Essential Skills for a Medical Teacher

An Introduction to Teaching and Learning in Medicine
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 25. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 290 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-6959-8 (ISBN)
 

Essential Skills for a Medical Teacher is a perfect introduction for new teachers to the exciting opportunities facing them, whether they are working in undergraduate, postgraduate or continuing education. It will also be of considerable use to more experienced teachers to review and assess their own practice and gain a new perspective on how best to facilitate their students' or trainees' learning. The contents are based on the authors' extensive experience of what works in medical education, whether in teaching and curriculum planning or in the organisation of faculty development courses in medical education at basic and advanced levels.

  • The text provides hints drawn from practical experience to help teachers create powerful learning opportunities for their students, providing readable guidelines and introducing new techniques that potentially could be adopted for use in any teaching programme.

  • Throughout the book introduces some key basic principles that underpin the practical advice that is given and which will help to inform teaching practice.

  • This book will assist readers to reflect on and analyse with colleagues the different ways that their work as a teacher or trainer can be approached and how their student or trainee's learning can be made more effective.
  • Medical Education is changing rapidly and this new edition takes full account of a number of important recent developments.

  • The text is fully updated after a thorough review of the medical education literature.

  • Five new chapters are incorporated:

    • The teacher is important

    • Collaborations in the delivery of the education programme

    • The authentic curriculum

    • Student engagement

    • Inter-professional education

    • New concepts added to the book include:

      • Content specification as 'threshold' concepts

      • Entrustable professional activities as an approach to outcomes

      • Longitudinal integrated clinical clerkships as part of clinical teaching

      • Integration of basic and clinical sciences

      • Refinement and expansion of the FAIR principles

      • Additional references to further reading.
      • Englisch
      • London
      Elsevier Health Sciences
      • 9,02 MB
      978-0-7020-6959-8 (9780702069598)
      0702069590 (0702069590)
      weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
      • Front Cover
      • Essential Skills for a Medical Teacher
      • Copyright Page
      • Table Of Contents
      • Foreword
      • Preface
      • About the Authors
      • Acknowledgements
      • 1 The 'Good Teacher'
      • Section 1 text
      • 1 The teacher is important
      • The curriculum, the student and the teacher
      • The teacher matters
      • The necessary attributes can be learned
      • Motivation for teaching
      • 2 The different faces of a good teacher
      • What is required of a good teacher
      • The good teacher embodies a range of abilities
      • The technical competencies of a good teacher
      • How a good teacher approaches their work
      • The good teacher as a professional
      • 3 Understanding basic educational principles
      • Be FAIR to your students
      • Feedback
      • Activity
      • Individualisation
      • Relevance
      • 4 Being an enthusiastic and passionate teacher
      • What is a passionate teacher?
      • Does it matter?
      • Every teacher can be a passionate teacher
      • Teacher stress and burn out
      • 5 Knowing what works best
      • A 'PHOG' approach
      • Evidence-informed teaching
      • What is evidence?
      • Searching for evidence
      • Evaluating evidence
      • Best evidence medical education
      • Judgement, intuition and teaching
      • 6 Collaborating and working as a team
      • Collaboration is important
      • Collaboration between teachers within a medical school
      • Collaboration with others within your institution
      • Collaboration between the different phases of medical education
      • Collaboration with other healthcare professionals
      • Collaboration with other stakeholders
      • Collaboration between teachers with the responsibility for a similar programme locally, nationally or internationally
      • Collaboration in practice
      • 7 Checking your performance as a teacher and keeping up to date
      • Teaching as a professional activity
      • Enquiring into your own competence
      • Keeping up to date
      • Scholarship in teaching
      • 2 What the Student Should Learn
      • Section 2 text
      • 8 The move to an outcome/competency-based approach
      • An important trend in medical education
      • What is outcome/competency-based education?
      • Why an outcome/competency-based approach?
      • Myths and concerns about OBE
      • Myth One: OBE is concerned with detail and the big picture may be missed
      • Myth Two: OBE is a threat to the autonomy of the teacher and removes their freedom and independence
      • Myth Three: OBE is contrary to trends in medical education
      • Myth Four: OBE is about minimum competence and excellence is ignored
      • Myth Five: OBE is labour-intensive and the time required cannot be justified
      • Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs)
      • What is an EPA?
      • Granularity and EPAs
      • Relationship between an EPA and learner outcomes and competencies
      • EPAs and specification of the level of supervision
      • EPAs and the curriculum
      • 9 Specifying the learning outcomes and competencies
      • Who is responsible?
      • Involvement of stakeholders
      • Approaches that can be adopted
      • Focus group and nominal group technique
      • The Delphi technique
      • A critical incident survey
      • Studies of errors in practice
      • Task analysis
      • Interviews with recent graduates
      • Study of existing curricula and publications
      • A mixed economy
      • 10 Describing and communicating the learning outcomes and competencies
      • Learning frameworks
      • Criteria for a learning outcome framework
      • The Dundee three-circle outcome model and the 'Scottish Doctor' framework
      • The CanMEDS Physician Competency Framework
      • The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)
      • The Brown Abilities
      • Global Minimum Essential Requirements (GMER)
      • General Medical Council UK
      • 11 Implementing an outcome-based approach in practice
      • The ostriches, the peacocks and the beavers
      • Implementing an OBE programme
      • Student progression in an OBE curriculum
      • Implementation guidelines
      • An OBE implementation inventory
      • 3 Curriculum Development
      • Section 3 text
      • 12 The 'authentic' curriculum
      • The concept of a curriculum
      • The 'authentic' curriculum - from university to the real world
      • The planned, the delivered and the learned curriculum
      • 13 Ten questions to ask when planning a curriculum
      • The ten questions
      • What is the medical school or training programme's vision or mission?
      • What are the expected learning outcomes?
      • What content should be included?
      • How should the content be organised?
      • What educational strategies should be adopted?
      • Student-centred/teacher-centred
      • Presentation-based/information-orientated
      • Integrated/discipline-based
      • Community-based/hospital-based
      • Elective/uniform
      • Systematic (planned)/apprenticeship (opportunistic)
      • What teaching methods should be used?
      • The teacher's toolkit
      • How should assessment be carried out?
      • How should details of the curriculum be communicated?
      • What educational environment or climate should be fostered?
      • How should the process be managed?
      • 14 Sequencing curriculum content and the spiral curriculum
      • The importance of sequencing
      • Guidelines for sequencing
      • Basic and clinical sciences
      • A spiral curriculum
      • Progression
      • Transition between courses
      • 15 Student engagement and a student-centred approach
      • The move from teacher-centred to student-centred learning
      • Reasons for the move
      • What is student-centred learning?
      • Students take responsibility for their own learning
      • Study guides
      • Learning is personalised to the needs of the individual student
      • A shift of power relationship from the teacher to the student
      • 16 Building learning around clinical problems and presentations
      • The importance of the clinical problem in student learning
      • Problem-based learning (PBL)
      • What is PBL?
      • The PBL continuum
      • The context for PBL
      • Task-based learning (TkBL)
      • What is task-based learning?
      • TkBL in a clinical setting
      • Implementation of TkBL
      • Clinical presentations
      • A curriculum cube
      • 17 Using an integrated approach
      • A move to an integrated curriculum
      • Advantages of integration
      • Focus for integration
      • The integration continuum
      • Step 1 - Isolation
      • Step 2 - Awareness
      • Step 3 - Harmonisation
      • Step 4 - Nesting
      • Step 5 - Temporal coordination
      • Step 6 - Sharing
      • Step 7 - Correlation
      • Step 8 - Complementary
      • Step 9 - Multi-disciplinary
      • Step 10 - Inter-disciplinary
      • Step 11 - Trans-disciplinary
      • 18 Interprofessional education (IPE)
      • A move to IPE
      • Principles of interprofessional learning
      • Continuum of interprofessional education
      • Implementation in practice
      • A vision for IPE
      • An implementation strategy
      • Tackling a negative mindset
      • 19 The apprenticeship, community-based education, longitudinal clinical clerkships and work-based learning
      • The apprenticeship model
      • Trends in curriculum planning
      • Community-based education
      • What is community-based education?
      • Rationale for community-based education
      • Urban and rural settings
      • Implementation of community-based learning
      • Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs)
      • The problem with the traditional clinical clerkships
      • Features of a LIC
      • Implementation of LICs
      • Work-based learning
      • What is work-based learning?
      • Principles of work-based learning
      • Advantages of WBL
      • Implementation of WBL
      • Problems and pitfalls of WBL
      • 20 Responding to information overload and building options into a core curriculum with threshold concepts
      • The problem of information overload
      • Responding to the problem
      • A core curriculum with options or student-selected components
      • Advantages of a core curriculum with SSCs
      • Specification of a core curriculum
      • Threshold concepts
      • Key characteristics
      • The importance of threshold concepts
      • Electives/SSCs
      • Choice of SSC topics
      • Assessment of SSCs
      • Integration of SSCs with the core
      • 21 Recognising the importance of the education environment
      • What is the learning environment
      • The education climate is important
      • Aspects of the education environment
      • Collaborative or competitive orientation
      • Student or teacher orientation
      • Supportive or punitive orientation
      • Community or hospital orientation
      • Research or teaching orientation
      • The effects of the environment
      • Assessment of the education environment
      • The use of environment measures
      • 22 Mapping the curriculum
      • The need for a curriculum map
      • What is a curriculum map?
      • Curriculum mapping is on today's agenda
      • Potential users of the curriculum map
      • Preparing a curriculum map
      • 4 Styles of Teaching
      • Section 4 text
      • 23 The lecture and teaching with large groups
      • The use of lectures
      • Problems with lectures
      • When to use lectures
      • Delivering a good lecture
      • Get some facts in advance
      • Think about the content and structure
      • The introduction to the lecture
      • Visual aids
      • Engaging the audience
      • The close of the lecture
      • Handouts
      • Students' presence and behaviour at lectures
      • The 'flipped classroom'
      • What is a 'flipped classroom'?
      • Application in medical education
      • Advantages and disadvantages of the flipped classroom
      • Implementation in practice
      • 24 Learning in small groups
      • What is small group teaching
      • Role of small group teaching
      • Advantages of small group teaching
      • Problems with small group teaching
      • Techniques used in small group work
      • Implementing small group work
      • Before a small group activity
      • During a small group activity
      • After the small group activity
      • Team-based learning (TBL)
      • What is TBL?
      • Implementation of TBL
      • 25 Independent learning
      • The importance of independent learning
      • Benefits for the student
      • Independent learning in the curriculum
      • Time allocated for independent learning and scheduling in the curriculum
      • Directed self-learning and the role of the teacher
      • Study guides
      • Learning resources
      • 26 Teaching and learning in the clinical context
      • Changing perceptions of clinical teaching
      • The student
      • The teacher
      • The patient
      • Teaching procedural skills
      • Student progression
      • Planning and implementing
      • Clinical supervision
      • 27 Simulation of the clinical experience
      • Reasons for simulation
      • Simulating 'real' patients
      • Simulated patients
      • Recruiting and training simulated patients
      • Simulators (manikins and models)
      • Virtual patients
      • Uses of virtual patients
      • Advantages of using virtual patients
      • Choice of simulation
      • Clinical skills centres
      • 28 E-learning
      • A move to e-learning
      • E-learning activities
      • Reasons for adopting e-learning
      • Educational features
      • Distributed and distance learning
      • Blended learning
      • E-learning - the educational strategies
      • 29 Peer and collaborative learning
      • Recognition of peer-to-peer (P2P) learning
      • P2P learning
      • Collaborative learning
      • Examples of P2P and collaborative learning
      • Benefits to be gained by P2P and collaborative learning
      • Implementation in practice
      • P2P learning
      • Collaborative learning
      • 5 Assessment
      • Section 5 text
      • 30 Six questions to ask about assessment
      • The importance of assessment
      • Why assess the student?
      • Who should assess the student?
      • What should be assessed?
      • Competency-based assessment
      • How should the student be assessed?
      • Standard setting
      • Programmatic assessment
      • When should the student be assessed?
      • The progress test
      • Where should the student be assessed?
      • 31 Written and computer-based assessment
      • Written assessment has a role to play
      • The elements in a written assessment
      • The stimulus
      • The student's response
      • The assessment of a student's response
      • Standard setting
      • Types of written assessment
      • Essay questions
      • Short essay questions (SEQs)
      • Short answer questions (SAQs)
      • Multiple choice questions (MCQs)
      • Extended matching questions (EMQs)
      • Modified essay questions (MEQs)
      • Script concordance test (SCT)
      • Situational judgement tests (SJTs)
      • The technology
      • 32 Clinical and performance-based assessment
      • The importance of clinical assessment
      • The patient
      • 'Real' patients
      • Simulated patients
      • Simulators and models
      • Computer-based simulations
      • Approaches to clinical and performance assessment
      • The objective structured long examination record (OSLER)
      • The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)
      • Mini clinical evaluation exercise (Mini-CEX)
      • Direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS)
      • Case-based discussion (CbD)
      • Multi-source feedback (MSF) or 360 degrees evaluation
      • A portfolio
      • Implementing a clinical assessment
      • A blueprint
      • Selection of methods
      • The examiner
      • A student's profile
      • Feedback
      • 33 Portfolio assessment
      • What is a portfolio?
      • Why portfolios?
      • Advantages
      • Implementing portfolio assessment in practice
      • 34 Assessment for admission to medicine and postgraduate training
      • The importance of selection
      • Graduate or direct from school entry
      • Aims of selection
      • Criteria for selection methods
      • Choice of method
      • Academic record and performance at school
      • Autobiographical narrative
      • References
      • Interviews
      • The multiple mini-interview (MMI)
      • General mental ability and aptitude tests
      • Situational judgement tests (SJTs)
      • Personality inventories
      • Selection for admission to specialty training
      • 35 Evaluating the curriculum
      • Why evaluate the curriculum?
      • Focus for the evaluation
      • The CIPP approach
      • Value-added assessment
      • The 'ten questions' framework for curriculum evaluation
      • Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation
      • Undertaking a curriculum evaluation
      • Appendices
      • Appendices
      • Appendix 1 Entrustable Professional Activities (Epas) for Undergraduate Medical Education as Specified by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) (Greenberg, R., 2014. Core Entrustable Professional Activities for entering residency. https://www.aamc.org/cepaer)
      • Appendix 2 The Learning Outcomes for A Competent Practitioner Based on the Three-Circle Model (reproduced with permission from Harden et al., 1999. AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcome-based education Part 5)
      • Appendix 3 Four Dimensions of Student Progression (reproduced with permission from Harden, R.M., 2007. Learning outcomes as a tool to assess progression. Med. Teach. 29, 678-682)
      • Appendix 4 A Page from a Study Guide, 'Learning Paediatrics: A Training Guide for Senior House Officers' (reproduced with permission from Harden, R.M., Laidlaw, J.M., Hesketh, E.A., 1999. Study guides - their use and preparation. AMEE Medical Education Guide No. 16. Med. Teach. 21, 248-265)
      • Appendix 5 Summary of Various Points in the Continuum Between a Problem-Based Approach and an Information-Oriented Approach 'Rul' is the rules or principles to be learned. 'Eg' is the problem or clinical example addressed by the student. (Reproduced with permission. First published in Harden, R.M., Davis, M.H., 1998. The continuum of problem-based learning. Med. Teach. 20, 317-322)
      • Appendix 6 The Clinical Presentations That Provide A Framework for the Curriculum in Task-Based Learning (reproduced with permission from Harden, R.M., Crosby, J.R., Davis, M.H., et al., 2000. Task-based learning: the answer to integration and problem-based learning in the clinical years. Med. Educ. 34, 391-397)
      • Appendix 7 First Two Sections of The Learning Outcome/Tasks Mastery Grid for Vocational Training in Dentistry (reproduced from Mitchell, H.E., Harden, R.M., Laidlaw, I.M., 1999. Med. Teach. 20, 91-98)
      • Appenidx 8 Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) (reproduced with permission from McAleer, S., Roff, S., 2001. Curriculum, Climate, Quality and Change in Medical Education: A Unifying Perspective. AMEE Guide No. 23. Part 3 Appendix 1)
      • Appendix 9 Examples of OSCE Stations
      • Index
      • A
      • B
      • C
      • D
      • E
      • F
      • G
      • H
      • I
      • J
      • K
      • L
      • M
      • N
      • O
      • P
      • Q
      • R
      • S
      • T
      • U
      • V
      • W

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