speakers collaborate and negotiate with one another in interaction.
This thoroughly revised and updated second edition looks to the future of the field, offering:
- A new chapter on assessment, discussing 'high stakes' oral language testing contexts such as immigration
- New material considering access to spoken data via the worldwide web and new technologies that allow neurolinguistic insights formerly hidden from view
- Summaries and case studies to help the reader understand how to approach researching speaking and encourages practitioners to question the models of speaking that they are using in their classrooms.
Reviewing materials and assessment practices in the light of current knowledge about spoken language, and highlighting areas for new work and collaboration between researchers and practitioners, this book will be a valuable resource for anyone involved in language teaching.
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Rebecca Hughes is Chair of Applied Linguistics and Head of the Centre for English Language Education at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. She is the author of several publications including English in Speech and Writing (1996), and Spoken English, TESOL and Applied Linguistics: Challenges for Theory and Practice (ed.) (2006).
General Editor's Preface
Section I Issues in teaching and researching speaking
1 Conceptual and historical background
1.2 The skill of speaking
1.3 The nature of speech in contrast to writing
1.4 Where does speech fit in language studies?
2 The research space: paradigms and issues
2.2 Classical research paradigms in relation to researching speaking
2.3 Attitudes to speech data
2.4 The applicability of research approaches and frameworks to the study of speech
2.5 Levels of analysis
Section II Issues for teaching and assessing speaking
3 Approaches, materials and the issue of ?real? speech
3.2 What are our models and standards when we teach speaking?
3.3 The evolution of materials to teach speaking
3.4 The current scene in materials to teach speaking
3.5 Bringing the skills together
4 Issues in assessing speaking
4.2 Why the nature of speaking is a challenge for test designers
4.3 A comparison of contrasting test paradigms for oral assessment in three high-stakes tests
5 Approaches to researching speech
5.2 Quantitative and qualitative approaches towards researching speaking
5.3 Theory-driven, positional, or ideas-based approaches to researching speaking
5.4 Examples of contrasting approaches in researching speaking
5.5 New directions
Section III Researching speaking
6 Spoken language and the classroom
6.2 The Status of Speaking in Classrooms
6.3 The role of spoken interaction in Communicative Language Teaching classrooms
6.4 Drawing on classroom practice for research and vice versa
7 Research project ideas and frameworks
7.2 A project on spoken language found in textbooks versus a corpus
7.3 A project on the effects of speech rate in the context of English as Lingua Franca presentations
7.4 An exploration of inter-cultural expectations in conversation
7.5 A project that analyses a professional speaking genre so it can be handled in the classroom
7.6 A project on speaking assessment with low education immigrant test takers
7.7 A project investigating the relationship between gesture and speech processing using fMRI scanning techniques
Section IV Resources and further information
8 Research borders and boundaries
8.2 Speaking and ethnographic or cross-cultural studies
8.3 Speaking and psycholinguistics
8.4 Speaking and neuro-linguistic studies
8.5 Speaking and corpus linguistics
8.6 Speaking and new technologies
9 Research resources
9.1 Traditional library resources
9.2 Societies and organisations
9.3 Online resources
9.4 Speech corpora
9.5 Speech recognition and text-to-speech
9.6 Online pronunciation and intonation resources
9.7 Miscellaneous sites for the applied linguist with an interest in spoken discourse
9.8 Moving towards your own project on spoken discourse
9.9 Sources of inspiration for research
9.10 Research skills summaries
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