Further Vocational Training Energy Service Manager

 
 
Books on Demand (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 18. September 2018
  • |
  • 392 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Wasserzeichen-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-3-7528-7468-6 (ISBN)
 
A rising need for energy-saving solutions and the use of renewable energies has become particularly urgent in some Baltic Sea countries, given a high proportion of old buildings in need of renovation. For instance, in Latvia, 99% of existing buildings were built with very poor energy efficiency standards before 1993. In order to reach the EU energy 2020 goals, according to the 'Build up skills'national reports, in some EU member states the percentage of skilled workers has to be raised by up to 50%. Partners from Estonia, Germany, Hungary and Poland teamed up, to tackle this issue and develop and implement a further training course for Energy Service Managers, based on the specific needs of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A compact course of 80 training hours has been designed as well as a comprehensive course of about 300 training hours. The background information, concept, curricula, including a train-the-trainer program, evaluation and experiences with this course is shared in this publication.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • 1,25 MB
978-3-7528-7468-6 (9783752874686)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt

2. Basics, qualification needs and concepts


2.1 Analyses of labour and population markets in Baltic Sea Region


The following analyses are based on different studies and projects, in particular the project "Skill Alliance Energy saving and sustainable construction in Baltic Sea Region". The research aims to analyse the current socio-economic situation in the Baltic Sea Region. It describes the demographic and economic aspects of the eight European countries having direct access to the Baltic Sea and three non-EU members (Norway, Russia and Belarus), who also play a supportive role because of their proximity to the sea and common interest and benefit to make the region more innovative and competitive as well as prosperous and a safe place to live.

These analyses also give an overview on educational markets and national educational systems with a synoptic evaluation of advantages and disadvantages as well as development and reform needs in the Baltic Sea Region countries.

With regard to the importance of energy, the construction sector and the energy sector will be considered in greater depth. Only the results of these analyses and the objectives and consequences for the education sector are presented below. A detailed presentation of the analyses on the economy, demography, innovations, education and labour markets can be found in the output result.1

2.11 Construction sector in the Baltic Sea Region2


Key figures on construction industry in Europe3:

  • Estimated construction investment (EU 27 - 2011): 1.208 billion ?
  • 9,6 % of GDP
  • 51,5 % of Gross fixed Capital Formation
  • 3,1 million enterprises (EU 27), of which 95% are SMEs with fewer than 20 and
  • 14,6 million operatives:
    • 7 % of Europe`s total employment
    • 30,7 % of industrial employment
  • 43,8 million workers in the EU depend, directly or indirectly, on the construction sector
  • Biggest industrial employer in Europe

Situation study of construction sector in BSR

Performance indicators have been analysed using the most recent available statistical data. This data may be partly insufficient to make a proper review of the entire construction cluster and its components.

Production, turnover and value added

Due to the long-term effects of the global financial and economic crisis, the overall EU 27 construction activity experienced negative growth for the third consecutive year in 2010. The BSR countries' construction activity experienced negative growth for the second consecutive year in 2010 (see Table 2).

Table 2: Construction production index - annual data - percentage change

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 EU-27 1.9 3.7 2.0 -3.8 -8.5 -4.0 BSR 8.0 12.2 9.6 0.1 -16.0 -3.4 Denmark 3.1 3.8 -4.2 -5.7 -10.3 -8.4 Germany -5.3 6.3 2.9 -0.7 0.1 0.3 Estonia 22 4 26.9 13.5 -13.3 -29.8 -12.4 Latvia 15.5 13.3 13.6 -3.1 -34.9 -23.4 Lithuania 9.9 21.7 22.2 4.1 -48.5 -7.7 Poland 92 15.6 16.3 10.2 4.5 3.7 Finland 52 7.8 10.2 4.1 -13.1 11.8 Sweden 3.0 8.0 6.2 4.2 -3.5 5.9 Norway 3.9 6.0 5.8 1.1 -8.3 -0.1

Source: Eurostat

The reduction in construction activity has been largely concentrated within the building subsector, while the index of production for civil engineering remained relatively stable. This trend reflects decisions made at a governmental level to maintain expenditure on public infrastructure projects.

According to estimates, the situation varies greatly from one country to the other in the BSR regarding recovery in the construction sector. Few Northern and Eastern BSR countries experienced an uptake of the activity in 2010 already (Poland, Finland, and Sweden). On the opposite side, a small group of countries will remain very much impacted by the crisis in the coming years (Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia).

Furthermore, in almost all BSR countries, the comparative share of construction in the gross value added in 2010 was below the 2007 levels (Table 3).

Table 3: Gross value added - Construction, % of all branches

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 EU 27 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.0 BSR 5.8 6.3 6.9 6.9 6.0 5.4 Denmark 5.4 5.7 5.7 5.4 4.9 4.3 Germany 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.2 Estonia 7.1 87 9.3 8.6 7.0 5.8 Latvia 6.2 7.4 9.0 9.1 6.6 5.0 Lithuania 7.5 8.7 10.2 9.9 6.4 5.6 Poland 6.0 6.4 7.1 73 7.5 7.1 Finland 67 6.8 6.9 7.2 6.9 6.6 Sweden 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.5 Norway 4.4 4.5 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9

Source: Eurostat

However, if we look at the turnover dynamics, we see that up to 2008 construction turnover was growing in almost all BSR countries, save for Estonia and Latvia (Table 4).

Table 4: Turnover by sector - Construction - Millions EUR

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 EU 27 1,383,652.0 1,553232.0 1,666,950.0 : : BSR 275,783.3 314,845.0 338,884.8 375,393.8 36,0427.1 Denmark 24,378.3 23,163.3 31,481.0 31,997.5 25,276.7 Germany 137,347.1 153240.9 143,848.01 158.659.2 169.829.9 Estonia 2,667.0 3,552.0 4,551.7 4,303.1 2,8247 Latvia 2,661.9 4,022.6 5,703.4 5,604.4 3,186.0 Lithuania 3,020.7 4,053.1 5,690.7 5,736.3 2,803.9 Poland 27,077.9 33,965.2 44264.2 58,318.9 54,001.9 Finland 19,827.7 20,579.0 23,797.2 26,351.6 24,075.6 Sweden 33259.6 38,153.9 44,138.9 46,175.3 42,222.4 Norway 25,543.1 29,110.0 35,409.6 38247.5 36,206.0

Source: Eurostat

Germany, Poland and Sweden have the largest market share. The countries account for about 70% of the entire construction turnover in the BSR. The construction turnover of EU newcomers in the BSR market accounts for about 20%, Poland taking 79% of that share. Between 2004 and 2007, before the financial and economic crisis, the construction turnover of these countries was growing fastest in the BSR. Within this period, the turnover in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia more than doubled. This was caused by the growing capacity of national budgets coming from: economic growth and EU-membership benefits; expansion of banks and other credit entities, their growing capital and increasing diversity of new loan products; growing private investment; growing income per person; huge demand for modern infrastructure; huge demand for new homes; huge demand for renovation to trim mostly well-worn and inefficient heat and energy guzzling national residential stock with insufficient social infrastructure; huge demand for social housing; transport sector development (such as the success of the E67 Via Baltica project); more investment from other Scandinavian countries and Germany; etc.

The European Union is also funding an increasing amount of infrastructure work through its...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Verwenden Sie eine Lese-Software, die das Dateiformat EPUB verarbeiten kann: z.B. Adobe Digital Editions oder FBReader - beide kostenlos (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Wasserzeichen-DRM wird hier ein "weicher" Kopierschutz verwendet. Daher ist technisch zwar alles möglich - sogar eine unzulässige Weitergabe. Aber an sichtbaren und unsichtbaren Stellen wird der Käufer des E-Books als Wasserzeichen hinterlegt, sodass im Falle eines Missbrauchs die Spur zurückverfolgt werden kann.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

9,99 €
inkl. 7% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Wasserzeichen-DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen