Helps those that use cell preservation to develop new protocols or improve existing protocols This book provides readers with the tools needed to develop or debug a preservation protocol for cells. The core structure and content of the text grew from a professional short course that has been offered at the Biopreservation Core Resource for the last 10 years. This comprehensive text describes, step by step, the individual elements of a protocol, including the relevant scientific principles for each phase of the protocol. It can be used by anyone who is involved in cell preservation even by those who are not experts in freezing of cells because it provides the scientific basis for those that want to understand the basis for the protocol. Preservation of Cells: A Practical Manual begins by first introducing readers to the subject of preserving cells. It then goes on to cover Pre-freeze Processing and Characterization; Formulation and Introduction of Cryopreservation Solutions; Freezing Protocols; Storage and Shipping of Frozen Cells; Thawing and Post Thaw Processing; Post-thaw Assessment; and Algorithm-driven Protocol Optimization. Clearly explains the reasons behind every step in the development of a preservation protocol and the scientific principles behind them Provides alternative modes of preservation for when conventional methods of cryopreservation are not appropriate for a given cell type or application Enables more organization to achieve improved post thaw recoveries and process consistency Preservation of Cells: A Practical Manual is an important book for researchers, laboratory technicians and students in cell biology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. It is also useful to cell bankers, regenerative medicine, biomarker discovery or precision medicine companies, and cell therapy labs, blood bankers, biobankers, and biotechnology companies.
Mammalian Cells: Modern Workhorses
Mammalian cells have become modern workhorses capable of a variety of applications:
- Production of therapeutic proteins, viral vaccines, and antibodies
- Therapeutic agents (cell therapy or regenerative medicine applications)
- Biomarkers for health or disease
- In vitro models (i.e., replacement for animal testing)
These applications represent significant economic sectors and have a major impact on human health.
Products from Cells
The production of human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the mid-1980s became the first therapeutic protein derived from mammalian cells to be made available commercially (see Wurm (2004) for review). Erythropoietin, human growth hormone, interferon, human insulin, and a variety of other proteins are produced from mammalian cells and are used therapeutically. Since the production of tPA, roughly 100 recombinant protein therapeutics have been approved by the FDA (Lai, Yang, and Ng 2013).
In addition to therapeutic proteins, vaccines are commonly produced from mammalian cells. For example, polio, hepatitis B, measles, and mumps vaccines are all produced via mammalian cell culture. New vaccines currently under development (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola, new influenza strains) are also based on mammalian cell cultures.
Antibodies are used for a wide range of application (both in vitro and in vivo) (Waldmann 1991). The diagnosis of disease using antibodies is an extremely common application. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and radioimmunoassays all use monoclonal antibodies produced by mammalian cells. Clinical applications of antibodies have historically included treatment of viral infections. Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer using antibodies has grown rapidly (Weiner, Surana, and Wang 2010). Antibodies are now being used to selectively target tumors. The ability to accomplish targeting of tumors in humans resulted directly from advances in antibody engineering that enabled production of chimeric, humanized, or fully human monoclonal antibodies. Antibodies have also been conjugated to drugs or radioactive isotopes and used as target therapies. Currently, more than 10 different antibodies are approved for the treatment of cancer. All of these antibodies are produced using mammalian cells.
Cells as Therapeutic Agents
Cell therapy began in the 1970s with bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of blood and immune disorders. The uses of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have grown since then, and clinical studies are expanding the use of HSCs to include a wider range of diseases and indications. Over 430 clinical trials using HSCs are underway, targeting the immune system, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, vascular disease, lung disease, and HIV, to name a few (Li, Atkins, and Bubela 2014). The discovery that HSCs can be found in the peripheral blood (if a patient has been given a drug to mobilize HSCs to circulate in the peripheral blood), and umbilical cord blood (UCB) has enabled growth in the use of this cell type therapeutically because these cells can be harvested using nonsurgical methods.
Stromal cells present in the bone marrow microenvironment have also been studied for therapeutic uses. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) provide important support for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow microenvironment. MSCs can also be isolated from adipose tissue and UCB. Initial studies using MSCs focused on regenerative medicine applications and the use of these cells to form bone or cartilage. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the principal actions of MSCs are immunomodulatory and trophic (Caplan and Correa 2011). The diverse capabilities of this cell type and the ability to access the cells easily (from bone marrow aspirate, UCB, or small biopsy of adipose tissue) have facilitated clinical use of these cells. Clinical trials use MSCs to treat orthopedic disorders, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, neurological disorders, and more (Sharma et al. 2014). MSCs are immune privileged, and as a result cells from allogeneic donors can be given therapeutically.
Biomarkers for Health or Disease
Most people have had a vial of blood drawn at the doctor's office. Blood counts are performed and can indicate the presence of anemia, infection, or other medical conditions. The cells in whole blood are typically not stored for an extended period of time but counted shortly after collection. Other cell-based assays include quantification of circulating tumor cells as a marker of tumor burden in cancer (Plaks, Koopman, and Werb 2013). Flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets is also used to monitor immune status for AIDs patients and others with immune disorders (Shapiro 2005).
Mass cytometry is a recently developed experimental technique in which heavy metals are tagged to antibodies and those labels are attached to cells. The cells are then analyzed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This approach avoids the limitations intrinsic to conventional flow cytometry. This capability enables labeling of heterogeneity in a cell population as well as single cell analysis of multiple markers (Spitzer and Nolan 2016). Other single cell "omic" (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) technologies are in development and could represent powerful new diagnostics. It is likely that cells will continue to grow in importance for diagnostics.
In Vitro Models
For many years, isolated hepatocytes have been used for screening of drugs. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) (Yu et al. 2007) and the ability of these cells to differentiate into a variety of cell types have enabled the testing of drugs in a wider variety of cell types. For example, the cardiotoxicity of a drug can be evaluated using cardiomyocytes differentiated from iPS cells (Avior, Sagi, and Benvenisty 2016).
Three-dimensional cultures of multiple cell types in a microfluidic environment that permits continuous perfusion of the cells can be used to model the physiological function of an organ or tissue. Also known as "Organ-on-a-chip," these cultures are also being used to screen drugs and understand the effect of specific drugs on organ systems (Bhatia and Ingber 2014).
Organ-on-a-chip and iPS cells are also used for modeling of disease. Cells from donors with a given disorder can be transformed into iPS cells and then differentiated into disease-specific cells that can be used for understanding disease development as well as drug/treatment screening (Avior, Sagi, and Benvenisty 2016). Patient-derived iPS cells have been developed for a wide range of diseases, including neurological disorders and cardiovascular disease.
Clearly, mammalian cells are critical for biomedical research, diagnosis of disease and its treatment. These cells must be functional and available at the site and at the time of downstream use.
Bridging the Gap
It is common for cells to be collected or cultured in one location and used at a later time and in another location (Figure 1.1). The critical biological properties of the cells must be preserved in order for the cells to be useful for the downstream applications.
Figure 1.1 Minding the gap: preservation is used to maintain the critical biological properties of the cells when they are needed at a later time or in a different location.
Cells that are to be used therapeutically must be properly stored to meet the safety and quality control testing prior to release (and use) of the cells. Preserving cells permits coordination of the therapy with patient-care regimes (i.e., the cells are ready when the patient is ready). Cells used therapeutically are produced in specialized facilities. The ability to preserve cells will help manage staffing requirements for cell-processing facilities (i.e., the cells can be processed independent of patient availability) and control the inventory of the therapy.
UCB banking is a good example of the need for preservation. Babies are born at unpredictable times and at a variety of locations. The UCB must be collected immediately after birth. The UCB is typically shipped directly to a cord blood-processing facility where the sample is depleted of red blood cells, cryopreserved, and stored. The unit is stored until it is needed (typically years later), and it is common for the unit to be used in a third location. The UCB unit is useful only if the critical biological properties have been preserved. The genetic diversity of births implies that the preservation of UCB, in particular, can improve the genetic diversity of cells available for therapeutic applications.
One option for preserving a cell may be keeping the cells in culture until they are ready for use. Certain cell types do not retain their critical biological characteristics if they are cultured outside the body for extended periods of time. Other cell types that have defined genetics (e.g., mammalian cells used for the production of recombinant proteins) may experience genetic drift with long-term culture. Finally, long-term culture can be very expensive. For many of the cells described above, the downstream use of the cells may be months or weeks after the cells are collected. As a result, cryopreservation is a useful tool for preserving the critical...