Water Treatment for Purification from Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins

 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. Juli 2020
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-92865-3 (ISBN)
 
Provides a comprehensive overview of key methods for treating water tainted by cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins

Toxigenic cyanobacteria are one of the main health risks associated with water resources. Consequently, the analysis, control, and removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from water supplies is a high priority research area. This book presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research on water treatment methods for the removal of cyanobacteria, taste and odor compounds, and cyanotoxins.

Starting with an introduction to the subject, Water Treatment for Purification from Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins offers chapters on cyanotoxins and human health, conventional physical-chemical treatment for the removal of cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins, removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins by membrane processes, biological treatment for the destruction of cyanotoxins, and conventional disinfection and/or oxidation processes. Other chapters look at advanced oxidation processes, removal/destruction of taste and odour compounds, transformation products of cyanobacterial metabolites during treatment and integrated drinking water processes.
* Provides a comprehensive overview of key methods for treating water tainted by cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins
* Bridges the gap between basic knowledge of cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins and practical management guidelines
* Includes integrated processes case studies and real-life examples
* Developed within the frame of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)-funded CYANOCOST

A must-have resource for every water treatment plant, Water Treatment for Purification from Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins is a valuable resource for all researchers in water chemistry and engineering, environmental chemistry as well as water companies and authorities, water resource engineers and managers, environmental and public health protection organizations.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Anastasia E. Hiskia, is Research Director at the Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research ???Demokritos,??? Athens, Greece.

Theodoros M. Triantis, is Senior Researcher at the Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research ???Demokritos,??? Athens, Greece.

Maria G. Antoniou, is Assistant Professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, Lemesos, Cyprus.

Triantafyllos Kaloudis, is head of the Organic Micropollutants Laboratory of the Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company, EYDAP SA, Greece.

Dionysios D. Dionysiou, is Professor of Environmental Engineering and Science in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins
  • 1.1 An Overview of Cyanobacteria
  • 1.1.1 Evolution and Worldwide Occurrence
  • 1.1.2 Physical Characteristics
  • 1.1.3 Metabolites of Cyanobacteria
  • 1.2 General Environmental Impact: Ecological and Human Health Effects
  • 1.2.1 Climate Change and Water Demand
  • 1.2.2 Risk to Humans from Cyanobacterial Toxins
  • 1.3 Health Effects of Cyanotoxins
  • 1.3.1 Sources and Routes of Exposure in Humans and Animals
  • 1.3.2 Hepatotoxins: Microcystins, Nodularins
  • 1.3.3 Cytotoxin: Cylindrospermopsins
  • 1.3.4 Neurotoxins: Anatoxin-a, Anatoxin-a(s), Homoanatoxin-a, Saxitoxins
  • 1.3.5 Irritant and Dermal Toxins: Lipopolysaccharides, Lyngbyatoxins, Aplysiatoxins
  • 1.3.6 Gill-Bearing Vertebrate Toxins: Euglenophycin, Prymnesins
  • 1.3.7 Mixtures, Bioaccumulation, and Unknown Toxins
  • 1.4 Current Guidelines for Cyanotoxins
  • 1.4.1 WHO Microcystin-LR Provisional Drinking Water Guideline Value
  • 1.4.2 National Cyanotoxin Drinking Water Regulations or Guideline Values
  • 1.4.3 National Regulation of Unspecified Harmful Substances
  • 1.4.4 Non-national Cyanotoxin Drinking Water Guideline Values
  • 1.4.5 United States Cyanotoxin Drinking Water Guideline Values
  • 1.5 Taste and Odor Compounds Related to Cyanobacteria
  • 1.6 Management Strategies of Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxins, and Related Compounds in Water Treatments
  • Disclaimer:
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxins, and Human Health
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Exposure Routes, Exposure Media, and Human Health
  • 2.2.1 Drinking Water
  • 2.2.2 Diet
  • 2.2.3 Bathing and Recreational Waters
  • 2.2.4 Aerosols
  • 2.2.5 Terrestrial Cyanobacteria
  • 2.2.6 Human Gut Colonization Hypothesis
  • 2.3 Cyanobacterial Cells and Cyanotoxins as Human Health Hazards and Risks
  • 2.3.1 Hepatotoxins
  • 2.3.2 Cytotoxins
  • 2.3.3 Neurotoxins
  • 2.3.4 LPS Endotoxins
  • 2.3.5 Reference Values for Cyanotoxins and WHO Guidelines
  • 2.3.6 Further Sources of Risk to Human Health
  • 2.3.7 Data Gaps and Research Needs
  • 2.4 Reported Investigations of Roles of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Human Health Incidents
  • 2.4.1 Raw (Untreated) Water
  • 2.4.2 Treated Water
  • 2.4.3 Aerosols and Dust
  • 2.4.4 Food and Dietary Supplements
  • 2.5 Recognition and Reporting of Role(s) of Cyanobacteria/Cyanotoxins in Health Incidents
  • 2.6 Role of Human Health Incidents in Contributing to Cyanobacterial and Cyanotoxin Risk Management Policies
  • 2.7 Importance of Contingency Plans and Outreach Activities
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins by Conventional Physical-chemical Treatment
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Chemical Treatment
  • 3.2.1 Copper-based Algicides
  • 3.2.2 Other Metal-based Algicides
  • 3.2.3 Photosensitizers
  • 3.2.4 Herbicides
  • 3.2.5 Algicides Derived from Natural Compounds
  • 3.3 Coagulation and Flocculation
  • 3.4 Dissolved Air Flotation
  • 3.5 Rapid Sand/Gravity Filtration
  • 3.6 Slow Sand Filtration
  • 3.7 Bank Filtration
  • 3.8 Activated Carbon Adsorption
  • 3.8.1 General
  • 3.8.2 GAC/BAC Filtration
  • 3.8.3 PAC Adsorption
  • 3.8.4 Case Study
  • 3.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins by Membrane Processes
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration
  • 4.3 Nanofiltration
  • 4.4 Nanofiltration for the Combined Removal of Various Cyanobacterial Metabolites
  • 4.4.1 Membrane Fouling
  • 4.4.2 Removal of MIB and GSM
  • 4.4.3 Cylindrospermopsin Removal
  • 4.4.4 Microcystin Removal
  • 4.5 Reverse Osmosis
  • 4.6 Integrated Studies: Ultrafiltration Combined with PAC and Coagulants
  • 4.6.1 Ultrafiltration - Integrated Membrane System Test
  • 4.6.2 Effect of Cyanobacterial Species and Coagulant Type on Membrane Flux
  • 4.6.3 Removal of Cyanobacterial Cells and Metabolites with Membranes and Coagulants
  • 4.6.4 Summary of Results
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Biological Treatment for the Destruction of Cyanotoxins
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Overview of Microbial Degradation
  • 5.2.1 Microorganisms Capable of MC-degradation
  • 5.2.2 Microbial Degradation of Other Cyanotoxins
  • 5.2.3 Degradation Efficiency and Factors Affecting Degradation
  • 5.3 The Mechanisms of Biodegradation
  • 5.3.1 Biochemistry of Degradation
  • 5.3.2 Enzymes Involved in Biodegradation
  • 5.3.3 Alternative Mechanisms of Biodegradation
  • 5.3.4 Methodology of Analysis of Degradation Pathways
  • 5.4 Biological Methods of Cyanotoxin Elimination
  • 5.4.1 Most Common Proposals of Microbial Removal of Cyanotoxins
  • 5.4.2 Microbial Strains
  • 5.4.3 The Efficiency of Described Methods and Future Challenges
  • 5.5 Guide to Evaluating Biodegradation
  • 5.5.1 Environmental Samples
  • 5.5.2 Bacterial Strains
  • 5.5.3 Indication of Biodegradation Activity
  • 5.5.4 Enzymatic and Genetic Aspects of Biodegradation
  • 5.6 Microbial Water Treatment - Application and Case Studies
  • 5.6.1 Real-life Application of MC-degrading Bacteria
  • 5.6.2 Potential of Existing Water Treatment Infrastructure for MC-removal
  • 5.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Conventional Disinfection and/or Oxidation Processes for the Destruction of Cyanotoxins/Cyanobacteria
  • 6.1 Reaction of Chlorine and its Derivatives with Cyanotoxins
  • 6.1.1 Microcystins and Nodularins
  • 6.1.2 Cylindrospermopsin
  • 6.1.3 Anatoxin-a
  • 6.1.4 Saxitoxins
  • 6.1.5 Other Cyanotoxins
  • 6.1.6 Summary
  • 6.2 Reaction of Ozone with Cyanotoxins
  • 6.2.1 Microcystins
  • 6.2.2 Nodularins
  • 6.2.3 Cylindrospermopsin
  • 6.2.4 Anatoxin-a
  • 6.2.5 Saxitoxins
  • 6.2.6 Summary
  • 6.3 Reaction of Permanganate (KMnO4) with Cyanotoxins
  • 6.3.1 Microcystins
  • 6.3.2 Cylindrospermopsin
  • 6.3.3 Anatoxin-a
  • 6.3.4 Saxitoxins
  • 6.3.5 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Advanced Oxidation Processes
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 UV
  • 7.3 UV/H2O2
  • 7.4 O3/H2O2
  • 7.5 UV/O3
  • 7.6 Catalytic Ozonation
  • 7.7 Fenton/Photo-Fenton Reagent
  • 7.8 TiO2-Based Photocatalysis/Visible Light Sensitized TiO2
  • 7.9 Radiolysis
  • 7.10 Ultrasonic Degradation
  • 7.11 Ferrate
  • 7.12 Other Iron-based Processes
  • 7.13 Sulfate Radical-based AOPs
  • 7.14 Polyoxometalate Photocatalysis
  • 7.14.1 Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants with POMs: Mechanistic Aspects
  • 7.14.2 Photocatalytic Degradation of Cyanobacterial Metabolites with POM
  • 7.14.3 Photocatalytic Degradation of CYN with POM
  • 7.15 Conclusion
  • Disclaimer
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Removal and/or Destruction of Cyanobacterial Taste and Odour Compounds by Conventional and Advanced Oxidation Processes
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Conventional Water Treatment
  • 8.2.1 Pretreatment and Preventative Measures
  • 8.2.2 Coagulation, Flocculation, and Sedimentation
  • 8.2.3 Filtration
  • 8.2.4 Disinfection
  • 8.2.5 Distribution System
  • 8.2.6 Summary - Key Points
  • 8.3 Advanced Treatment Methods
  • 8.3.1 Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP)
  • 8.3.2 Air Stripping
  • 8.3.3 Membrane Filtration
  • 8.3.4 Variations of Conventional Treatment Techniques
  • 8.3.5 Summary - Key Points
  • 8.3.6 Key Findings
  • 8.4 Side Note: T&O Compound Concentrations and Customer Perception
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Transformation Products (TPs) of Cyanobacterial Metabolites During Treatment
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 TPs Formed in the Natural Environment
  • 9.2.1 Photolysis
  • 9.2.2 Effect of pH and Temperature
  • 9.3 Transformation Products of Microcystins and Nodularins with Advanced Oxidation Processes/ Technologies and Conventional Chemical Oxidation
  • 9.3.1 Titanium Dioxide-based Photocatalysts
  • 9.3.2 Other Photocatalysts (BiOBr and Bi2WO6)
  • 9.3.3 Ultrasonic Degradation (Sonolysis)
  • 9.3.4 Ozone
  • 9.3.5 Chlorination
  • 9.3.6 Sulfate Radical-based AOTs (SR-AOTs)
  • 9.4 Transformation Products of Microcystins and Nodularins with Biological Treatment
  • 9.5 Transformation Products of Cylindrospermopsin
  • 9.6 Transformation Products of Odor Compounds
  • 9.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Integrated Drinking Water Processes: Case Studies
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Pilot Plant Studies for Optimization of Water Treatment Processes in Microcystins Removal
  • 10.3 Removal of Cyanobacterial Cells and Microcystin-LR with a Microfiltration Pilot Plant (Lake Garda, Italy)
  • 10.4 Removal of Cyanobacterial Cells and Cyanotoxins in a Conventional Full-scale DWTP (Lake Vico, Italy)
  • 10.5 Efficiency of Water Treatment Processes in Elimination of Microcystins - Polish Examples
  • 10.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

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