The essential guide to controlling and managing today's communicable diseases
The fourth edition of Communicable Disease Control and Health Protection Handbook offers public health workers of all kinds an authoritative and up-to-date guide to current protocols surrounding the identification and control of infectious diseases. With its concise, accessible design, the book is a practical tool that can be relied upon to explain topics ranging from the basic principles of communicable disease control to recent changes and innovations in health protection practice. Major syndromes and individual infections are insightfully addressed, while the authors also outline the WHO's international health regulations and the organizational arrangements in place in all EU nations.
New to the fourth edition are chapters on Ebola, the Zika virus, and other emerging pandemics. In addition, new writing on healthcare-associated infection, migrant and refugee health, and the importance of preparedness make this an essential and relevant text for all those in the field. This vital resource:
Reflects recent developments in the science and administration of health protection practice
Covers topics such as major syndromes, control of individual infections, main services and activities, arrangements for all European countries, and much more
Includes new chapters on the Zika virus, Schistosomiasis, Coronavirus including MERS + SARS, and Ebola
Follows a format designed for ease of use and everyday consultation
Created to provide public and environmental health practitioners, physicians, epidemiologists, infection control nurses, microbiologists and trainees with a straightforward - yet informative - resource, Communicable Disease Control and Health Protection Handbook is a practical companion for all those working the field today.
Copyright in bibliographic data and cover images is held by Nielsen Book Services Limited or by the publishers or by their respective licensors: all rights reserved.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Jeremy Hawker Consultant Epidemiologist, Field Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England; Honorary Professor, Universities of Liverpool, Warwick, and Staffordshire, UK.
Norman Begg Independent Vaccine Consultant; formerly GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium.
Ralf Reintjes Professor, Epidemiology and Public Health Surveillance, Hamburg, Germany; Adjunct Professor, Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Tampere, Finland.
Karl Ekdahl Head, Public Health Capacity and Communication Unit, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden.
Obaghe Edeghere Consultant Epidemiologist, Field Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, UK.
Jim van Steenbergen Independent Consultant; formerly Coordinator Communicable Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
About the authors ix
Section 1: Introduction
1.1 How to use this book 3
1.2 Basic concepts in the epidemiology of infectious disease 5
1.3 Basic concepts in the prevention of infection 8
1.4 Emergency risk communication 13
1.5 Health protection on-call 15
Section 2: Common topics
2.1 Meningitis and meningism 23
2.2 Gastrointestinal infection 26
2.3 Community acquired pneumonia 33
2.4 Rash in pregnancy 37
2.5 Rash and fever in children 39
2.6 Illness in returning travellers 41
2.7 Jaundice 43
2.8 Infection in the immunocompromised 44
Section 3: Diseases
3.1 Amoebic dysentery 51
3.2 Anthrax 52
3.3 Bacillus cereus 55
3.4 Botulism 57
3.5 Brucellosis 61
3.6 Campylobacter 63
3.7 Chickenpox and shingles (varicella-zoster infections) 67
3.8 Chikungunya 69
3.9 Chlamydia pneumoniae 71
3.10 Chlamydia trachomatis 72
3.11 Cholera 75
3.12 CJD and other human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies 77
3.13 Clostridium difficile 79
3.14 Clostridium perfringens 82
3.15 Coronavirus (including MERS and SARS) 84
3.16 Cryptosporidiosis 87
3.17 Cyclosporiasis 92
3.18 Cytomegalovirus 93
3.19 Dengue fever 94
3.20 Diphtheria 96
3.21 Enterococci,including Glycopeptide- Resistant Enterococci (GRE) 98
3.22 Enterovirus infections (including hand, foot and mouth disease) 100
3.23 Epstein- Barr Virus 103
3.24 Giardiasis, 104
3.25 Gram-negative bacteraemia (including carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) 106
3.26 Gonorrhoea, syphilis and other acute STIs 111
3.27 Hantavirus infection 118
3.28 Head lice 119
3.29 Helicobacter pylori 121
3.30 Hepatitis A 122
3.31 Hepatitis B 126
3.32 Hepatitis C 129
3.33 Hepatitis, delta 132
3.34 Hepatitis E 132
3.35 Herpes simplex 134
3.36 Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) 136
3.37 HIV 138
3.38 Influenza 143
3.39 Japanese B encephalitis 149
3.40 Legionellosis 149
3.41 Leprosy 152
3.42 Leptospirosis 153
3.43 Listeriosis 155
3.44 Lyme disease 158
3.45 Malaria 160
3.46 Measles 162
3.47 Meningococcal infection 165
3.48 MRSA (Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) 169
3.49 Mumps 173
3.50 Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection 174
3.51 Norovirus 175
3.52 Paratyphoid fever 179
3.53 Parvovirus B19 (fifth disease) 181
3.54 Plague 183
3.55 Pneumococcal infection 185
3.56 Poliomyelitis 188
3.57 Psittacosis 190
3.58 Q fever 192
3.59 Rabies 195
3.60 Relapsing fever 196
3.61 Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) 197
3.62 Ringworm 200
3.63 Rotavirus 204
3.64 Rubella 205
3.65 Salmonellosis 207
3.66 Scabies 211
3.67 Schistosomiasis 215
3.68 Shigellosis 216
3.69 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and other diarrhoeagenic E. coli 220
3.70 Smallpox 227
3.71 Staphylococcal food poisoning 229
3.72 Streptococcal infections 230
3.73 Tetanus 233
3.74 Threadworms 235
3.75 Tick- borne Encephalitis 236
3.76 Toxocariasis 237
3.77 Toxoplasmosis 238
3.78 Tuberculosis (and non-tuberculous mycobacteria) 239
3.79 Tularaemia 248
3.80 Typhoid fever 250
3.81 Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection 253
3.82 Viral haemorrhagic fevers, including Ebola 255
3.83 Warts and verrucae (and molluscum contagiosum) 258
3.84 West Nile virus 260
3.85 Whooping cough 261
3.86 Yellow fever 264
3.87 Yersiniosis 265
3.88 Zika virus infection 267
3.89 Other organisms 270
3.89.1 Bacteria 270
3.89.2 Rickettsia, including typhus and ehrlichia 270
3.89.3 Viruses 277
3.89.4 Protozoa 277
3.89.5 Helminths 282
3.89.6 Fungi and actinomycetes 288
3.89.7 Bites, stings, and venoms 288
3.89.8 Chemical food-borne illness 300
Section 4: Services and organisations
4.1 Surveillance of communicable disease 305
4.2 Managing infectious disease incidents and outbreaks 312
4.3 Community infection control 320
4.4 Hospital infection control 325
4.5 Antimicrobial stewardship 331
4.6 Risks to and from healthcare workers 334
4.7 Co-ordination of immunisation services 338
4.8 Co-ordination of sexual health services 343
4.9 Prevention of blood-borne viral infections 345
4.10 Co-ordination of services for tuberculosis control 350
4.11 Travel health 352
4.12 Migrant and refugee health 355
4.13 Emergency preparedness planning and response 359
4.14 Non- infectious environmental hazards 361
4.15 Managing acute chemical incidents 368
4.16 Managing acute radiation incidents 372
4.17 Deliberate release of biological, chemical or radiological hazards 375
4.18 Clinical governance and audit 384
4.19 Global health security 388
Section 5: Communicable disease control in Europe
5.1 WHO and International Health Regulations 393
5.2 Collaboration within the European Union 396
5.3 Detailed national example: organisational arrangements for health protection, England, 2017 398
5.4 Austria 402
5.5 Belgium 403
5.6 Bulgaria 405
5.7 Croatia 406
5.8 Cyprus 407
5.9 Czech Republic 407
5.10 Denmark 408
5.11 Estonia 410
5.12 Finland 411
5.13 France 412
5.14 Germany 414
5.15 Greece 415
5.16 Hungary 416
5.17 Iceland 417
5.18 Ireland 418
5.19 Italy 420
5.20 Latvia 421
5.21 Lithuania 422
5.22 Luxembourg 423
5.23 Malta 424
5.24 The Netherlands 425
5.25 Norway 427
5.26 Poland 428
5.27 Portugal 429
5.28 Romania 430
5.29 Slovakia 432
5.30 Slovenia 433
5.31 Spain 434
5.32 Sweden 435
5.33 Switzerland 437
5.34 United Kingdom 438
Appendix 1: Guidance documents and books 441
Blood-borne viruses (BBV) 441
Gastrointestinal infections 441
Imported infection and travel advice 442
Infection control and healthcare acquired infection 443
Legionnaires' disease 444
Meningitis and meningococcal infection 444
Preparedness planning 444
Vector-borne diseases 445
Websites containing infectious disease guidelines 446
1.1 How to use this book
This book is for those working in the field of communicable disease control (CDC) and health protection. It provides practical advice for specific situations and important background knowledge that underlies communicable disease control activities; therefore, it will be of interest to all these working in this broad field, including (but not exclusively) public health physicians, epidemiologists, public health nurses, other public health practitioners, infection control nurses, environmental health officers, microbiologists, general practitioners and policy makers at all levels, as well as students in medical, public health and related fields.
Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many important changes in CDC and health protection. The world has faced its first large multi-country epidemic of viral haemorrhagic fever and other new or re-emerging threats, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) have been identified. There have been successes, such as new vaccine programmes, improvements in knowledge, new evidence reviews, updating of consensus guidelines and new laboratory tests, particularly in relation to molecular epidemiology. The combination of these with administrative changes in the European Union (EU) and in member countries like the UK has led to major revisions in the content of this Handbook.
The structure of the book is as follows:
Section 1 contains important background material. Chapters 1.2 and 1.3 run through the basic principles of transmission and control that underlie later chapters. Chapter 1.4 provides the basics of how action resulting from that knowledge can be communicated to those who need to know and Chapter 1.5 is aimed primarily at those who undertake on-call duties: in this chapter we assume that some may not practice in mainstream communicable disease control or health protection or may be in training and are undertaking health protection response duties for the first time.
Section 2 addresses topics in the way they often present to CDC staff in the field, that is, as syndrome-related topics rather than organism based, such as an outbreak of gastroenteritis of (as yet) undetermined cause, or a needlestick injury. In these chapters, we discuss the differential diagnosis (infectious and non-infectious), including how to decide the most likely cause based on relative incidence, clinical and epidemiological differences and laboratory tests. We also give general advice on prevention and control, including how to respond to a case or cluster when the organism responsible is not yet known.
Section 3 addresses communicable disease control in a more traditional way, by disease/organism. We have continued to make these chapters suitable for a pan-European audience, using EU-wide data and policies where these exist. We have used England and Wales (or the UK if appropriate) as an example in other instances: for differences relating to surveillance and control in other countries, the relevant country specific chapter in Section 5 should be consulted (e.g. those working in Germany should consult Chapter 5.14).
The chapters in Section 3 conform to a standard pattern, which we hope will make instant reference easier. Most chapters are ordered as follows:
- A short introduction mentioning the syndrome(s) common synonyms and the main public health implications of the organism.
- A box of suggested on-call action. This relates only to what needs to be done if cases are reported outside normal office hours. Further action may be needed during the next working day, which will be identified in 'response to a case'.
- Epidemiology gives the relevant points on burden of disease; important differences by age/sex/season/year/risk group are given and important differences within Europe are noted.
- Two sections deal with diagnosis of the infection: clinical features and laboratory confirmation. Both sections highlight the important points to practising CDC professionals. They are not meant as a substitute for clinical and microbiological textbooks.
- Transmission details the main sources, reservoirs, vehicles and routes of spread of the organism. The main aim of this section is to give the investigator clues as to how a case or outbreak may have arisen to aid identification and control.
- Acquisition deals with the incubation period, infectious period (if communicable), infective dose (if known) and any important factors affecting immunity or susceptibility.
- The final five sections relate to control of infection. These are based on current available guidance and evidence: where this is unclear, they are often based on practice in the UK, our assessments of the evidence base, our understanding of good public health practice and the application of first principles. These sections are:
- actions likely to be effective in the prevention of infection,
- surveillance activities relevant to the organism,
- suggested public health actions to be taken in response to a case,
- suggested approach to an investigation of a cluster of cases of that organism, and suggested actions to help in control of an outbreak, including a suggested case-definition for use in an epidemiological study.
Diseases that are generally less of a public health issue in Europe are summarised in the tables at the end of Section 3. Some infections may also be mentioned in relevant chapters in Section 2 and in chapters in Section 3 covering related organisms (e.g. information on other diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli is given in a table in the chapter on Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC)): please check the index for these.
Section 4 refers to the organisation of CDC/Health Protection services and could be titled 'how to run a CDC service'. For the authors who have worked as Consultants in CDC, this is the textbook that we wished we'd had on appointment! It deals with the services that a CDC department is expected to provide, including the non-communicable disease functions that have been attached to the health protection role in some countries. Some of those chapters are UK focused, although this has been reduced and we try to draw out the general principles underlying each approach, so that most will be of equal use to European colleagues.
Section 5 gives a brief overview of structures for infectious disease notification and public health action internationally and in each EU/European Economic Area (EEA) country. The objective of this section is to allow an orientation on public health structures relevant for infectious disease control in various European countries and to offer a starting point for further information on individual countries. Lengthy descriptions have been avoided, but internet addresses for contact points in the countries and for further information, reports and data have been given.
Finally the appendix and two lists of useful websites detail further sources of information and advice for those undertaking CDC functions routinely or on-call. Please note that the information and suggestions given in this book are not meant to override existing national or international guidelines; please also note that the information is a snapshot of the situation at the time of writing and that further data or advice will become available after writing. It is always sensible to check your national country website for up-to-date guidelines to inform public health action: if there are no national guidelines, then the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) may give EU-wide guidance and other national centre (e.g. Public Health England [PHE]) or other authoritative websites may have something that can be applied to your situation. For this reason, the lists of websites have been placed inside the front and back covers for easy reference.
We are indebted to a number of individuals who have helped us in preparing this book, most obviously Iain Blair and Julius Weinberg, who were co-authors on the first three editions and helped to prepare such excellent foundations for this edition. Others helped by commenting on specific chapters, including Orlando Cenciarelli, Eulalia Peris, Geneviève van Liere, Marga Goris, Joost van Hommerig and numerous advisors for the country-specific chapters, including Franz Allerberger and Peter Kreidl (Austria), Sophie Quoilin (Belgium), Angel Kunchev (Bulgaria), Aleksandar Simunovic (Croatia), Irene Cotter (Cyprus), Jan Kyncl (Czech Republic), Kåre Mølbak (Denmark), Tiiu Aro (Estonia), Mika Salminen (Finland), Anne-Catherine Viso (France), Sotirios Tsiodras (Greece), Ágnes Csohan (Hungary), Guðrún Sigmundsdottir (Iceland), Derval Igoe (Ireland), Silvia Declich (Italy), Irina Lucenko (Latvia), Loreta Asokliene (Lithuania), Jean-Claude Schmit (Luxemburg), Tanya Melillo Fenech (Malta), Frode Forland (Norway), Malgorzata Sadkowska-Todys (Poland), Paula Vasconcelos (Portugal), Florin Popovici (Romania), Dagmar Némethová and Jan Mikas (Slovak Republic), Irena Klavs (Slovenia), Isabel Noguer (Spain), Anders Tegnell and Mårten Kivi (Sweden), and Daniel Koch and Patricia...
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