Brain, Consciousness, and God

A Lonerganian Integration
 
 
SUNY Press
  • erschienen am 16. Juli 2015
  • |
  • 432 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-4384-5716-1 (ISBN)
 
A constructive critique of neuropsychological research on human consciousness and religious experience that applies the thought of Bernard Lonergan.

Brain, Consciousness, and God is a constructive critique of neuroscientific research on human consciousness and religious experience. An adequate epistemology-a theory of knowledge-is needed to address this topic, but today there exists no consensus on what human knowing means, especially regarding nonmaterial realities. Daniel A. Helminiak turns to twentieth-century theologian and philosopher Bernard Lonergan's breakthrough analysis of human consciousness and its implications for epistemology and philosophy of science. Lucidly summarizing Lonergan's key ideas, Helminiak applies them to questions about science, psychology, and religion. Along with Lonergan, eminent theorists in consciousness studies and neuroscience get deserved, detailed attention. Helminiak demonstrates the reality of the immaterial mind and, addressing the Cartesian "mind-body problem," explains how body and mind could make up one being, a person. Human consciousness is presented not only as awareness of objects, but also as self-presence, the self-conscious experience of human subjectivity, a spiritual reality. Lonergan's analyses allow us to say exactly what "spiritual" means, and it need have nothing to do with God.

Daniel A. Helminiak is Professor of Psychology at the University of West Georgia. He is the author of many books, including Religion and the Human Sciences: An Approach via Spirituality and The Human Core of Spirituality: Mind as Psyche and Spirit, both also published by SUNY Press.
  • Englisch
  • Albany
  • |
  • USA
State University of New York Press
  • 6,18 MB
978-1-4384-5716-1 (9781438457161)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • 1.1. Mystical, Religious-or Transcendent-Experiences
  • 1.2. Consciousness of Consciousness, Not Experience of God
  • 1.3. An Interdisciplinary Study
  • 1.4. Reliance on a Coherent and Consistent Epistemology: Lonergan
  • 1.5. Broader Issues of Interdisciplinary Studies
  • 1.6. Attention to Major Thinkers in Neuroscience and Consciousness Studies
  • 1.7. Attention to Intelligence, Not Merely to Logic
  • 1.8. An Interrelated and Unfolding Presentation
  • 1.9. The Centrality of Consciousness
  • Chapter 2: Epistemology A Portentous Prolegomenon
  • 2.1. Lonergan's Cognitive Theory and Epistemology
  • 2.1.1. Evidence on the Mind
  • 2.1.2. Argument for a Genuine Science of Consciousness: Penrose
  • 2.1.3. Argument for a Genuine Science of Consciousness: Chalmers
  • 2.1.4. Argument Against a Genuine Science of Consciousness: Dennett
  • 2.1.5. The Makings of a Science of Consciousness
  • 2.1.6. Lonergan's Theory of Human Knowing
  • 2.2. The Empirical Level of Knowing: Experience
  • 2.2.1. Experience and the Initial Givens or Data
  • 2.2.2. Knowledge Equated with Experience: Commonsense Realism: Wilber
  • 2.2.3. Another Example of Commonsense Realism: Searle
  • 2.2.4. Yet Another Example of Commonsense Realism: Chalmers
  • 2.2.5. Two Kinds of Knowing: Sensate and Intellectual
  • 2.2.6. A Brief History of Western Epistemology
  • 2.2.7. Kant's Solution and its Problem
  • 2.2.8. Idealism: Halfway From Materialism to Critical Realism
  • 2.2.9. Lonergan's Solution to Kant's Problem
  • 2.2.10. Summary About Experience
  • 2.3. The Intellectual Level of Knowing: Understanding
  • 2.3.1. The Occurrence and Effect of Insight
  • 2.3.2. The Meaning of Meaning
  • 2.3.3. The Unitive Nature of Insight
  • 2.3.4. The Intelligible Nature of Being
  • 2.3.5. Tentative Explanation Versus Secure Matters of Fact
  • 2.3.6. The Flaw in the Conceivability Argument in Consciousness Studies
  • 2.3.7. Summary About Understanding
  • 2.4. The Rational Level of Knowing: Judgment of Fact
  • 2.4.1. The Absoluteness of a Judgment of Fact
  • 2.4.2. The Subjective and Objective Dimensions of Knowledge of Being
  • 2.4.3. The Need for Reflexive Consistency in a Theory of Knowledge
  • 2.5. The Scientific Affinity and Status of This Epistemology
  • 2.6. The Accuracy of Human Knowing and the Transcendental Precepts
  • 2.6.1. The Precarious Nature of All Human Knowing
  • 2.6.2. The Inherent Subjective Requirements of Human Knowing
  • 2.6.3. The Criteria of Genuine or Authentic Humanity
  • 2.7. Transcendental Method
  • 2.7.1. The Inherent Workings of the Human Knowing Process
  • 2.7.2. The Invulnerability of This Epistemology
  • 2.8. Different Kinds of Realities, Including the Spiritual
  • 2.8.1. Equally Real Material and Spiritual Entities
  • 2.8.2. The Meaningful-Spiritual-Dimension of Material Things
  • 2.8.3. Ontological Pluralism: Different Kinds of Being
  • 2.9. The Challenge of Lonergan's Breakthrough
  • Chapter 3: Neuroscience The Biological Bases of Transcendent Experiences
  • 3.1. Neurophysiological Bases of Transcendent Experiences
  • 3.1.1. The Mystical Mind of d'Aquili and Newberg
  • 3.1.2. The "Religious Circuit" of Patrick McNamara
  • 3.1.3. The Networks of Recent Research on Meditative Practice
  • 3.1.4. Regarding the Buddhist Notion of "No Self"
  • 3.1.5. A Critical Conclusion About the Neuroscience of Transcendent Experience
  • 3.2. A Genetic Basis of Transcendent Experiences: Hamer
  • 3.3. A Neurochemical Basis of Transcendent Experiences: "Entheogens"
  • 3.4. An Electromagnetic Basis of Transcendent Experiences: Persinger
  • 3.5. A Quantum-Physics Theory of Consciousness: Penrose and Hameroff
  • 3.6. The Contribution of Neuroscience
  • Chapter 4: Psychology The Problem of a Real Body and a Real Mind
  • 4.1. The "Reality" of the "Parts" of the Human Being
  • 4.1.1. Inconsistencies in Thinking About Body and Mind
  • 4.1.2. Thing, an Intelligible Whole
  • 4.1.3. Levels of Analysis
  • 4.1.4. The Actuality of Mind and Body in Summary
  • 4.2. Some Terminological Clarifications
  • 4.2.1. Distinctions and Separations
  • 4.2.2. Realities and Things
  • 4.2.3. Concrete-Operational and Formal-Operational Thinking
  • 4.3. The Actual Existence of Mental Realities
  • 4.4. The Unity of the Human Being: Dualism
  • 4.5. The Unity of the Human Being: Epiphenomenalism
  • 4.6. An Excursus on Causality
  • 4.6.1. The Focus of Early Modern Science on Aristotle's Efficient Causality
  • 4.6.2. Reliance on Perception and Imagined Efficient Causes
  • 4.6.3. The Sole Agent, the Person
  • 4.6.4. Efficient Versus Formal Causality
  • 4.6.5. Formal Cause and Implicit Definition
  • 4.6.6. Causality as "An Intelligible Relation of Dependence"
  • 4.7. The Unity of the Human Being: Epiphenomenalism Revisited
  • 4.8. The Unity of the Human Being: Nonreductive Physicalism
  • 4.8.1. Reductionism: Explanatory and Eliminative
  • 4.8.2. Properties of the Brain
  • 4.8.3. Properties via Emergence
  • 4.8.4. The Ideology of Physicalism in Defense of Science
  • 4.9. Analogies for Mind as a Property of the Brain: Searle
  • 4.9.1. Analogies, Properties, and Features
  • 4.9.2. Liquidity in Water and H2O
  • 4.9.3. Digestion in the Stomach and in the Organism
  • 4.9.4. Felt Solidity and Spacious Molecular Structure
  • 4.9.5. The Analogy of the Chinese Room
  • 4.10. The "Naturalness" of Consciousness
  • 4.10.1. Seemingly Reductive Insistence on Biology
  • 4.10.2. Biological Means Non-Supernatural
  • 4.11. Multiple Realities in One Thing
  • 4.11.1. The Automobile: One Thing Composed of Many Realities
  • 4.11.2. Water From Hydrogen and Oxygen
  • 4.11.3. Mind From Organism
  • 4.12. The Priority of Intelligence Over Perception, Theory Over Common Sense
  • 4.12.1. Descriptive Properties Versus Explanatory Properties
  • 4.12.2. The Oxymoron, Knower-Independent Knowledge
  • 4.12.3. The Explanation of Description
  • 4.12.4. The Inadequacy of Commonsensical, or Functionalist, Thinking
  • 4.12.5. Hopeful Trends Toward Explanatory Science
  • 4.13. A Resolution of the Mind-Body Problem
  • 4.14. The Relation of Mind to Body: Emergence
  • 4.14.1. The Basic Notion of Emergence
  • 4.14.2. A Brief History of Emergence Theory
  • 4.14.3. Portrayals of Emergence
  • 4.15. The Causality Across Levels of Emergence
  • 4.15.1. The Peculiarity of Causality in Emergences
  • 4.15.2. Causality Within Closed Systems
  • 4.15.3. Causality Across the Gap of Emergence
  • 4.15.4. Intelligibility and Ontology, Insight and Emergence
  • 4.16. The Impact of Gödel's Theorem on Formal Causality
  • 4.16.1. Gödel's Theorem and Its Implications
  • 4.16.2. Gödel's Theorem Applied to the Emergence of Mind
  • 4.16.3. Nuances of Causality in the Case of Emergence
  • 4.16.4. Only Top-Down Coherence Within Emergence
  • 4.16.5. The Challenge of Explaining the Higher-Level Emergences
  • 4.17. The Coherence of a Dynamic Universe
  • 4.17.1. Supplements to Classical Science: Statistical and Genetic Methods
  • 4.17.2. The Projection of a Comprehensive Science
  • 4.18. The Proposed Distinction Between Weak and Strong Emergence
  • 4.18.1. The Usefulness of Comparison With Other Elaborated Positions
  • 4.18.2. Emergence as Weak or Strong
  • 4.18.3. Of Laws, Truths, and "Facts": Chalmers and Nagel
  • 4.18.4. Different But Not Further "Facts" About Elephants
  • 4.18.5. Sensate-Modeled Versus Intellectual Epistemologies
  • 4.18.6. Bottom-Up Non-Deducibility Versus Unexpectedness
  • 4.18.7. Conclusions About Weak and Strong Emergence
  • 4.19. Filling in the Gap of Emergence: Dennett
  • 4.19.1. The Bold Denial of Consciousness
  • 4.19.2. Another Version of a "Functionalist" Interpretation of the Mind
  • 4.19.3. Imagining the Brain as a Complex Computer
  • 4.19.4. Speculation as a Stepping Stone to Science
  • 4.19.5. Multiple Kinds of Matter
  • 4.19.6 In Search of Bold Hypotheses
  • 4.20. Panpsychic Construal of Emergence: Griffin for Whitehead
  • 4.20.1. Emergence as the Aggregation of Lower-Level Bits of a Reality
  • 4.20.2. Ubiquitous Experience
  • 4.20.3. Something of Consciousness Compounding Through All Levels of Reality
  • 4.20.4. Intelligibilities, Not Experiences, and Neither Without Intelligence
  • 4.20.5. The Oxymoronic Anthropomorphism of Unconscious Experience
  • 4.20.6. The Subjective Form of an Intellectual . Feeling?
  • 4.21. Panpsychic Construals of Emergence: Chalmers
  • 4.21.1. Consciousness and Matter as Primordial Realities of Nature
  • 4.21.2. Ubiquitous Information
  • 4.21.3. Information as the Bridge Between Brain and Mind
  • 4.21.4. Generalizing From the Uniquely Human Experience of Consciousness
  • 4.21.5. Information, Therefore, Consciousness Everywhere
  • 4.21.6. Saving Functionally Irrelevant Consciousness by Positing It Everywhere
  • 4.21.7. Confounding Technological Information with Human Information
  • 4.22. Summary on the Mind-Body Problem
  • 4.23. Review and Preview
  • Chapter 5: Spiritualogy Consciousness and Transcendent Experiences
  • 5.1. A Tripartite Model of the Human: Beyond "Body and Mind"
  • 5.1.1. Mind as Both Psyche and Consciousness
  • 5.1.2. Consciousness and Other Kinds of Responsiveness
  • 5.1.3. The Human as Organism, Psyche, and Spirit
  • 5.2. The Mechanism of "Spiritual Growth"
  • 5.2.1. The Interaction of Psyche and Spirit
  • 5.2.2. The Naturalistic Process of Increasing Spiritual Sensitivity
  • 5.2.3. Restructuring Psyche to Release Spirit
  • 5.2.4. The Possibility of a Non-Religious and Non-Theist Spiritualogy
  • 5.3. Consciousness as Both Conscious and Intentional
  • 5.3.1. The Simultaneously and Concomitantly Dual Nature of Human Consciousness
  • 5.3.2. William James on Consciousness as Conscious
  • 5.3.3. Consensus Over Time and Across Opinions
  • 5.3.4. An Argument Based on Common Experience
  • 5.3.5. An Argument From the "Paradox of Phenomenal Judgments": Chalmers
  • 5.3.6. An Argument Against a Behaviorist Explanation: Natsoulas for Skinner
  • 5.3.7. An Appeal to the Experience of Consciousness
  • 5.4. The Limitation of Consciousness to Intentionality
  • 5.4.1. That Consciousness Is Always Awareness of Something
  • 5.4.2. Those Unspecifiable Qualia of Red in Itself
  • 5.4.3. The Qualia of the Activity of Thinking
  • 5.5. Still Seeing Red: Mere Givenness Versus Qualia
  • 5.5.1. No Qualia in the Merely Given
  • 5.5.2. Chalmers's First-Order Phenomenal States and Lonergan's Data
  • 5.5.3. Reinventing the Wheel of Consciousness
  • 5.5.4. Qualia via Acts of Human Consciousness
  • 5.5.5. Human Consciousness versus Animal Responsiveness
  • 5.6. What Is It Like to Be?
  • 5.6.1. The Uniqueness of the Human Experience to Be
  • 5.6.2. The "Something" It Is Like to Be
  • 5.6.3. Attempts to Articulate Consciousness
  • 5.6.4. The Projection of Human Experience Onto Non-Human Entities
  • 5.7. The Priority of Non-Intentional or Conscious Consciousness
  • 5.7.1. Consciousness of a Range of Kinds of Data
  • 5.7.2. Consciousness "of" the Data of Consciousness
  • 5.7.3. Consciousness "of" the Data of the Senses
  • 5.7.4. Inverted Priorities Regarding the Modes of Consciousness
  • 5.8. Unbounded Human Consciousness and Transcendent Experiences
  • 5.8.1. Heightened Experience of Consciousness
  • 5.8.2. A Naturalistic Explanation of Transcendent Experiences
  • 5.8.3. The One and the Many in Transcendent Experiences
  • 5.8.4. The Supposed Religious Uniqueness of "Mystical" Experiences
  • 5.9. Coherence of Neuroscience and Naturalistic Spiritualogy
  • 5.9.1. The Sketchy Beginnings of an Elaborated Coherence
  • 5.9.2. The Need to Differentiate and Attend to Psyche
  • 5.9.3. Research Approaches to Psyche
  • 5.9.4. Research on the Integrative Effect of Transcendent Experiences
  • 5.10. Summary on Spiritualogy
  • Chapter 6: Theology and Theotics Union of Creator and Creature
  • 6.1. The Place of Theology in Scientific Explanation
  • 6.2. What Is God?
  • 6.2.1. Reasonable Hypotheses to Address Legitimate Questions
  • 6.2.2. Accounting for Existence
  • 6.2.3. Derivation of Standard Attributes of God
  • 6.2.4. Two Ways of Conceiving God: Fullness and Creator
  • 6.2.5. The Misidentification of the Spiritual With the Divine
  • 6.3. Four Perspectives on the Possibility of Experiencing God
  • 6.3.1. Building on the Hypothesis of God as Creator
  • 6.3.2. Presence to God as Creator of All Things
  • 6.3.3. Presence to God by Human Knowledge and Love
  • 6.3.4. Presence to God by Spiritual Likeness
  • 6.3.5. Presence to God by Sanctifying Grace
  • 6.4. The Restricted Arena of Talk About God
  • Chapter 7: Conclusion
  • 7.1. A Brief Summary of the Argument
  • 7.2. The Contributions of the Various Disciplines
  • 7.2.1. Neuroscience
  • 7.2.2. Psychology
  • 7.2.3. Spiritualogy
  • 7.2.4. Theology
  • 7.3. Summary About the Brain, Consciousness, and God
  • References
  • Name Index
  • Subject Index

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