Fundamentals of Forensic Science

 
 
Academic Press
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 1. Juli 2015
  • |
  • 736 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-800231-5 (ISBN)
 
Fundamentals of Forensic Science, Third Edition, provides current case studies that reflect the ways professional forensic scientists work, not how forensic academicians teach. The book includes the binding principles of forensic science, including the relationships between people, places, and things as demonstrated by transferred evidence, the context of those people, places, and things, and the meaningfulness of the physical evidence discovered, along with its value in the justice system.

Written by two of the leading experts in forensic science today, the book approaches the field from a truly unique and exciting perspective, giving readers a new understanding and appreciation for crime scenes as recent pieces of history, each with evidence that tells a story.



- Provides straightforward organization that includes key terms and numerous feature boxes that emphasize online resources, historical events, and figures in forensic science
- Effective pedagogy, including end-of-chapter questions
- An invaluable resource for professors and students of forensic science
- Contains over 200 vivid, color illustrations that diagram key concepts and depict evidence encountered in the field
  • Englisch
Elsevier Science
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • Höhe: 235 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 191 mm
  • 51,63 MB
978-0-12-800231-5 (9780128002315)
012800231X (012800231X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Section I. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science
CH1 The Practice of Forensic Science
CH2 Crime Scene Investigation
CH3 The Nature of Evidence

Section II. Analytical Tools
CH4 Microscopy
CH5 Light and Matter
CH6 Separation Methods

Section III. Biological Sciences
CH7 Pathology
CH8 Anthropology and Odontology
CH9 Entomology
CH10 Serology and Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
CH11 DNA Analysis
CH12 Forensic Hair Examinations

Section IV. Chemical Sciences
CH13 Illicit Drugs
CH14 Forensic Toxicology
CH15 Textile Fibers
CH16 Paint Analysis
CH17 Soil and Glass
CH18 Fires and Explosions

Section V. Physical Sciences
CH19 Friction Ridge Examination
CH20 Questioned Documents
CH21 Firearms and Toolmarks
CH22 Impression Evidence
CH23 Forensic Engineering
CH24 Digital Evidence and Computer Forensics

Section VI. Legal and Forensic Science
CH25 Legal Aspects of Forensic Science
Chapter 1

Introduction


Abstract


Forensic science is a wide-ranging field with a rich, if untapped, history. In many ways, the discipline has suffered from that lack of historical knowledge and our ignorance of it-not knowing the past dooms one to repeat it, and so forth. Forensic science also occupies what may be a unique niche between law enforcement and the courts. The pressures from either side color much of what is accepted as forensic science, and yet practitioners must adhere to the tenets of science. Because forensic science is seen as a growth industry, one would be hard pressed to find another discipline with so much rich material to mine or such promise in the dazzling future of technology.

Keywords


American Society for Testing and Materials, International (ASTM); American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD); ASCLD Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD-LAB); Behavioral sciences; Chain of custody; Criminalistics; Criminalists; Forensic anthropology; Forensic engineering; Forensic odontology; Forensic pathology; Forensic science; Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC); International Organization for Standardization (ISO); Questioned documents; Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science (TWGED); Toxicology

Chapter Outline

What Is Forensic Science? 4

Areas of Forensic Science 5

A Bit of Forensic Science History 6

Forensic Science Laboratory Organization and Services 8

Forensic Science Laboratory Administration 8

Federal Government Forensic Science Laboratories 10

State and Local Forensic Science Laboratories 12

Forensic Science Laboratory Services 13

Standard Laboratory Services 13

Other Laboratory Services 15

Administrative Issues with Forensic Science Laboratories 15

Accountability 15

Access to Laboratory Services 16

The Forensic Scientist 18

Education and Training of Forensic Scientists 18

Analysis of Evidence 19

Expert Testimony 20

Summary 21

Test Your Knowledge 21

Consider This. 21

Bibliography and Further Reading 22

Key terms American Society for Testing and Materials, International (ASTM) American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD) ASCLD Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD-LAB) Behavioral sciences Chain of custody Criminalistics Criminalists Forensic anthropology Forensic engineering Forensic odontology Forensic pathology Forensic science Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Questioned documents Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science (TWGED) Toxicology

What Is Forensic Science?


The Oxford English Dictionary lists one of the first uses of the phrase "forensic science" to describe "a mixed science" (Oxford English Dictionary, 2005). The early days of forensic science could certainly be called mixed, when science served justice by its application to questions before the court. Forensic science has grown as a profession and into a science in its own right. Given the public's interest in using science to solve crimes, it looks as if forensic science has an active, if hectic, future. Forensic science describes the science of associating people, places, and things involved in criminal activities; these scientific disciplines assist in investigating and adjudicating criminal and civil cases. The discipline divides neatly into halves, like the words that describes it. "Science" is the collection of systematic methodologies used to increasingly understand the physical world. The word "forensic" is derived from the Latin forum for "public" (Oxford English Dictionary, 2005). In ancient Rome, the Senate met in the Forum, a public place where the political and policy issues of the day were discussed and debated; even today, high school or university teams that compete in debates or public speaking are called "forensics teams." More technically, "forensic" means "as applied to public or legal concerns." Together, "forensic science" is an apt term for the profession of scientists whose work answers questions for the courts through reports and testimony. In More Detail: Criminalistics and Trace Evidence The term criminalistics is sometimes used synonymously with forensic science. "Criminalistics" is a word imported into English from the German kriminalistik. The word was coined to capture the various aspects of applying scientific and technological methods to the investigation and resolution of legal matters. In some forensic science laboratories, forensic scientists may be called criminalists. Criminalistics is generally thought of as the branch of forensic science that involves the collection and analysis of physical evidence generated by criminal activity. It includes areas such as drugs, firearms and toolmarks, fingerprints, blood and body fluids, footwear, and trace evidence. "Trace evidence" is a term of art that means different things to different people. It might include fire and explosive residues, glass, soils, hairs, fibers, paints, plastics and other polymers, wood, metals, and chemicals. These items are generally analyzed by forensic science or forensic science laboratories. To avoid confusion, unnecessary terminology and regionalism, the phrases "forensic sciences" and "forensic scientists" instead of "criminalistics" and "criminalist" will be used.

Areas of Forensic Science


The areas of forensic science covered in this textbook are listed in the table of contents by chapter. They can be broadly characterized into chemical, biological, and physical sciences. Some areas may overlap (aren't fingerprints, tool marks and shoe prints all impression evidence?) but this text focuses on their original source or production method to organize the topics to make the most sense. Many kinds of scientists may be called upon to play a role in a forensic investigation. This does not mean, however, that this is their full-time job: their area of expertise may need to be called upon only rarely or only in particular cases. Artists, biologists, chemists, and other specialists may be needed to answer questions in investigations as diverse as mass disasters, aeroplane crashes, missing persons, and art forgeries (see "In More Detail: Birds of a Forensic Feather"). In More Detail: Birds of a Forensic Feather When US Airways Flight 1549 made its amazing crash landing in the Hudson River in 2009, probably the last thing on anyone's mind was the word "snarge." The word may sound funny, but "snarge" is the technical term for the pulverized bird guts resulting from the collision of an aeroplane and a bird. Dr Carla Dove, at the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC, is the Director of the Feather Identification Laboratory, where thousands of bird samples are sent each year for identification, most of them involving bird strikes with aeroplanes. Forensic feather identification is important not only to determine the cause of a crash but also to potentially help rule out other types of causes, such as mechanical issues or terrorist activities. The feathers or other bird parts are examined and compared with the laboratory's extensive reference collection (over 620,000 samples, some collected by Theodore Roosevelt and possibly Charles Darwin, representing 85% of the world's bird species) to determine the bird's species (see Figure 1.1). If that does not work, the snarge is sent to the DNA laboratory for genetic analysis. A working knowledge of avian anatomy is still crucial in the age of forensic DNA work. In one case, deer DNA was identified on a plane that had a strike at 1500 ft-clearly not possible. Analysis of a tiny piece of feather identified the bird as a black vulture, which apparently had flesh from a deer carcass in its stomach. The laboratory, which started analyzing bird remains from aeroplane crashes in 1960, does work for military crashes as well as commercial airlines. Forensic feather analysis will become more important as the world's climate changes and birds begin to appear where they are not expected to be, either geographically or seasonally.
Figure 1.1 The anatomy of a feather. (1) Vane; (2) Rachis; (3) Barb; (4) Afterfeather; (5) Hollow shaft, calamus. Public domain image at www.wikipedia.com. Wald, M., January 25, 2009. They Can Say which Bird Hit a Plane, Even When Not Much Bird Is Left. New York Times, p. 27.

A Bit of Forensic Science History


Some forms of what we would now call forensic medicine were practiced as far back as the fifth century. During the next thousand years there...

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