Ethnopharmacology

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 25. August 2015
  • |
  • 464 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-93072-4 (ISBN)
 
Ethnopharmacology is one of the world's fastest-growing scientific disciplines encompassing a diverse range of subjects. It links natural sciences research on medicinal, aromatic and toxic plants with socio-cultural studies and has often been associated with the development of new drugs. The Editors of Ethnopharmacology have assembled an international team of renowned contributors to provide a critical synthesis of the substantial body of new knowledge and evidence on the subject that has emerged over the past decade.
Divided into three parts, the book begins with an overview of the subject including a brief history, ethnopharmacological methods, the role of intellectual property protection, key analytical approaches, the role of ethnopharmacology in primary/secondary education and links to biodiversity and ecological research. Part two looks at ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions including CNS disorders, cancer, bone and joint health and parasitic diseases. The final part is devoted to regional perspectives covering all continents, providing a state-of-the -art assessment of the status of ethnopharmacological research globally.
* A comprehensive, critical synthesis of the latest developments in ethnopharmacology.
* Includes a section devoted to ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions.
* Contributions are from leading international experts in the field.
This timely book will prove invaluable for researchers and students across a range of subjects including ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, medicinal plant research and natural products research.
Ethnopharmacology- A Reader is part of the ULLA Series in Pharmaceutical Sciences www.ullapharmsci.org
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  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Series Foreword
  • Preface
  • Abbreviations
  • Part 1 Ethnopharmacology: The Fundamental Challenges
  • Chapter 1 Ethnopharmacology: A Short History of a Multidisciplinary Field of Research
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Medicinal Plant Research: A Reflection on Translational Tasks
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Translational research: preclinical research
  • 2.3 Translational research: clinical research
  • 2.4 Reaching the patient
  • 2.5 A 'developed' traditional medicine system
  • References
  • Chapter 3 The Anthropology of Ethnopharmacology
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Primary example: Traditional medicine in New York City
  • 3.2.1 Missing out on cultural context
  • 3.2.2 People change plants due to availability
  • 3.2.3 The spiritual component
  • 3.3 An example from ancient Roman architecture
  • 3.4 An example from native North America
  • 3.5 Comparative ethnobotany
  • 3.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Quantitative and Comparative Methods in Ethnopharmacology
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.1 Materia medica and cultural consensus
  • 4.1.2 The intent of ethnopharmacological projects: Basic and applied research
  • 4.1.3 Ethnopharmacology as cross-cultural endeavour and the concept of emic and etic
  • 4.2 Research questions
  • 4.2.1 Descriptive questions
  • 4.2.2 Relational questions
  • 4.3 Field research
  • 4.3.1 Data sampling
  • 4.4 Analyzing the data
  • 4.4.1 Use-reports for quantification
  • 4.5 Pharmacological research
  • 4.6 Contextualization
  • 4.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Biodiversity, Conservation and Ethnopharmacology
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Changing attitudes to the ownership of biodiversity
  • 5.3 Medicinal and aromatic plants as resources
  • 5.4 How many species?
  • 5.5 Chemical diversity
  • 5.6 Wild harvesting and over-collection
  • 5.7 Medicinal plant conservation
  • 5.8 Conservation approaches
  • 5.9 Protected areas
  • 5.10 Community conservation
  • 5.11 Genetic conservation
  • 5.12 Cultivation
  • 5.13 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Ecopharmacognosy
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Sustainable medicines and pharmacognosy
  • 6.3 Ecopharmacognosy: background
  • 6.4 Ecopharmacognosy practices
  • 6.4.1 Replacement plant parts
  • 6.4.2 Vegetables as chemical reagents
  • 6.4.3 The 'Medicine Man' approach and remote sensing
  • 6.4.4 Dereplication
  • 6.4.5 In silico evaluation of natural products
  • 6.4.6 Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • 6.4.7 Complex traditional medicines
  • 6.4.8 Network pharmacology
  • 6.4.9 Can ecopharmacognosy change the dark side of traditional medicine?
  • 6.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 7 NMR-based Metabolomics and Hyphenated NMR Techniques: A Perfect Match in Natural Products Research
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Metabolomics
  • 7.3 Principles of NMR-based metabolomics
  • 7.4 NMR-based metabolomics in natural products research
  • 7.5 Hyphenated NMR techniques
  • 7.6 Principle of HPLC-SPE-NMR
  • 7.7 High-resolution bioassay-coupled HPLC-SPE-NMR
  • 7.8 Combining metabolomics and hyphenated NMR techniques
  • 7.9 Perspectives in ethnopharmacology
  • 7.10 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 8 New Medicines Based On Traditional Knowledge: Indigenous and Intellectual Property Rights from an Ethnopharmacological Perspective
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 The legal framework
  • 8.3 Industrial research in an ethnopharmacological context
  • 8.4 Some case studies
  • 8.4.1 Pure natural products as drug leads
  • 8.4.2 Extracts and partially purified preparations as drug leads
  • 8.5 Conclusions
  • Note
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Ethnopharmacology and Intellectual Property Rights
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Indigenous community rights and traditional knowledge
  • 9.3 Identifying a partner
  • 9.3.1 The foreign partner's attitude
  • 9.3.2 The advantages of IP
  • 9.4 Hurdles in considering IP
  • 9.5 Building an effective IP portfolio
  • 9.5.1 Requirements for patentability
  • 9.5.2 The value of different types of patent protection
  • 9.6 The patentability of products of nature
  • 9.6.1 Novelty
  • 9.6.2 Novelty and traditional knowledge
  • 9.6.3 Obviousness
  • 9.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Ethnopharmacology in Elementary, Primary and Secondary Education: Current Perspectives and Future Prospects
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Ethnopharmacology: a multidisciplinary subject for education
  • 10.3 Developing an ethnopharmacological curriculum: some strategies
  • 10.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Part 2 The Pharmacological Angle
  • Chapter 11 Anti-infective Agents: The Example of Antibacterial Drug Leads
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Bacterial resistance
  • 11.3 Plant-derived antibacterial agents
  • 11.3.1 Direct antibacterial agents
  • 11.3.2 Antivirulence agents
  • 11.3.3 Resistance-modifying agents
  • 11.4 Basic requirements for successful antimicrobial drug discovery (Cos et al., 2006)
  • 11.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Searching for New Treatments of Malaria
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Traditional herbal remedies as a source of antimalarial lead compounds
  • 12.3 Developments from established antimalarials
  • 12.4 Non-traditional medicine sources of potential antimalarials
  • 12.5 Alternative strategies in the search for natural antimalarial compounds
  • 12.6 Herbal preparations for the treatment of malaria
  • 12.7 Conclusion and future prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 13 CNS Disorders
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Epilepsy
  • 13.3 Depression and anxiety
  • 13.3.1 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • 13.3.2 MAO-A inhibitors
  • 13.3.3 Clinical evidence
  • 13.4 Insomnia
  • 13.5 Sedatives
  • 13.6 Dementia
  • 13.6.1 Countering neurotransmitter abnormalities: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
  • 13.6.2 Countering neurotransmitter abnormalities: MAO-B inhibitors
  • 13.6.3 Reducing the formation and fibrillation of amyloid ß peptides
  • 13.6.4 Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity
  • 13.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Respiratory Conditions
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.1.1 The respiratory system
  • 14.1.2 Respiratory diseases
  • 14.1.3 Common cold
  • 14.1.4 Influenza
  • 14.1.5 Acute lower respiratory tract infections: acute bronchitis
  • 14.1.6 Other diseases of the upper respiratory tract: allergic rhinitis and rhinitis
  • 14.1.7 Chronic lower respiratory tract diseases: COPD
  • 14.1.8 Lung diseases caused by external agents: hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • 14.1.9 Other respiratory diseases principally affecting the interstitium: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • 14.1.10 Suppurative and necrotic lower respiratory tract conditions: pneumonia with necrosis
  • 14.1.11 Other pleural diseases: pleural plaque
  • 14.1.12 Other diseases of the respiratory system: acute respiratory failure
  • 14.2 Case studies
  • 14.2.1 Althaea officinalis L. Malvaceae
  • 14.2.2 Codeine and noscapine
  • 14.2.3 Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Ecinacea angustifolia DC.
  • 14.2.4 Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae)
  • 14.2.5 Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)
  • 14.3 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Can there be an Ethnopharmacology of Inflammation?
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Ethnopharmacology of inflammation: some examples
  • 15.2.1 The arnica complex
  • 15.2.2 Harpagophytum procumbens (Burch.) DC. ex Meisn. (Pedaliaceae)
  • 15.2.3 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin, Baical skullcap
  • Lamiaceae)
  • 15.2.4 Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)
  • 15.2.5 Capsicum frutescens L.
  • 15.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors and Downstream Signalling Pathways as Cancer Treatment Targets for Medicinal Plants
  • 16.1 Role of epidermal growth factor receptors for cancer biology
  • 16.2 Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signalling by phytochemicals and medicinal plants
  • 16.2.1 Natural products as a resource for cancer treatment
  • 16.2.2 Inhibitors of EGFR signalling
  • 16.2.3 Inhibitors of HER2/HER3 signalling
  • 16.3 Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 17 From Ethnopharmacological Field Study to Phytochemistry and Preclinical Research: The Example of Ghanaian Medicinal Plants for Improved Wound Healing
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Results
  • 17.2.1 The start of a research project: validated field study on wound-healing plants
  • 17.2.2 Before starting laboratory work: who the healers are and some socioeconomic aspects
  • 17.2.3 Evaluation of the data collection and cross-referencing to published literature
  • 17.2.4 The next step: selection of plants for in vitro investigations
  • 17.2.5 Screening of selected plant extracts: influence on skin cells under in vitro conditions
  • 17.2.6 Phytochemical aspects of P. muellerianus and the ICH-validated HPLC method for quality control (ICH, 2014)
  • 17.2.7 Influence of P. muellerianus on the cell physiology of human skin cells
  • 17.2.8 Phytochemistry of C. mucronatum
  • 17.2.9 Influence of C. mucronatum on the cell physiology of human skin cells
  • 17.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Gynaecological, Andrological and Urological Problems: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Menstrual disorders
  • 18.2.1 Dysmenorrhea and uterine spasmolytics
  • 18.2.2 Uterine spasmogenics
  • 18.3 Postpartum use
  • 18.3.1 Puerperal infections
  • 18.3.2 Postpartum haemorrhage
  • 18.3.3 Perineal healing
  • 18.4 Vaginal applications
  • 18.5 Female infertility
  • 18.6 Andrology
  • 18.6.1 Aphrodisiacs and male sterility
  • 18.7 Urology
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Bone and Joint Health
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Current views of bone and joint disorders
  • 19.3 Traditional views of bone disorders
  • 19.3.1 European traditional herbal medicine
  • 19.3.2 North America
  • 19.3.3 Traditional Chinese medicine
  • 19.3.4 Ayurveda
  • 19.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Type-2 diabetes
  • 20.2.1 Insulin
  • 20.2.2 Insulin effects in peripheral tissues
  • 20.2.3 Insulin resistance (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue)
  • 20.2.4 Liver
  • 20.2.5 Gut
  • 20.3 Metabolic syndrome
  • 20.4 Case studies
  • 20.4.1 Liver targeting
  • 20.4.2 Gut targeting
  • 20.4.3 Insulin targeting
  • 20.4.4 Obesity and insulin resistance
  • 20.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 21 The Ethnopharmacology of the Food-Medicine Interface: The Example of Marketing Traditional Products in Europe
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Medicinal products for human use
  • 21.2.1 Legal framework
  • 21.2.2 Definition of medicinal products
  • 21.2.3 Herbal medicinal products
  • 21.3 Food
  • 21.3.1 Definition of food
  • 21.3.2 Food supplements
  • 21.3.3 Fortified food
  • 21.3.4 Novel food
  • 21.3.5 Functional food
  • 21.4 Consumer protection - security and protection against fraud
  • 21.4.1 Food safety
  • 21.4.2 Health claims
  • 21.5 Intended normal use: the distinction between medicinal products and foods
  • 21.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Retrospective Treatment-Outcome as a Method of Collecting Clinical Data in Ethnopharmacological Surveys
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Key concepts: clinical data, outcome and patient progress
  • 22.3 Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of traditional medicines
  • 22.4 The role of ethnopharmacologists and ethnobotanists
  • 22.5 Collection of clinical data during ethnopharmacological field studies
  • 22.6 Example of a method for gathering clinical data during field surveys
  • 22.6.1 Defining the health problem
  • 22.6.2 Research question
  • 22.6.3 Data collection: ask patients!
  • 22.6.4 Getting consent: a much debated topic
  • 22.6.5 Sample size
  • 22.6.6 Statistical analysis and interpretation
  • 22.6.7 Results: a research programme leading to the validation of safe and effective phytomedicines
  • 22.7 Conclusion: clinical data and field surveys for a positive impact on health
  • References
  • Part 3 Ethnopharmacology: Regional Perspectives
  • Chapter 23 Ethnopharmacology in Sub-Sahara Africa: Current Trends and Future Perspectives
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Role of traditional medicine in Africa
  • 23.3 Ethnopharmacological research in sub-Saharan Africa
  • 23.4 Challenges of traditional medicine in Africa
  • 23.4.1 Efficacy, toxicology and safety concerns
  • 23.4.2 Shelf-life, post-harvest physiology and storage
  • 23.4.3 Conservation challenges of protecting plant resources
  • 23.5 Future perspectives
  • 23.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Ethnopharmacology and Integrative Medicine: An Indian Perspective
  • 24.1 Ethnopharmacology and the development of traditional medicine in India
  • 24.2 Biological wealth and ancient wisdom
  • 24.3 Indian systems of medicine
  • 24.4 Ayurveda: the Indian system of medicine
  • 24.4.1 Panchakarma
  • 24.4.2 Validation of classical Ayurvedic formulation
  • 24.4.3 Ayurgenomics
  • 24.4.4 Reverse pharmacology
  • 24.4.5 Ayurinformatics
  • 24.5 Siddha
  • 24.6 Unani
  • 24.7 Traditional knowledge digital library
  • 24.8 Integrated approaches for the development of Indian traditional medicine
  • 24.8.1 Strategies and innovations
  • 24.9 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Chinese Medicine: Contentions and Global Complexities
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Ancient concepts meet scientific understanding
  • 25.3 Traditional and modern dosage forms and application
  • 25.4 Medicinal plant production in China
  • 25.5 Quality and safety
  • 25.6 Aristolochic acids
  • 25.7 Regulatory requirements
  • 25.8 Training practitioners of TCM
  • 25.9 Future prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Chinese Medicinal Processing: A Characteristic Aspect of the Ethnopharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Definition, methods and historical changes in Chinese medicinal processing
  • 26.2.1 Definition
  • 26.2.2 Methods
  • 26.2.3 Historical changes
  • 26.3 Present state of Chinese medicinal processing
  • 26.3.1 Inconsistency of ancient and current processing methods
  • 26.3.2 Inconsistency of processing practice in different provinces of China
  • 26.3.3 Differences in decoction pieces between Hong Kong and mainland China
  • 26.3.4 Differences in national pharmacopoeias regarding medicinal processing
  • 26.3.5 Lack of objective quality control standards
  • 26.3.6 Progress in research
  • 26.4 Prospect for future developments in Chinese medicinal processing
  • References
  • Chapter 27 A South-East Asian Perspective on Ethnopharmacology
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 Ethnopharmacology in Thailand
  • 27.3 Ethnopharmacology in Malaysia
  • 27.3.1 Malay traditional medicine
  • 27.3.2 Clinical integration of the Malay traditional medicines
  • 27.3.3 Modern phytotherapeutic products and food supplements from Malay traditional medicinal plants
  • 27.3.4 The future direction of Malay TM
  • 27.4 Ethnopharmacology in Indonesia
  • 27.5 Ethnopharmacology in the Philippines
  • 27.6 Ethnopharmacology in Vietnam
  • 27.7 Ethnopharmacology in Myanmar, Lao PDR and Cambodia
  • 27.8 Ethnopharmacology in Singapore and Brunei
  • 27.9 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 28 Historical Approaches in Ethnopharmacology
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Historical texts in ethnopharmacological research
  • 28.2.1 Documentation of (mainly) medicinal plant knowledge
  • 28.2.2 Evaluation of medicinal plant knowledge and identification of potential plant candidates
  • 28.2.3 Development of (medicinal) plant knowledge
  • 28.3 Methodological aspects
  • 28.4 Challenges in the analysis of historical texts
  • 28.5 Opportunities offered by a historical approach
  • 28.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 29 Medical Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology of Europe
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 A brief history of European medicinal plants studies
  • 29.3 Modern European medico-ethnobotanical studies
  • 29.3.1 The development of ethnobotanical studies in Europe
  • 29.3.2 Recent medico-ethnobotanical studies in Europe
  • 29.4 European ethnomedicinal flora
  • 29.5 Adaptation, syncretism and resilience of traditional pharmacopoeias
  • 29.6 Pharmacological studies of European medicinal plants
  • 29.7 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 30 Ethnopharmacology in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: 'The Sun Rises from the East, but Shines on the Eastern Mediterranean'
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in the Balkan region
  • 30.3 Modern ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in the Middle East
  • 30.4 Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in Turkey
  • 30.5 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 31 Ethnopharmacology in Australia and Oceania
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.1.1 Australian ethnobotany
  • 31.1.2 Ethnobotany in Oceania
  • 31.2 Ethnopharmacological 'classics'
  • 31.2.1 Scopolamine from the Australian Duboisia
  • 31.2.2 Polynesian breadfruit and kava used throughout Oceania
  • 31.3 Australian aromatic plants
  • 31.3.1 Eucalyptus
  • 31.3.2 Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil)
  • 31.4 Recent developments: aromatic plants
  • 31.5 Recent developments: cancer and HIV
  • 31.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 32 Ethnopharmacology in Central and South America
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 The development of drugs
  • 32.2.1 The case of dragon's blood
  • 32.2.2 The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
  • 32.2.3 The example of developing ethnopharmacological-based herbal medicinal products in Guatemala
  • 32.2.4 The Farmacias Vivas programme
  • 32.3 Beyond the development of new drugs
  • 32.4 Bridging indigenous and western knowledge
  • 32.5 Hallucinogens
  • 32.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 33 Perspectives on Ethnopharmacology in Mexico
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Mexican tradition
  • 33.3 Compilation of medicinal plants
  • 33.4 Medicinal plant complex
  • 33.5 Markets and medicinal plants
  • 33.6 Bioprospection and conservation
  • 33.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 34 Encounters with Elephants: A Personal Perspective on Ethnopharmacology
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 The primacy of plants
  • 34.3 Sources: dirty hands and databases
  • 34.4 From cultural use to chemistry
  • 34.5 Chemistry as a starter
  • 34.6 Botany as a basis
  • 34.7 Of mice and men and microwell plates
  • 34.8 Aims and ethics
  • 34.9 Molecules and mixtures
  • 34.10 Tales of the unexpected
  • 34.11 The end of the matter
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

Contributors


  1. Christian Agyare Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
  2. Pravit Akarasereenont Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand, and Center of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand.
  3. Adolfo Andrade-Cetto Department of Cell Biology, School of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
  4. Adeyemi O. Aremu Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  5. Alex Asase Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Ghana
  6. Shiv Bahadur School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, India
  7. Maíra Bidart de Macedo Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  8. Anthony Booker Research Cluster 'Biodiversity and Medicines', UCL School of Pharmacy, UK
  9. Eric Brand School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, China
  10. Robert Bye Jardín Botánico del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
  11. Salvador Cañigueral Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
  12. Sushil K. Chaudhary School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, India
  13. Sofie Clais Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  14. Geoffrey A. Cordell Natural Products Inc., USA
  15. Paul Cos Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  16. Marianne J. Datiles Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy/Research Cluster Biodiversity and Medicines, UCL School of Pharmacy, UK
  17. Hugo de Boer Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden University, The Netherlands, and Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden, and The Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway
  18. Pratip K. Debnath Gananath Sen Institute of Ayurveda and Research, India
  19. Gunter P. Eckert Goethe-University, Campus Riedberg, Department of Pharmacology, Germany
  20. Thomas Efferth Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany
  21. Elaine Elisabetsky Labratório de Etnofarmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  22. José Fajardo Instituto Botánico, Jardín Botánico de Castilla La Mancha, Spain, and Universidad Popular, Spain
  23. Jorge García-Alvarez Department of Cell Biology, School of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
  24. Bertrand Graz Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
  25. Andreas Hensel Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Germany
  26. Henry J. Greten Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Porto, Portugal, and Heidelberg School of Chinese Medicine, Germany
  27. Ping Guo School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, China
  28. Michael Heinrich Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy/Research Cluster Biodiversity and Medicines, UCL School of Pharmacy, University of London, London, UK
  29. Alan Hesketh Indigena Biodiversity Limited, London, UK
  30. Vernon H. Heywood School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK
  31. Peter J. Houghton Department of Pharmacy and Forensic Science, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
  32. Anna K. Jäger Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medicinal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  33. Emelia Kisseih Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Germany
  34. Ellen Lanckacker Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  35. Andreas Lardos Research Cluster Biodiversity and Medicines/Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK
  36. Marco Leonti Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy
  37. Matthias Lechtenberg Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Germany
  38. Graham Lloyd Jones Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals Group, Centre for Bioactive Discovery in Health and Ageing, University of New England Armidale, Australia
  39. Emerson Silva Lima Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Brasil
  40. Edelmira Linares Jardín Botánico del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
  41. Natchagorn Lumlerdkij Center of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand, and Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy/Research Cluster Biodiversity and Medicines, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK
  42. Louis Maes Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  43. Daniel E. Moerman William E Stirton Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, University of Michigan-Dearborn, USA
  44. Mack Moyo Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  45. Pulok K Mukherjee School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, India
  46. Concepción Obón Depto. de Biología Aplicada, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela. Universidad Miguel Hernández, Spain
  47. Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana Departamento de Biología (Botánica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
  48. Frank Petereit Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Germany
  49. Andrea Pieroni University of Gastronomic Sciences, Italy
  50. Jose M. Prieto Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy/Research Cluster Biodiversity and Medicines, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK
  51. Cassandra L. Quave Center for the Study of Human Health, Emory University, USA, and Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, USA
  52. Diego Rivera Depto. Biología Vegetal, Fac. Biología, Universidad de Murcia, Spain
  53. Jaume Sanz-Biset Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
  54. Nicholas J. Sadgrove Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals Group, Centre for Bioactive Discovery in Health and Ageing, University of New England Armidale, Australia
  55. Ean-Jeong Seo Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany
  56. Renata Sõukand Estonian Literary Museum, Estonia
  57. Dan Staerk Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  58. Alexandra Towns Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden University, The Netherlands
  59. Arturo Valdés Instituto Botánico, Jardín Botánico de Castilla La Mancha, Spain
  60. José Ramón Vallejo Depto. de Terapéutica Médico-Quirúrgica, Fac. de Medicina, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain
  61. Tinde van Andel Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden University, The Netherlands
  62. Johannes van Staden Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Scottsville 3209, South Africa
  63. Ina Vandebroek Matthew Calbraith Perry Assistant Curator of Economic Botany and Caribbean Program Director, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, USA
  64. Alonso Verde Instituto Los Olmos, Albacete. Spain, and Instituto Botánico, Jardín Botánico de Castilla La Mancha, Spain
  65. Joachim Møllesøe Vinther Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  66. Caroline S. Weckerle Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zürich, Switzerland
  67. Merlin Willcox Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK
  68. Elizabeth M. Williamson The School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, UK
  69. Colin W. Wright Bradford School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, UK
  70. Ching-Fen Wu Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany
  71. Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet...

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