Brain Metastases from Primary Tumors, Volume 3

Epidemiology, Biology, and Therapy of Melanoma and Other Cancers
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. April 2016
  • |
  • 384 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-803559-7 (ISBN)
 

Brain Metastases from Primary Tumors Volume Three: Epidemiology, Biology, and Therapy of Melanoma and Other Cancers provides a comprehensive overview of the metastasis of cancer, the main cause of approximately 90% of cancer associated deaths, yet the mechanisms governing this clinically important process remain poorly understood.

Melanoma is the third most common diagnosis among patients with brain metastases, after lung and breast cancer. Approximately 75% of patients with metastatic melanoma develop brain metastases during the course of their disease. Although tumorigenesis of melanoma remains poorly understood, recent advances in gene expression profiling have revealed molecular mechanisms of this deadly disease. In addition, high-throughput gene expression has many advantages over techniques in cancer transcriptomic studies and has led to the discovery of numerous diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets, which are also detailed in this book.

The book discusses the link between primary tumors and brain metastasis of melanoma, including molecular mechanisms, treatment options, prognosis, and general applications. Comprehensive chapters discuss systemic therapy, integrin inhibitors, stereotaxic radiosurgery, and more, making this book a great resource for neurooncologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, and cancer researchers.


  • Presents the only comprehensive reference detailing the link between primary cancers and brain metastases in melanoma
  • Aids the target audience in discussing various treatment options for patients with brain metastases from melanoma
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe - the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 9,93 MB
978-0-12-803559-7 (9780128035597)
0128035595 (0128035595)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Brain Metastases from Primary Tumors
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • Volume 1-Contributions
  • Volume 2-Contributions
  • I. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS
  • 1 Introduction
  • Melanoma
  • Treatment
  • Breast Cancer
  • Treatment
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Treatment
  • References
  • 2 The Management and Biology of Metastatic Cancers to the Brain
  • Introduction
  • BBB Structure
  • Molecular Changes in the BBB with Metastatic Lesions
  • The Role of P-Glycoprotein
  • Local and Supportive Treatments
  • Systemic and Targeted Therapies
  • General Principles
  • Breast Cancer
  • Lung Adenocarcinoma
  • Melanoma
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 3 Melanoma Metastases Are Underrepresented in Cerebellum Compared with Metastases from Colorectal Cancers
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • The Pathogenesis of Brain Metastasis
  • Histology of Primary Cancer
  • Cerebellar Metastases
  • The Oslo University Hospital Experience
  • Clinical Setting
  • Statistics
  • Origin of Primary Tumor
  • Incidence of Cerebellar versus Supratentorial Brain Metastases
  • Incidence of Cerebellar Malignant Melanomas Metastases
  • Incidence of Cerebellar Colorectal Cancer Metastases
  • Discussion
  • Malignant Melanomas
  • Coloectal Cancers
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 4 Risk Reductions of Recurrence and Mortality in Melanoma Patients Using IFN-a
  • Introduction
  • Interferon-a: Biology and Clinical Applications in Cancer
  • Studies of IFN-a in Stage IV Inoperable Melanoma
  • Adjuvant IFN-a Trials in Melanoma
  • High Dose IFN-a Trials
  • Other IFN-a Studies That Evaluated Varying Dose Levels, Routes, and Duration
  • Meta-analyses of IFN-a Trials
  • Adjuvant Trials Testing IFN-a in Combination
  • Neoadjuvant IFN-a and Other Agents in Melanoma
  • Biomarkers of Clinical Benefit with IFN-a
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 Brain Metastases from Melanoma
  • Introduction
  • Surgery for Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Historical Role of Surgery for Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Current Indications for Surgical Management of Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Technical Aspects of Surgical Resection of Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Complications Following Surgical Resection of Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Radiation Therapy for Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Single Metastasis or Oligometastatic Disease: The Role of Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Single Metastases or Oligometastatic Disease: The Role of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy in Melanoma After Local Treatment o ...
  • Minimizing the Risk of Neurological Deficit Following Whole Brain Radiation Therapy: Hippocampal Sparing
  • Multiple Metastases: The Role of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy
  • The Current Role of Radiation Therapy in Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Systemic Therapies for Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Chemotherapy
  • Small Molecule Targeted Therapies: BRAF, MEK, and KIT Inhibitors
  • BRAF Inhibitors: Dabrafenib and Vemurafenib
  • Immunotherapy
  • Interleukin-2
  • Check Point Inhibitors: CTLA-4 Inhibition and PD-1/PDL-1 Axis Inhibition
  • Suggested Approach to Management
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 6 Pathobiology of Brain Metastases: Molecular Mechanisms
  • Introduction
  • Pathobiology of Brain Metastasis
  • Cellular Heterogeneity and Proliferation
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Interaction with Tumor Stroma
  • Local Invasion
  • E-Cadherin-Catenin Complex and Integrins
  • Dissemination
  • Brain's Microenvironment
  • Reactive Oxygen Species and Brain Metastasis
  • Contribution of Systemic Immune Cells to Metastasis Proliferation on the Brain
  • Evolution in Brain Metastasis Animal Models
  • Genetics in Breast Cancer Brain Metastases
  • Genetics in Lung Cancer Brain Metastases
  • Epigenetics in Brain Metastases
  • microRNAs in Brain Metastases
  • Discussion
  • References
  • 7 Role of CDKN2A Mutations and Other Relevant Genes in Melanoma Predisposition
  • Introduction
  • High-Risk Melanoma Predisposition Genes
  • CDKN2A: Identification of the Major Melanoma Predisposition Gene
  • CDKN2A Mutations
  • CDK4
  • BAP1
  • Telomere Regulating Genes
  • TERT
  • POT1
  • Other Shelterin Complex Genes
  • Pigmentation Trait Genes
  • MC1R
  • MITF
  • Low Evidence Genes
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies on Melanoma Predisposition
  • Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8 The Role of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Malignant Melanoma
  • Introduction
  • Biology of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Physiological Role of RAGE
  • RAGE Structure and Isoforms
  • RAGE Signaling
  • RAGE in Melanoma
  • RAGE Ligands in Melanoma
  • Advanced Glycation End Products
  • High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein
  • S100 Proteins
  • S100B
  • S100A2
  • S100A4
  • S100A6
  • S100A8/A9
  • Other S100 Proteins
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 9 Hydrogen Sulfide Pathway and Cancer
  • Introduction
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Hydrogen Sulfide Synthesis, Metabolism, and General Functions
  • H2S and Cancer
  • Evidence for a Role of CBS and CSE in Cancer
  • CSE and Melanoma
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 10 Brain Metastasis from Esophageal Cancer
  • Introduction
  • Incidence
  • Clinical Presentations
  • Risk Factors
  • Histology
  • Diagnosis and Staging
  • Oncological Anatomy of Esophageal Cancer
  • Treatment
  • Surgical Resection
  • Whole Brain Radiation Therapy
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Combination Therapies
  • Prognosis and Survival
  • Summary and Future Directions
  • References
  • II. TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS
  • 11 Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma Patients Bearing c-Kit Mutation Using Imatinib Mesylate
  • Introduction
  • c-Kit Aberration in Melanoma and the Ethnic Differences
  • Efficacy of Imatinib in Melanoma Treatment
  • Toxicity of Imatinib in Treating Melanoma Patients
  • Resistance to Imatinib Treatment
  • Second Generation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
  • Perspective
  • References
  • 12 Optimal Selection of Targeted Therapies for Melanoma Patients: Role of theMitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway
  • Introduction
  • The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Molecular Classification of Melanoma
  • Treatment of BRAF Mutant Melanoma With BRAF Inhibitors
  • Treatment of BRAF Mutant Melanoma With MEK Inhibitor Monotherapy and in Combination With BRAF Inhibitors
  • Treatment of NRAS Mutant Melanoma
  • Treatment of KIT Mutant Melanoma
  • Sequencing Targeted Therapy With Immunotherapy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 13 Patients with Brain Metastases from Melanoma: Treatment with Surgery and Radiotherapy
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Predictors and Prognostic Factors of Melanoma Brain Metastasis
  • Surgical and Radiotherapeutic Treatment
  • Radiosurgery
  • Whole Brain Radiotherapy
  • Surgery
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 14 The Risks and Advantages of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy in Patients with Brain Metastases
  • Brain Metastasis Overview
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnosis/Prognosis
  • Medical Symptom Management
  • Corticosteroids
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Whole Brain Radiotherapy
  • Radiosensitizers
  • The Combination of Whole Brain Radiotherapy and Local Therapy (Surgery or Stereotactic Radiosurgery)
  • Randomized Surgical Resection Trials
  • Randomized Whole Brain Radiotherapy ± Stereotactic Radiosurgery Trials
  • Local Therapy (Surgery or Stereotactic Radiosurgery) ± Whole Brain Radiotherapy Trials
  • Patchell/University of Kentucky (Surgery, Single Lesion)
  • Muacevic/German (Surgery or SRS
  • 1 Lesion)
  • Aoyama/Japanese JROSG99-1 (SRS
  • 1-4 Lesions)
  • Chang/MDACC (SRS
  • 1-3 Lesions)
  • Kocher/EORTC 22952-26001 (Surgery or SRS
  • 1-3 Lesions)
  • Brown/NCCTG N0574 (SRS
  • 1-3 Lesions)
  • Local Therapy ± WBRT: Concluding Thoughts
  • References
  • 15 Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors with Intracranial Metastasis: Treatment Strategy and Review of the Literature
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Features of GISTs
  • Neuroradiological Findings
  • Histopathological Findings of GISTs
  • Genetic Diagnosis of GISTs
  • Treatment Strategy and Clinical Outcome
  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Treatment Outcomes
  • References
  • 16 Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer in Patients Receiving Trastuzumab
  • Introduction
  • HER2 Receptor
  • HER Family Receptors and Brain Metastases
  • Trastuzumab
  • Brain Metastases in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients
  • Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab in Adjuvant Setting
  • Brain Metastases in Advanced Breast Cancer Patients
  • Local Treatment of Brain Metastases
  • Anti-HER2 Therapy in Patients with Brain Metastases
  • Intrathecal Trastuzumab Administration for Leptomeningeal Metastases
  • Perspectives of Brain Metastases Prevention
  • Discussion
  • References
  • 17 Brain Metastases from Cutaneous Melanoma: Biology and its Implications for More Rational Therapeutic Approaches
  • Introduction
  • Challenges of Melanoma Brain Metastases in 2014
  • Overview and the "Old Wisdom"
  • How Do We Predict Melanoma Brain Metastases?
  • Established Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Translational Research Provides Insights About the Biology of Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Preclinical Studies in Melanoma Brain Metastases Learning Something More When "Burr-Hole" Surgery and Obtaining Tumor Tissu ...
  • In Vitro Studies Provide Significant Insights About Tumor-Glial Interactions
  • Preclinical Animal Models to Study Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases: Present and Future
  • Great Improvements Since 2011
  • The Future of the Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Brain Metastases
  • Where Does Radiation Therapy Fit into the Picture?
  • References
  • 18 Treatment of Brain Metastases from Ovarian and Endometrial Carcinomas Using Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Introduction
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery Technique
  • SRS for Ovarian Carcinoma
  • SRS for Endometrial Carcinoma
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 19 Prognostic Factors for Survival in Melanoma Patients with Brain Metastases
  • Introduction
  • Factors Associated with CNS Involvement by Melanoma
  • Prognostic Factors for OS in Melanoma Patients with Brain Metastases
  • Treatment-Specific Predictors of Outcomes in Melanoma Brain Metastasis Patients
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Surgery
  • Systemic Therapies for Melanoma Brain Metastases
  • Combining Radiation with Systemic Therapy
  • Discussion
  • References
  • 20 Management of Melanoma Therapy-Associated Toxicities
  • Introduction
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Anticytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Antibody
  • Anti-Programmed Death-1 Receptor Antibodies
  • Ipilimumab and Nivolumab in Combination
  • Immune-Related Adverse Events
  • Dermatitis
  • Diarrhea
  • Hepatitis
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Neuropathy
  • Pancreatitis
  • Pneumonitis
  • Renal Toxicity
  • Ocular Toxicity
  • Immunotherapy Treatment-Related Morbidity and Mortality
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Vemurafenib
  • Dabrafenib
  • Combination BRAF and MEK Inhibition
  • Targeted Therapy-Associated Adverse Events
  • Dermatologic Toxicity
  • Rash
  • Photosensitivity
  • Benign Squamoproliferative Lesions and Cutnaeous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia and Hyperkeratosis
  • Arthralgias
  • Pyrexia
  • Fatigue
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Cardiotoxicity
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • QTc Prolongation
  • Other Toxicities
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 21 Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer: Focus on Risk Factors, Treatment, and Clinical Outcome
  • Introduction
  • Risk Factors for Brain Metastases Development
  • Mechanisms of Brain Dissemination
  • Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients With Brain Metastases
  • Treatment of Brain Metastases
  • Loco-Regional Approach
  • Whole-Brain Radiotherapy
  • Surgical Resection
  • Stereotactic Radiotherapy
  • Systemic Approach
  • HER2-Positive Disease
  • Triple-Negative Disease
  • Luminal-Like Disease
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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