Temporary urban uses - innovative ways to transform cities or new means to old ends?
The scale and variety of temporary - or meanwhile or interim - urban uses and spaces has grown rapidly in response to the dramatic increase in vacant and derelict land and buildings, particularly in post-industrial cities. To some, this indicates that a paradigm shift in city making is underway. To others, alternative urbanism is little more than a distraction that temporarily cloaks some of the negative outcomes of conventional urban development. However, rigorous, theoretically informed criticism of temporary uses has been limited. The book draws on international experience to address this shortcoming from the perspectives of the law, sociology, human geography, urban studies, planning and real estate.
It considers how time - and the way that it is experienced - informs alternative perspectives on transience. It emphasises the importance, for analysis, of the structural position of a temporary use in an urban system in spatial, temporal and socio-cultural terms. It illustrates how this position is contingent upon circumstances. What may be deemed a helpful and acceptable use to established institutions in one context may be seen as a problematic, unacceptable use in another. What may be a challenging and fulfilling alternative use to its proponents may lose its allure if it becomes successful in conventional terms. Conceptualisations of temporary uses are, therefore, mutable and the use of fixed or insufficiently differentiated frames of reference within which to study them should be avoided. It then identifies the major challenges of transforming a temporary use into a long-term use. These include the demands of regulatory compliance, financial requirements, levels of expertise and so on. Finally, the potential impacts of policy on temporary uses, both inadvertent and intended, are considered.
The first substantive, critical review of temporary urban uses, Transience and Permanence in Urban Development is essential reading for academics, policy makers, practitioners and students of cities worldwide.
Notes on Contributors
David Adams holds the Ian Mactaggart Chair of Property and Urban Studies at the University of Glasgow, having previously worked at the Universities of Reading, Manchester and Aberdeen. His research interests are in state-market relations in land and property, with particular focus on planning and land policy, real estate developers, speculative housebuilders, brownfield redevelopment and place quality. He has published widely on land, planning and development, most notably as co-author of Greenfields, Brownfields and Housing Development (2002), co-editor of Planning, Public Policy and Property Markets (2005) and Urban Design in the Real Estate Development (2011) and Shaping Places: Urban Planning, Design and Development (2013).
Catherine Barlow is currently a Research Assistant with the UPRISE (Urban Processes, Resilient Infrastructures and Sustainable Environments) Research Centre, School of the Built Environment at the University of Salford. After a long career in social housing, Catherine's doctorate considered innovation in sustainable housing. Her current interests are around how local people define and make sustainable use of city spaces, and the mediation of this use with local governance structures and commercial interests.
Luke Bennett is Reader in Space, Place and Law at Sheffield Hallam University. He practised as an environmental lawyer for 17 years and moved to SHU in 2007. Luke obtained his PhD in 2015 based upon his published research into occupiers' perception of physical risks at derelict sites and engagements by urban explorers with abandoned military bunkers. Luke's research is interested in the ways in which lay and professional practices perceive and make place, and whether this is via legal or other cultural schemas. Luke also is active in promoting and developing new directions for the hybrid field of legal geography.
Claire Colomb is Reader (Associate Professor) in Planning and Urban Sociology at the Bartlett School of Planning, University College London (UK), and holds a first degree in Politics and Sociology (Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, France) and a PhD in Planning (University College London). Her research interests cover urban and regional governance, planning and urban regeneration in European cities, urban social movements, European spatial planning and territorial cooperation, and comparative planning. She is the author of Staging the New Berlin: Place Marketing and the Politics of Urban Reinvention (Routledge, 2011).
Neil Crosby PhD, MRICS, is Professor of Real Estate in the Department of Real Estate and Planning at the University of Reading. He specialises in commercial property appraisal and the commercial property landlord and tenant relationship. He is an Honorary Fellow of the UK Society of Property Researchers and obtained both the International and European Real Estate Society annual achievement awards for his work in real estate research, education and practice in 2002 and 2014, respectively. In both 2001 and 2008, he was a member of the UK Research Assessment Exercise Town and Country Planning sub-panel and is currently a reader for the Royal Anniversary Trust for Higher Education.
Katherine Foo is a Postdoctoral Scholar in the Department of Geography, the Pennsylvania State University. She is a geographer and landscape planner whose research focuses on urban ecology and environmental governance. She has two particular interests. The first is the ways in which governing institutions, shaped by urban political economy, influence the scales, strategies, and capacities of tree-planting campaigns, which in turn impact patterns of landscape change. The second is the ways in which visualisation mediates recursive relationships between landscape patterns and social interpretations, and can enhance communication with diverse stakeholders at multiple stages of the design process.
Matthew F Gebhardt, AICP, is an Assistant Professor of Urban Studies & Planning and Real Estate Development at Portland State University. He previously worked as a Lecturer in Town & Regional Planning at the University of Sheffield and as a planning consultant. Dr Gebhardt's research concerns the translation of visions, plans, and policies into action, and the structures and institutions that facilitate or constrain this process and produce (un)intended outcomes. His research includes national programmes, such as the US Choice Neighborhoods Initiative and Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD), and informal activities, such as food carts and temporary retail.
Paul Greenhalgh, MRICS, is Associate Professor of Real Estate Economics, Faculty Director of Research Ethics and Founder of the URB@NE Research Group and R3intelligence Consultancy in the Department of Architecture and Built Environment at Northumbria University. He is widely published in the field of urban policy evaluation and the spatial analysis of commercial real estate markets. Paul's recent research investigates the implications of government changes to the Business Rates System in England and the spatial modelling of their potential impact.
John Henneberry is Professor of Property Development in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning, the University of Sheffield. His research focuses on the structure and behaviour of property markets and their relations to wider economies and state regulatory systems. He has particular interests in property development and investment and their contribution to urban and regional development. He has developed a distinctive 'old' institutional approach to property research that focuses on the impact of social, cultural and behavioural influences on market actors, structures, processes and outcomes. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences.
Krystallia Kamvasinou is a Lecturer in Planning, Urban Design and Architecture at the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment (FABE) of the University of Westminster, London. In 2012, she was awarded a two-year Research Fellowship by the Leverhulme Trust to investigate 'Interim spaces and creative use' (RF-2012-518). Krystallia has co-organised two international, interdisciplinary conferences (Emerging Landscapes, June 2010, and Re-Imagining Rurality, February 2015) and was co-editor for Critical Perspectives on Landscape (a special issue of The Journal of Architecture, 2012) and Emerging Landscapes between Production and Representation (Ashgate, 2014).
Panu Lehtovuori is the Professor of Planning Theory at Tampere University of Technology, School of Architecture. Prior to that, he was the Professor of Urban Studies at the Estonian Academy of Arts in Tallinn. Lehtovuori's research interests focus on temporary uses, contemporary forms of public urban space, new urban design approaches and the resource efficiency of built environment. He is co-author (with Gottdiener and Budd) of Key Concepts in Urban Studies (2nd ed., Sage, 2015). He is a partner of Livady Architects, a Helsinki-based practice working on sustainable architecture, place-based development, heritage evaluation and conservation. Lehtovuori belongs to Spin Unit, an international NGO that develops advanced spatial analysis.
Nicola Livingstone is a Lecturer in Real Estate at the Bartlett School of Planning, University College London. She received her PhD in 2011 from Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, and her research interests are multidisciplinary. These include property market liquidity and performance analysis, real estate investment, and interpreting the social form of the built environment. In addition to the real estate market, Nicola also researches the third sector, interpreting the political economy of charity and food insecurity. She has recently completed commissioned work on food aid for the Scottish Government, and real estate liquidity in international markets for the Investment Property Forum (IPF).
Peter Matthews is a Senior Lecturer in Social Policy, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stirling. He has research interests in urban inequality, community engagement with policy making, co-production and co-produced research methodologies. Recent research projects have included a review of middle-class community activism; research into social media in deprived neighbourhoods; and research on the experiences of housing and homelessness for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender identifying individuals.
Timothy Moore is a director of Sibling Architecture, and editor of the publication Future West (Australian Urbanism). He has formerly worked as editor of Architecture Australia and as managing editor of Volume alongside working in architecture offices in Melbourne, Amsterdam and Berlin. He is currently a PhD candidate at the Melbourne School of Design at the University of Melbourne researching temporary use projects within long-term urban frameworks.
Kevin Muldoon-Smith is a Lecturer in Real Estate Economics and Property Development and co-founder of R3intelligence Consultancy in the Department of Architecture and Built Environment at Northumbria University. His expertise exists at the interface of real estate development, finance and public policy in which he is widely published in academic and professional circles. His current research and consultancy projects are in two main areas: first, the interaction between government policy, real estate and public finance in the production of the urban environment; and, second, the use of big data to model urban real estate stock characteristics and occupier search...