Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Volume 9: Human Diseases and Autophagosome
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. April 2016
  • |
  • 430 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-802951-0 (ISBN)
 

Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and forward-thinking, these books offer a valuable guide to both cellular processes while helping researchers to explore their potentially important connections.

Volume 9 emphasizes the role of autophagy in diseases, such as leukemia, antifungal and antibacterial immunity, and transplantation. This volume also explains in detail the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the formation of autophagosomes, including the progression of omegasomes to autophagosomes. This information is important because one of the major functions of autophagy is to degrade and eliminate excessive, old, and harmful materials from the cell. Autophagosomes receive these materials (cellular cargo) and transport them to lysosomes for degradation. Lysosomes contain the digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that breakdown proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. (self-digestion). To further explain this phenomenon, the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the formation of autophagosomes is discussed. ULK1 and Beclin 1 proteins are also important in the initial formation of autophagosomes, which are discussed. Because much of the early research in this area was carried out using yeast cells, the role of Golgi complex in the autophagosome formation in these cells is explained.

Volume 9 also includes an explanation of the role of autophagy-related gene ATG5 in cancer (e.g., gastrointestinal cancer). Paradoxically, autophagy is a 'double-edged sword," because it eliminates some pathogens, whereas it can be used by some intracellular pathogens to multiply and cause infection. This book is an asset to newcomers as a concise overview of the role of autophagy in necrosis and inflammation, while serving as an excellent reference for more experienced scientists and clinicians looking to update their knowledge.

Volumes in the Series

  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,35 MB
978-0-12-802951-0 (9780128029510)
012802951X (012802951X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Autophagy
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Mitophagy and Biogenesis
  • Autophagy and Cancer
  • Some Thoughts on Autophagy and Immunity
  • Autophagy: Friend or Foe?
  • Autophagy: If and When
  • What Happened When Autophagy Didn't
  • Sugar Isn't Always Sweet
  • Mitochondrial Mysteries
  • A Photo Is Static, An Instant in Time
  • Autophagy Subversion
  • Contents
  • Foreword by Roberta A. Gottlieb
  • Foreword by Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • Autophagy: Volume 1 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 2 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 3 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 4 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 5 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 6 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 7 - Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 8 - Contributions
  • I. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS
  • 1 Overview of Autophagy
  • Specific Functions of Autophagy (A Summary)
  • Autophagy in Normal Mammalian Cells
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Major Types of Autophagies
  • Macroautophagy (Autophagy)
  • Microautophagy
  • Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy
  • Autophagosome Formation
  • Autophagic Lysosome Reformation
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Methods
  • Abnormal Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • The Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum and Apoptosis
  • Autophagic Proteins
  • Protein Degradation Systems
  • Beclin-1
  • Nonautophagic Functions of Autophagy-Related Proteins
  • Microtubule-Associated Protein Light Chain 3
  • Aggrephagy
  • Aggresome, Ubiquitin Proteasome, and Autophagic Systems
  • Monitoring Autophagy
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
  • Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)
  • Role of Autophagy in Tumorigenesis and Cancer
  • Role of Autophagy in Immunity
  • Autophagy and Senescence
  • Role of Autophagy in Viral Defense and Replication
  • Role of Autophagy in Intracellular Bacterial Infection
  • Role of Autophagy in Heart Disease
  • Role of Autophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Cross-Talk Between Autophagy and Apoptosis
  • Autophagy and Ubiquitination
  • Autophagy and Necroptosis
  • Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission
  • Selective Autophagy
  • Allophagy
  • Axonophagy (Neuronal Autophagy)
  • Chromatophagy
  • Ciliophagy
  • Crinophagy
  • Exophagy
  • Glycophagy
  • Lipophagy
  • Lysophagy
  • Mitophagy
  • Nucleophagy
  • Pexophagy
  • Role of Pexophagy in Yeast
  • Reticulophagy
  • Ribophagy
  • Xenophagy
  • Zymophagy
  • References
  • 2 Autophagic Structures in Yeast
  • Introduction
  • Autophagic Bodies
  • Autophagosomes
  • Cvt Vesicles and Cvt Bodies
  • Pre-Autophagosomal Structure and Isolation Membranes
  • Pre-Autophagosomal Structure
  • PAS for Selective and Nonselective Autophagy
  • Isolation Membranes
  • Membrane Structures Involved in Pexophagy in P. pastoris
  • Atg9 Vesicles
  • Atg9 is an Integral Membrane Protein that Traffics through the Secretory Pathway
  • Atg9 Trafficking in Mutants of the Transport Protein Particle III Complex
  • Atg9 Trafficking in Mutants Defective in Golgi Functions
  • Atg9 Trafficking in Mutants Defective in Exocytic Secretion
  • PtdIns Phosphates in Atg9 Trafficking
  • Membrane Contact Sites Involved in Autophagy
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 3 Mitophagy: Sensors, Regulators, and Effectors
  • Introduction
  • PINK1-Parkin Mitophagy Pathway: A Partnership between Sensor and Regulator Proteins
  • Mitophagy Effectors
  • FUNDC1
  • NIX/BNIP3L
  • BNIP3
  • SMURF1
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 Regulation of Autophagy by Actin-Associated Signaling Pathways
  • Introduction
  • Roles for Actin in Autophagy: Evidence From Yeast
  • ROCK Regulation of Autophagosome Formation
  • ROCK Regulation of Beclin 1 for Autophagy Induction
  • Activation of Beclin 1 at the Actin Cytoskeleton
  • A Role for Myosin II During Early Stages of Autophagy
  • Role for Myosin VI During Late Stages of Autophagy Maturation
  • Role for Myosin VI During Early Autophagosome Formation
  • WASH Regulation of Endosome Trafficking
  • WASH Regulation of Ubiquitination
  • Convergence of WASH and Ambra1 Pathways
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 5 G2019S Mutation of LRRK2 Increases Autophagy via MEK/ERK Pathway
  • Introduction
  • Role of Autophagy in Parkinson's Disease
  • Genetic and Environmental Factors in PD
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2)
  • Protein Structure and Function of LRRK2
  • Pathogenic LRRK2 Mutations
  • LRRK2 G2019S
  • Role of LRRK2 in Autophagy
  • Autophagy Dysregulation in G2019S LRRK2
  • Susceptibility of G2019S LRRK2 Fibroblasts to MPP+
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 6 Cargo Proteins Facilitate the Formation of Transport Vesicles, but not Autophagosomes
  • Introduction
  • Cargo Proteins of the Cvt Pathway
  • Receptors for the Cvt Pathway
  • Mechanism of APE1 Targeting to the PAS
  • Cargo-Dependent Organization of the PAS and Formation of Transport Vesicles
  • Regulation of the Cvt Vesicle Formation
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 7 Absence of Bax and Bak: Implications for Autophagy and Alternative Mitochondrial Functions
  • Introduction
  • Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Pore Opening in Apoptosis
  • Function of Bax and Bak Proteins
  • Bax and Bak in Skeletal Muscle
  • Novel Mitochondrial Roles for Bax and Bak
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8 The Antiapoptotic Protein BCL-2 Has Also an Antiautophagy Role Through Beclin 1 Inhibition
  • Discovery of the Beclin 1-BCL-2 Interaction
  • Role and Regulation of the Beclin-1-BCL-2 Interaction in Autophagosome Formation
  • Regulation of the Beclin 1-BCL-2 Interaction by Extracellular Cues and Subsequent Posttranslational Modifications
  • Role of BCL-2 Intracellular Localization
  • The Beclin 1-BCL-2 Interaction Is Affected by Their Many Partners
  • Role of the Beclin-1-BCL-2 Interaction in Physiopathology
  • Cell Death
  • Exercise
  • Immunity/Virology
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Cancer
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 9 Organic Pollutant Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Blocks Autophagy Flux in Human He ...
  • Introduction
  • PFOS Blocked Autophagosome Degradation in HepG2 Cells
  • PFOS Caused Autophagosome Accumulation in HepG2 Cells
  • PFOS Increased the Expression of LC3-II and P62 in HepG2 Cells
  • Chloroquine Did Not Further Increased the Expression of LC3-II in LC3 Turnover Assay
  • PFOS Induced LMP in HepG2 Cells
  • PFOS Caused Autophagic Cell Death in HepG2 Cells
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • II. AUTOPHAGY AND CANCER
  • 10 Mutant p53 Located in the Cytoplasm Inhibits Autophagy
  • Introduction
  • Overview of the Autophagic Pathway
  • Mechanisms of Autophagy Regulation
  • Autophagy and Cancer Development
  • The Tumor Suppressor p53
  • p53 and Autophagy
  • Nuclear p53 and Autophagy Regulation
  • Cytoplasmic p53 and Autophagy Regulation
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 11 Role of Autophagy in Regulation Survival or Death of Cancer Cells
  • Introduction
  • Common Oncogenic Signals of Autophagy
  • TP53
  • Death-Associated Protein Kinase Family
  • ARF Isoforms
  • PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway
  • Stress Mediators: ROS, Ca2+, Mitochondrial, and ER Stress
  • Autophagy Regulates Survival of Cancer Cells
  • Activation of Autophagy in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival
  • Inhibition of Autophagy in Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival
  • Autophagic Cell Death in Cancer Cells
  • Autophagy Regulates Cancer Development
  • Anticancer Therapeutic Application of Autophagy
  • Discussion
  • References
  • 12 Regulation of Autophagy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: The Role of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Introduction
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: An Overview
  • Autophagy at a Glance
  • Basal Autophagy in CLL
  • The Role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway
  • The Role of CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling
  • The Role of the Antiapoptotic BCL-2 Family Proteins
  • The Role of p53
  • The Role of microRNAs
  • Evidence for Basal Autophagy as an Active Pro-Survival Process
  • Pharmacological Modulation of Autophagy in CLL
  • Activation of Autophagy as a Pro-Survival Mechanism in Primary CLL Cells
  • Activation of Autophagy as a Pro-Death Mechanism in Primary CLL Cells
  • Overview of HDAC Inhibitors and Their Anticancer Effects
  • Histone Acetylation and Deacetylation in Cancer
  • Classification of HDACs
  • Classification of HDAC Inhibitors
  • HDAC Inhibitors in Clinic and Clinical Trials for Anticancer Therapy
  • Anticancer Activity of HDAC Inhibitors
  • HDAC Inhibitors and Autophagy
  • Mechanisms of HDAC Inhibitor-Mediated Autophagy
  • The Pro-Death and Pro-Survival Effects of HDAC Inhibitor-Elicited Autophagy
  • HDAC Inhibitors as Autophagy Suppressors
  • Conclusions and Perspectives
  • References
  • 13 Improving the Survival of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Against Oxidative Stress in Transplantation: Role of Autophag ...
  • Introduction
  • Autophagy
  • Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
  • Stem Cell and Autophagy
  • Role of Autophagy Induction in MSCs Under Oxidative Stress
  • Dynamic Autophagic Flux in BMSCs Under Oxidative Stress
  • Prolonged Oxidative Exposure Enhances Apoptosis in BMSCs
  • Autophagy Manipulation Regulates the Cell Survival of BMSCs
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • III. AUTOPHAGY AND INFECTION
  • 14 Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Vacuolating Cytotoxin-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosi ...
  • Introduction
  • Identification of VacA-Binding Proteins
  • Confocal Microscopic Analysis of Cellular Localization of VacA and LRP1
  • LRP1 Mediates VacA-Induced Autophagy
  • LRP1 is Involved in VacA-Induced Apoptosis
  • Channel Activity of VacA Regulates Autophagy
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 15 Cytomegalovirus Blocks Autophagy During Infection of the Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Functional Relationship Betwe ...
  • Introduction
  • Animal and Cell Model for CMV Retinitis
  • Autophagy Response in MCMV-Infected RPE Cells
  • Autophagic Flux During MCMV Infection of RPE Cells
  • The Accumulation of Autophagic Vacuoles in MCMV-Infected RPE Cells
  • Rapamycin Regulates Autophagy and Cell Death
  • Rapamycin in MCMV-Infected RPE Cells
  • Rapamycin Induces Autophagy and Decreases Apoptosis During MCMV Retinitis
  • Discussion
  • References
  • 16 Unusual Functions for the Autophagy Machinery in Apicomplexan Parasites
  • Introduction
  • A Reduced ATG Repertoire in Apicomplexa
  • Evidences for a Canonical Autophagy Pathway
  • Unusual Localization and Function of ATG8 at the Apicoplast
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 17 Subversion of Innate Phagocytic Cells by Orientia tsutsugamushi
  • Introduction
  • Molecular and Cellular Interactions of O. tsutsugamushi with Host Cells
  • Interactions of O. tsutsugamushi with Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
  • Evasion of Cellular Autophagy by O. tsutsugamushi
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 18 Intracellular Bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum Induces Autophagy by Secreting Substrate Ats-1 that Neutralizes the Be ...
  • Introduction
  • The Atg14L-Beclin 1-Vps34 Autophagy Initiation Complex and Autophagy Induction
  • Ats-1 Binds Beclin 1 to Induce Autophagosome Formation
  • Autophagy Promotes A. phagocytophilum Infection
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 19 Host Autophagy in Antifungal Immunity
  • Introduction
  • Fungal Diseases
  • A Brief Introduction to Autophagy
  • Autophagy in Immunity
  • Pathogen Recognition and PRR Signaling
  • Phagocytosis
  • Microbial Killing
  • Cytokine Secretion
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Inflammation
  • Autophagy in Antifungal Immunity
  • Candida albicans
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Purified Fungal Molecules and Nonpathogenic Fungi
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Abbreviations and Glossary
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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