Ecological Methods

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 4. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 22. Januar 2016
  • |
  • 656 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-89525-2 (ISBN)
 
4th edition of this classic Ecology text
* Computational methods have largely been replaced by descriptions of the available software
* Includes procedure information for R software and other freely available software systems
* Now includes web references for equipment, software and detailed methodologies
4. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 18,48 MB
978-1-118-89525-2 (9781118895252)
1118895258 (1118895258)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • Ecological Methods
  • Contents
  • Prefaces
  • Preface to fourth edition
  • Preface to third edition
  • Preface to second edition
  • Preface to first edition
  • About the Companion Website
  • 1 Introduction to the Study of Animal Populations
  • 1.1 Population estimates
  • 1.1.1 Absolute and related estimates
  • 1.1.2 Relative estimates
  • 1.1.3 Population indices
  • 1.2 Errors and confidence
  • References
  • 2 The Sampling Programme and the Measurement and Description of Dispersion
  • 2.1 Preliminary sampling
  • 2.1.1 Planning and fieldwork
  • 2.1.2 Statistical aspects
  • 2.2 The sampling programme
  • 2.2.1 The number of samples per habitat unit (e.g. plant, host or puddle)
  • 2.2.2 The sampling unit, its selection, size and shape
  • 2.2.3 The number of samples
  • 2.2.4 The pattern of sampling
  • 2.2.5 The timing of sampling
  • 2.3 Dispersion
  • 2.3.1 Mathematical distributions that serve as models
  • 2.3.2 Biological interpretation of dispersion parameters
  • 2.3.3 Nearest-neighbour and related techniques: measures of population size or of the departure from randomness of the distribution
  • 2.4 Sequential sampling
  • 2.4.1 Sampling numbers
  • 2.5 Presence or absence sampling
  • 2.6 Sampling a fauna
  • 2.7 Biological and other qualitative aspects of sampling
  • 2.8 Jack knife and Bootstrap techniques
  • References
  • 3 Absolute Population Estimates Using Capture-Recapture Experiments
  • 3.1 Capture-recapture methods
  • 3.1.1 Assumptions common to most methods
  • 3.1.2 Estimating closed populations
  • 3.1.3 Estimations for open populations
  • 3.2 Methods of marking animals
  • 3.2.1 Handling techniques
  • 3.2.2 Release
  • 3.2.3 Surface marks using paints and solutions of dyes
  • 3.2.4 Dyes and fluorescent substances in powder form
  • 3.2.5 Pollen
  • 3.2.6 Marking formed by feeding on or absorption of dyes
  • 3.2.7 Marking by injection, panjet or tattooing
  • 3.2.8 External tags
  • 3.2.9 Branding
  • 3.2.10 Mutilation
  • 3.2.11 Natural marks, parasites and genes
  • 3.2.12 Rare elements
  • 3.2.13 Protein marking
  • 3.2.14 Radioactive isotopes
  • 3.2.15 Radio and sonic tags
  • References
  • 4 Absolute Population Estimates by Sampling a Unit of Habitat - Air, Plants, Plant Products and Vertebrate Hosts
  • 4.1 Sampling from the air
  • 4.2 Sampling apparatus
  • 4.2.1 Exposed cone (Johnson-Taylor) suction trap
  • 4.2.2 Enclosed cone types of suction trap including the Rothamsted 12m trap
  • 4.2.3 Rotary and other traps
  • 4.3 Comparison and efficiencies of the different types of suction traps
  • 4.3.1 Conversion of catch to aerial density
  • 4.3.2 Conversion of density to total aerial population
  • 4.4 Sampling from plants
  • 4.4.1 Assessing the plant
  • 4.4.2 Determining the numbers of invertebrates
  • 4.4.3 The extraction of animals from herbage and debris
  • 4.4.4 Methods for animals in plant tissues
  • 4.4.5 Special sampling problems with animals in plant material
  • 4.5 Sampling from vertebrate hosts
  • 4.5.1 Sampling from living hosts
  • 4.5.2 Sampling from dead hosts
  • 4.5.3 Sampling from vertebrate 'homes'
  • References
  • 5 Absolute Population Estimates by Sampling a Unit of Aquatic Habitat
  • 5.1 Open water
  • 5.1.1 Nets
  • 5.1.2 Pumps
  • 5.1.3 Water-sampling bottles
  • 5.1.4 The Patalas-Schindler volume sampler
  • 5.1.5 Particular methods for insects
  • 5.2 Vegetation
  • 5.2.1 Floating vegetation
  • 5.2.2 Emergent vegetation
  • 5.2.3 Submerged vegetation
  • 5.3 Bottom fauna
  • 5.3.1 Hand net sampling of forest litter
  • 5.3.2 Sampling from under stones
  • 5.3.3 The planting of removable portions of the substrate
  • 5.3.4 Cylinders and boxes for delimiting an area
  • 5.3.5 Trawls, bottom sledges and dredges
  • 5.3.6 Grabs
  • 5.3.7 Dendy inverting sampler
  • 5.3.8 Box samplers and corers
  • 5.3.9 Air-lift and suction devices
  • 5.4 Poisons and anaesthetics used for sampling fish in rock pools and small ponds
  • References
  • 6 Absolute Population Estimates by Sampling a Unit of Soil or Litter Habitat: Extraction Techniques
  • 6.1 Sampling
  • 6.2 Bulk staining
  • 6.3 Mechanical methods of extraction
  • 6.3.1 Dry sieving
  • 6.3.2 Wet sieving
  • 6.3.3 Soil washing and flotation
  • 6.3.4 Flotation separation of plankton, meiofauna and other small animals
  • 6.3.5 Separation of plant and insects by differential wetting
  • 6.3.6 Centrifugation
  • 6.3.7 Sedimentation
  • 6.3.8 Elutriation
  • 6.3.9 Sectioning
  • 6.3.10 Aeration
  • 6.4 Behavioural or dynamic methods
  • 6.4.1 Dry extractors
  • 6.4.2 Wet extractors
  • 6.5 Summary of the applicability of the methods
  • References
  • 7 Relative Methods of Population Measurement and the Derivation of Absolute Estimates
  • 7.1 Factors affecting the size of relative estimates
  • 7.1.1 The 'phase' of the animal
  • 7.1.2 The activity of the animal
  • 7.1.3 Differences in the response between species, sexes and individuals
  • 7.1.4 The efficiency of the trap or searching method
  • 7.2 The uses of relative methods
  • 7.2.1 Measures of the availability
  • 7.2.2 Indices of absolute population
  • 7.2.3 Estimates of absolute population
  • 7.2.4 Removal trapping or collecting
  • 7.2.5 Collecting
  • 7.3 Relative methods: catch per unit effort
  • 7.3.1 Observation by radar
  • 7.3.2 Hydroacoustic methods
  • 7.3.3 Fish counters
  • 7.3.4 Electric fishing
  • 7.3.5 Aural detection
  • 7.3.6 Exposure by plough
  • 7.3.7 Collecting with a net or similar device
  • 7.3.8 Visual searching and pooting
  • 7.4 Relative methods: trapping
  • 7.4.1 Interception traps
  • 7.4.2 Flight traps combining interception and attraction
  • 7.4.3 Light and other visual traps
  • 7.5 Traps that attract animals by some natural stimulus or a substitute
  • 7.5.1 Shelter traps
  • 7.5.2 Trap host plants
  • 7.5.3 Baited traps
  • 7.5.4 The use of vertebrate hosts or substitutes as bait for insects
  • 7.6 Using Sound
  • References
  • 8 Estimates of Species Richness and Population Size Based on Signs, Products and Effects
  • 8.1 Arthropod products
  • 8.1.1 Exuviae
  • 8.1.2 Frass
  • 8.2 Vertebrate products and effects
  • 8.3 Effects due to an individual insect
  • 8.4 General effects: plant damage
  • 8.4.1 Criteria
  • 8.5 Determining the relationship between damage and insect populations
  • References
  • 9 Wildlife Population Estimates by Census and Distance Measuring Techniques
  • 9.1 Census methods
  • 9.2 Point and line survey methods
  • 9.2.1 Indices of abundance using transects
  • 9.2.2 Methods based on flushing
  • 9.2.3 Line transect methods: the Fourier series estimator
  • 9.2.4 Point transects
  • 9.3 Distance sampling software in R
  • 9.4 Spatial distribution and plotless density estimators
  • 9.4.1 Closest individual or distance method
  • 9.4.2 Nearest-neighbour methods
  • References
  • 10 Observational and Experimental Methods for the Estimation of Natality, Mortality and Dispersal
  • 10.1 Natality
  • 10.1.1 Fertility
  • 10.1.2 Numbers entering a stage
  • 10.1.3 The birth-rate from mark and recapture data
  • 10.2 Mortality
  • 10.2.1 Total
  • 10.2.2 The death-rate from mark and recapture data
  • 10.2.3 Climatic factors
  • 10.2.4 Biotic factors
  • 10.2.5 Experimental assessment of natural enemies
  • 10.3 Dispersal
  • 10.3.1 Detecting and quantifying jump dispersal
  • 10.3.2 Quantifying neighbourhood dispersal
  • 10.4 The measurement and description of home range and territory
  • 10.4.1 The minimum convex polygon area method for estimating home range
  • 10.4.2 The kernel estimation method for home range
  • 10.5 The rate of colonisation of a new habitat and artificial substrates
  • 10.6 The direction of migration
  • References
  • 11 The Construction, Description and Analysis of Age-specific Life-tables
  • 11.1 Types of life-table and the budget
  • 11.2 The construction of a budget
  • 11.3 Analysis of stage-frequency data
  • 11.3.1 Southwoods graphical method
  • 11.3.2 Richards & Waloffs first method
  • 11.3.3 Manlys method
  • 11.3.4 Ruesinks method
  • 11.3.5 Dempsters method
  • 11.3.6 Richards & Waloffs Second Method
  • 11.3.7 Kiritani, Nakasuji & Manlys method
  • 11.3.8 Kemptons method
  • 11.3.9 The Bellows and Birley Method
  • 11.4 The description of budgets and life-tables
  • 11.4.1 Survivorship curves
  • 11.4.2 Stock-recruitment (Moran-Ricker) curves
  • 11.4.3 The life-table and life expectancy
  • 11.4.4 Life and fertility tables and the net reproductive rate
  • 11.4.5 Population growth rates
  • 11.4.6 The calculation of r
  • 11.5 The analysis of life-table data
  • 11.5.1 The comparison of mortality factors within a generation (Table 11.3)
  • 11.5.2 Survival and life budget analysis
  • 11.5.3 Sibley's contribution analysis
  • References
  • 12 Age-grouping, Time-specific Life-tables and Predictive Population Models
  • 12.1 Age-grouping
  • 12.2 Aging young by developmental stage
  • 12.3 Aging by using structures
  • 12.3.1 Annelids
  • 12.3.2 Crustaceans
  • 12.3.3 Insects
  • 12.3.4 Molluscs
  • 12.3.5 Fish
  • 12.3.6 Lampreys
  • 12.3.7 Reptiles and amphibians
  • 12.3.8 Birds
  • 12.3.9 Mammals
  • 12.4 Time-specific life-tables and survival rates
  • 12.4.1 Physiological time
  • 12.4.2 Life-table parameters
  • 12.4.3 Recruitment in the field
  • 12.4.4 Empirical models
  • 12.4.5 Intrinsic rate models and variable life-tables
  • 12.4.6 Lewis-Leslie matrices and R packages
  • References
  • 13 Species Richness, Diversity and Packing
  • 13.1 Diversity
  • 13.1.1 Description of - and -diversity
  • 13.1.2 Species richness
  • 13.1.3 Models for the S:N relationship
  • 13.1.4 Non-parametric indices of diversity
  • 13.1.5 Which model or index?
  • 13.1.6 Comparing communities-diversity ordering
  • 13.1.7 Procedure to determine a-diversity
  • 13.1.8 Determining b-diversity
  • 13.2 Similarity and the comparison and classification of samples
  • 13.2.1 Measures of complementarity
  • 13.2.2 Similarity indices
  • 13.2.3 Multivariate analysis
  • 13.3 Species packing
  • 13.3.1 Measurement of interspecific association
  • 13.3.2 Measurement of resource utilisation
  • 13.3.3 Niche size and competition coefficients
  • References
  • 14 The Estimation of Productivity and the Construction of Energy Budgets
  • 14.1 Estimation of standing crop
  • 14.1.1 Measurement of biomass
  • 14.2 Determination of energy density
  • 14.3 Estimation of energy flow
  • 14.4 The measurement of production
  • 14.5 The measurement of feeding and assimilation
  • 14.5.1 The quality of the food eaten
  • 14.6 Feeding and assimilation rates
  • 14.6.1 Radiotracer techniques
  • 14.6.2 Gravimetric techniques
  • 14.6.3 Indicator methods
  • 14.6.4 Measurement of faecal output
  • 14.7 The measurement of the energy loss due to respiration and metabolic process
  • 14.7.1 Calorimetric
  • 14.7.2 The exchange of respiratory gases
  • 14.7.3 The respiratory rate
  • 14.8 The energy budget, efficiencies and transfer coefficients
  • 14.8.1 The energy budget of a population (or trophic level)
  • 14.8.2 Energy transfer across trophic links
  • 14.9 Identification of ecological pathways using stable isotopes
  • 14.10 Assessment of energy and time costs of strategies
  • References
  • 15 Studies at Large Spatial, Temporal and Numerical Scales and the Classification of Habitats
  • 15.1 Remote sensing data from satellites
  • 15.2 Remote sensing using piloted and unmanned aircraft
  • 15.3 Long-term studies
  • 15.3.1 Planning spatial and temporal sampling
  • 15.3.2 The classification of time series
  • 15.3.3 Time series analysis
  • 15.3.4 Detecting synchrony
  • 15.3.5 Measuring temporal variability
  • 15.3.6 Detecting break-points
  • 15.3.7 Determining if a species has become extinct
  • 15.4 Geographical information systems
  • 15.5 Detection of density dependence in time series
  • 15.5.1 Bulmers (1975) test
  • 15.5.2 Pollard etal.'s (1987) randomisation test
  • 15.5.3 Dennis and Taper's (1994) bootstrap approach
  • 15.5.4 Using a battery of approaches to detect density dependence
  • 15.6 Citizen science projects
  • 15.7 Ecosystem services
  • 15.8 Habitat classification
  • 15.8.1 Qualitative
  • 15.8.2 Quantitative
  • References
  • Index
  • Supplemental Images
  • EULA

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