Fabricating For Dummies

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. Mai 2018
  • |
  • 320 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-47408-1 (ISBN)
 
Work your way to fabricating success

People have been hammering metal into shields, cookware, and ceremonial headdresses for centuries, and fabrication continues to be a popular and growing industry today. Fabricating For Dummies provides you with all the information you need to begin learning about metalworking, or fill any gaps in your existing knowledge in order to advance your career.

Simply put, there's little out there for light reading on manufacturing. What's available is often quite expensive, so boring it puts you to sleep, or filled with so much technical gobbledygook that one's eyes glaze over within a few pages. This book offers a much-needed alternative, cutting through the jargon and getting right to the heart of what you need to know to take your fab skills to fabulous new heights.



Get a glimpse of the day in the life of a fab worker
Discover the different alloys, shapes, and sizes of sheet metal
Understand welding and joining processes
Master the use of press brakes, stamping presses, and turret punches

Whether you want to get your feet wet with waterjets, laser cutters, or hi-definition plasma cutters, there's something for you inside this hands-on book!
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 26,23 MB
978-1-119-47408-1 (9781119474081)

weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Kip Hanson is a freelance writer and manufacturing consultant. He has more than 600 published articles, including dozens of case studies and technical pieces on fabricating. He looks forward to continuing the work done in Machining For Dummies with this companion book, Fabricating For Dummies.
Introduction 1

About This Book 2

Foolish Assumptions 3

Icons Used in This Book 4

Beyond the Book 4

Where to Go from Here 5

Part 1: Fabricating Truths 7

Chapter 1: Manipulating Metal 9

Defining the Processes 10

Cutting up 10

Shearing specifics 11

Slitting success 12

Punching out 13

Boarding the Bending Express 15

Putting on the brakes 15

Forming opinions 16

Thinking progressively 17

Spinning in circles 17

Peeking at the Neighbors 18

Touring the machine shop 18

Wake up, it's time to get vertical 19

Reviewing the Rest 20

Thinking additively 20

Casting away 21

Forging partnerships 22

Honorable mentions 23

Embracing Mechanics 23

Bearing witness 23

Motoring about 24

Controlling motion 24

Mulling over the miscellany 25

Chapter 2: Looking Back at Fabricating History 27

Digging for Gold 28

Pounding progress 28

Hello, Bronze Age 29

Pumping Iron 30

Smelting success 30

Steeling for progress 31

Caring About Fabricating 34

Admiring appliances 34

Building tall buildings 35

Cruising about with cars 36

Heading out to sea 36

Lifting off with aircraft 36

Chapter 3: Getting to Know Materials 37

Pondering the Properties 38

Touching on the Elements 40

Reconnoitering the Metals Landscape 43

Steeling history 43

Carbon copying 44

Alluding to Alloys 46

Shining up with stainless steel 47

Supersize me 48

Tooling around 49

Riding the Gravy Train 50

Seeing red 51

Playing with polymers 52

Peeking Under the Sheets 53

Part 2: Making Metal Fabulous: The Processes 57

Chapter 4: Cutting Up 59

Eating Cake: Power Shears 60

Lasing About 62

Looking for problems 63

Beaming up 64

Do me a solid 64

Peeking over the edge 67

Firing Up 68

Beholding the Gantry 70

Watering Down 71

"We want to pump you up!" 72

Dirtying the water 73

Nozzles, schnozzles 74

Chapter 5: Bending Down 77

Bending History 78

Furiously folding 78

Wiping around 79

"Braking" Up Is Hard to Do 80

Coming to terms with press-brake terminology 81

Learning about the force 83

Diving Into Dies 85

Don't be pushy 86

Diversity in dies (and punches) 88

Backgauging the Bends 89

Crowning Is King 90

Calculating Conundrums 93

Accommodating Potter 93

Laying it all out 94

Chapter 6: Stamping About 97

Striking Gold 98

Don't be sore 98

Coffins to clutches 98

Decompressing Presses 99

Closing the gap 100

Laid back 100

Straight talking 101

Picking Up the Lingo 102

Taking Off the Covers 103

On the fly 103

Achieving happiness with hydraulics 105

Along came the servo 106

Feeding the Machine 107

Being Progressive 108

Let's pretend 109

Done in one 109

Chapter 7: Punching Out 113

Punching Madness 114

It's all about control 114

A matter of form 115

Exploring Operations 116

Picking Your Station 118

It's automatic 118

More tools, please 119

Getting a Grip 121

Deciphering Dies 122

Taking the Combo 123

Chapter 8: Fabricating Odds and Ends 127

Working Iron 128

Coping isn't hard 130

Drilling and more 131

Rolling 'Round 131

A Booming Success! 132

Piping Up 133

Keeping a schedule 134

Let's go tubing! 135

Buckle up 136

Of saddles and fish mouths 137

Squeezing in the Rest 138

Fantastic forging 138

Rolling your own 140

One ring to rule them all 141

Part 3: More Than Machinery: Digging in the Toolbox 143

Chapter 9: Tooling Up 145

Digging Metals 146

Carbide: The tooling superhero 146

Tool steel: Second best, not second rate 147

Setting Standards 149

Punching Through 152

A quick peek inside 153

Keep it clear 155

Keep it sharp 155

Keep an eye on things 156

Stamping and Stuff 156

Donning a Smooth, Slippery Coat 157

Wrapping Up 158

Chapter 10: Welding: Putting It All Together 161

Wondering About Welding 162

Doing Me a Solid (State) 164

Firing Up 165

Arcing Across 167

Marking the Spot 169

Getting Gassed Up 169

Shields up, Captain! 169

A smatter of spatter 171

In flux over flux 172

Choosing a Good Joint 173

Learning Safety with Jimmy 174

Chapter 11: Automating with Robots 177

Taking Robbie Apart 178

Effecting change 179

Teaching them a lesson 179

Leaning on the Tin Man 180

Pushing the limits with press brakes 181

Feeding the factory 181

Laying Down the Law 183

Gaining Flexibility with an FMS 185

Watching from Home 187

Avoiding Bad Actors 188

Chapter 12: Making Tools and Machining Parts 191

Touring the Tool and Die Department 192

The usual suspects 192

I'll take the combo 193

Facing the hard facts 194

Justifying their existence 194

Meeting a Few Machine Tools 194

Turning terrifically 195

Milling majestically 197

Staying Sharp with Cutting Tools 201

Spinning 'round: Rotary tools 201

Hold still: Stationary tools 202

Increasing Your Carbon Footprint with EDM 204

Sink or swim 205

Wired up 205

Grinding Is Groovy 207

Chapter 13: Going Soft(ware) 209

Unraveling Difficult Acronyms 210

Figuring Out File Formats 212

Coloring in the Lines 213

Abra-CAD-abra 213

Rhymes with ham 215

Going flat 216

Why nests aren't for birds 217

Modeling Reality 219

Your high school industrial arts project 219

The importance of a solid footing 219

Staring at Clouds 220

Eliminating Toolroom Chaos 221

Designing with an Eye to Production 223

Designing for manufacturability 223

It's elemental, Dear Watson 223

Herding the Shop Floor Cats with MES 224

Chapter 14: Embracing Quality 227

Giving a Rip About Quality 228

Showing tolerance 228

Dimensioning geometrically 230

Confusing characteristics 230

Internationalizing Your Standards 232

Shopping for Tape Measures 234

Touring the Inspection Room 237

Gaging success 238

Hello, Mr. Mic(rometer) 240

Filling up the metrology lab shopping cart 241

Letting Machines Do the Measuring 243

Decisions, decisions 244

Jumping at shadows 245

That's a Wrap 246

Chapter 15: Making Metal Parts Pretty 247

Assessing Abrasives 248

Wheeling About 251

I'm Bond . . . abrasive bond 252

Let's get small 254

Talking about Tools 256

More power! 256

Tools for the toolroom 258

Working 'em Like Dogs 260

Blasting Away 261

Of glass, shells, and stones 262

Getting all stressed out 263

Finishing Up 264

Part 4: The Part of Tens 267

Chapter 16: Ten Techie Things to Know About Fabricating 269

Joining the Revolution 270

Cruising the Clouds 271

Going Green 271

Getting Lighter 272

Getting Lost on the Paper Trail 273

Cutting the Wires 274

Viewing Machines Virtually 275

Manufacturing Additively 275

Embracing Automation 278

Leaning Out Your Shop 279

Chapter 17: (Almost) Ten Ways to Be a Better Fabricator 281

Changing Things Up 282

Adopting New Technology 283

Marketing Your Business Vertically 284

Shortening Setups, Increasing Uptime 285

Maintaining the Machine (and Tools) 287

Learning That Manufacturing Is Not a Dirty Word 288

Becoming Certifiable 289

Donning Some Cool Safety Shades 291

Keeping Your House in Order 293

Index 295

Introduction


Step onto the front porch. Take a look around. There's the teenager across the street, patiently pounding the quarter panels on her 1969 Volkswagen Beetle into shape, then sanding the metal bare so she can apply a little primer paint. That bug's going to be a beauty when she's done.

The kids two houses over are constructing a treehouse, nailing and screwing together the stray bits of sheet metal and scrap lumber found at the housing development five blocks down. Their arboreal creation is sure to block what's left of your sunset views. Have to talk to their dad about that.

And then there's the bridge project on the interstate. It's been going on all summer - the endless, inexplicable welding and cutting and pouring that promises to lop fifteen minutes off your commute when finished.

These are a few of the everyday examples of fabricating. It's going on all the time, all around us, and it's an important part of our lives. Without fabricating, there'd be no central air conditioning in our homes, no kitchen appliances, no car in the garage. None of that would really matter though, because modern day conveniences like gas stations and food processing plants wouldn't exist, let alone windows and doors on the house.

You might be able to catch a chicken for dinner and club it with a rock, but you'd need a stone knife to prepare the thing before you could huddle around the fire with the family to eat it. Strip malls and skyscrapers, farm tractors and fryer baskets, prescription drugs and polyester ski jackets . fabricating makes it all possible.

Even the paper airplanes you made as a kid (and might still be making). That's fabricating (albeit of paper rather than metal). Sewn a dress or made an Iron Man-like suit of armor? Yep, both fabricating. Spent all weekend assembling and then reassembling a metal shed because you didn't read the instructions the first time? That is an example of fabricating followed by reworking, an unpopular term in any fab shop.

Still, what exactly does "fabricate" mean? A quick Google search says it's a transitive verb (I shouldn't have slept through English class, as I'm still unsure about the transitive part) used to describe the following acts:

  • Inventing or concocting (something), typically with deceitful intent
  • Constructing or manufacturing (something, especially an industrial product), especially from prepared components

Well, the first definition doesn't apply at all to the fabricating I'm talking about. Sorry, Merriam-Webster. The only deceitful intent you might find in a fab shop is someone sneaking out a few minutes early on Friday for happy hour with his or her coworkers. As for the second description, the fabricating I discuss in this book is more about actually making those "prepared components" than it is about bolting or gluing or welding them together (although assembly is certainly a familiar process at most fab shops).

Granted, it's a broad term. Civic construction projects, autobody repair, bridge building, and pipeline laying - technically speaking, these fall into the general category called fabricating, and are performed by companies with fabricating as part of their business name, but much of that work falls outside the context of this book.

For the purposes of this book, "fabricating" and "fabrication" and sometimes just plain old "fab" are meant to describe that subset of metalworking concerned with forming, bending, cutting, drilling, finishing, and otherwise manipulating sheets of metal (tubes and pipes pop up occasionally as well, as does welding and even machining).

Whether you're looking for a new profession (one with plenty of eager employers) or just want to know how the heck refrigerators and jungle gyms are made, this book is for you. You'll find out about the machines that shape metal, the tools that slice and form it, the robots that lift it, the software that figures out the best way to process it, along with a few mandatory historical tidbits you can share with your friends in your Thursday night bowling league. So get reading.

About This Book


To borrow a cliché, fabricating has a lot of moving pieces. That's why Fabricating For Dummies is broken up into bite-sized ones. Part 1 provides a high-level overview of the different fabricating processes, the metals used in those processes, along with a little bit of metalworking history (but don't let that scare you). Part 2 dives deeper into the specifics of punch presses, stampers, and other fabricating equipment, while Part 3 talks about auxiliary topics such as automation, welding, and software. And of course, no For Dummies book would be complete without a Part of Tens, which in this case offers advice and information on a variety of manufacturing areas.

All in all, Fabricating For Dummies covers half a dozen or so distinct metalworking processes, along with measuring, painting, grinding, toolmaking, and a little machine-tool programming. There's even a little history inside, but you can skip those parts if you really don't care about the accomplishments of others.

I hope that's not true, though, because where would we be without Abraham Lincoln, John F. Kennedy, Alfred E. Neuman (What? Me worry?), and all the other important people without whom modern society wouldn't exist. The same goes for the men and women who work in our manufacturing plants every day, who bend, shape, cut, and assemble the products that make our lives safe and comfortable. You guys and gals are the best.

Foolish Assumptions


This book assumes you're interested in fabricating and metalworking. There are no prerequisite skills needed, such as being able to build a shed or having once straightened a dented fender on your lime green Kia Soul, to understand the concepts discussed herein. If you have been yelled at by your mom for using her manicure scissors to trim the dog's nails, you already have a leg up on fabricating (the first machine I ever ran was a shear, a 12-foot long version of mom's clippers). If you installed a garage door or cut and soldered some new pipes in the bathroom, better yet. Oh, and you should know the difference between metal and other everyday materials like plastic and wood (metal is the hard, shiny stuff).

And since the majority of all machines these days are controlled by computers, you hopefully know what one is, and understand that they are actually in charge of everything around us and will one day enslave all humanity. But that's years in the future. For now, knowing what I mean when I use geeky terms like "network" and "software" will see you through the book just fine.

Icons Used in This Book


My dad's full of good advice. Don't stand up in a canoe. Drink more water. If you can do something in less than five minutes, do it now. A fool who can keep his mouth shut is counted amongst the wise. You can outrun the cop, but not the radio (actually, I found this one out on my own). I can't compete with Dad's nine decades of wisdom, but once in a while I pull an anecdotal rabbit out of my hat like, "Write it down because you won't remember it in the morning." Keep an eye out for the Tip icon for more of these gems.

Manufacturing technology continues to become easier for us simple humans to master, but it's still pretty darn technical at times. For example, did you know that fiber lasers work best when nitrogen is used as an assist gas, or that the tools used in turret punches should be demagnetized before use? See? That's what I mean. It's important information. That's why there are all these Technical Stuff icons scattered throughout the book.

They say elephants never forget. If I were an elephant, all the other elephants in the herd would make fun of me, because I can't remember Jack (or Jill, for that matter). If you, too, suffer from CRS (can't remember . stuff), feel free to lean on the Remember icons you'll find in the coming chapters (assuming I don't forget to put them in).

Machines have moving parts, often moving up and down faster than a seamstress's needle. Visit the Old Fabricators' Retirement Villa and you're sure to see plenty of truncated thumbs and more eye patches than at a pirate convention. Fortunately, fabricating has become far safer over the years, but that doesn't mean you should be careless. Watch for the Warning icons if you want to retire with all your digits.

Stop for red lights. Tip the waiters if you want good service next time. Let sleeping dogs lie (that might have been one of my dad's tidbits). Whatever the case, these are a few examples of life's important details, some of which are explained to us by friends and family, while others are learned through trial and error. In this book, be sure to read the information in Important Details if you want to avoid finding things out the hard way.

Beyond the Book


Can't get enough of fabricating? I get it, really, which is why this book comes with a free access-anywhere Cheat Sheet that offers additional tips on laser cutting, press brakes, welding, and robots, and how to get to the Old Fabricators' Retirement Villa safely. To get your very own copy of this Cheat Sheet...

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