Veterinary Toxicology

Basic and Clinical Principles
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 13. April 2018
  • |
  • 1238 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-811411-7 (ISBN)
 

Veterinary Toxicology, Basic and Clinical Principles, Third Edition, is a unique, single reference that teaches the basic principles of veterinary toxicology to any student at the DVM, MS or PhD level. While comparable texts are primarily directed on the field of human toxicology, this text thoroughly prepares toxicologists and students on the newest approaches for diagnosing chemical and plant poisoning cases in animals. Many chapters on topics not covered in any previous books are provided, such as target organ toxicity, radiation and radioactive materials, FDA regulatory issues, and ethics in veterinary toxicology.

Completely revised and updated to include the most recent developments in the field, including new toxins, methods and regions, this book is an essential resource for advanced students and researchers in toxicology, practicing veterinary toxicologists, poison control centers, marine biologists, environmentalists and animal scientists.

  • Provides a complete, up-to-date, integrated source of information on toxins and poisons relating to animals
  • Covers all important aspects of veterinary toxicology with completely updated and revised chapters
  • Includes basic principles of a key toxicology concept, along with clinical applications and a list of major references for further reading
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
  • 23,00 MB
978-0-12-811411-7 (9780128114117)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Veterinary Toxicology
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • I. General
  • 1 Concepts in Veterinary Toxicology
  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspective
  • Historical Events
  • Textbooks
  • Organizations
  • Evolution of Veterinary Toxicology
  • Roots in Veterinary Medicine and Toxicology
  • Emergence of Science-Based Toxicology
  • Toxicology Joined to the Risk Paradigm
  • A Framework for Acquiring Information
  • Linkages From Sources to Health Impacts
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Toxicodynamics
  • Veterinary Toxicology Is Multifaceted
  • Sources of Information
  • Case Observations in the Species of Interest
  • Epidemiological/Epizootiological Studies
  • Experimentation
  • Schematic Experimental Designs
  • Acquiring Toxicokinetic Data
  • Acquiring Exposure (Dose)-Response Data
  • Toxicologic Descriptors
  • Toxicology Rooted in Observations
  • Quantifying Exposure
  • Describing Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
  • Toxicant-Induced Responses
  • Describing Exposure-Response Relationships for Noncancer Endpoints
  • Cancer as an Endpoint
  • New Potential Endpoints
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • Postscript
  • References
  • 2 Epidemiology of Animal Poisonings in the United States
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Demographics
  • Dogs
  • Cats
  • Other Species
  • Agents Involved
  • Signs and Outcomes
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 3 Epidemiology of Animal Poisonings in Europe
  • Introduction
  • Species Involved
  • Toxic Classes
  • Nonmetals and Metalloids
  • Metals
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Other Metals and Inorganic Compounds
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides
  • Rodenticides
  • Other Pesticides
  • Oil
  • Feed-Associated Toxicants
  • Drugs and Related Compounds
  • Household Products
  • Toxins
  • Plants
  • Other Toxins
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 4 Epidemiology of Animal Poisonings in Asia
  • Introduction
  • Pesticides (Agrochemicals and Fertilizers)
  • Metals
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Mercury (Hg)
  • Arsenic (As)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Nonmetals and Metalloids
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Nitrate and Nitrite
  • Fluorosis
  • Drugs and Related Compounds
  • Mycotoxins
  • Household Products
  • Methyl Isocyanate (Union Carbide Plant Disaster in Bhopal)
  • Feed Associated Toxicants
  • Plastic Bags
  • Other Toxins
  • Radiation Effects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombs
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 5 Chemicals of Terrorism
  • Introduction
  • Chlorine Gas
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Phosgene
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Mustard Gas
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Lewisite
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Phosgene Oxime
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Cyanide and Hydrogen Cyanide
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Military Nerve Agents
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 6 Regulatory Considerations in Veterinary Toxicology: An FDA Perspective
  • Introduction
  • Brief History of the Food and Drug Administration
  • FDA Organization
  • FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine
  • Overview
  • Regulation of Animal Health Products: Jurisdiction Considerations and Regulatory Definitions
  • New Animal Drug Approval
  • Target Animal Safety Evaluation
  • General Considerations
  • Pharmacologic/Toxicologic Characterization
  • Pivotal Margin of Safety Study
  • Other Laboratory Safety Studies
  • Safety Information From Field Effectiveness Studies
  • Safety Data From Foreign Approvals
  • Human Food Safety Assessment
  • General Considerations
  • Toxicological Studies
  • Acceptable Daily Intake, Acute Reference Dose and Safety Factors
  • Residue Chemistry Studies
  • Regulating Carcinogenic Compounds
  • Approval
  • Postapproval Surveillance Activities
  • Overview of the CVM's Pharmacovigilance Program
  • Adverse Drug Experience: Definition
  • Adverse Drug Experience Reporting
  • Unapproved Drugs and Veterinary Devices
  • Safety Signal Detection
  • Communication of Safety Information
  • Animal Food
  • Pet Food Adverse Event and Product Problem Reporting
  • References
  • 7 Regulatory Aspects for the Drugs and Chemicals Used in Food-Producing Animals in the European Union
  • Introduction
  • Veterinary Medicinal Products Legislation
  • Marketing Authorization Procedures
  • Centralized or Community Procedure
  • Decentralized Procedure and Mutual Recognition Procedure
  • Decentralized Procedure
  • Mutual Recognition Procedure
  • Independent National Procedures
  • Human Health Risks From Drug Residues in Foods
  • Acute Toxicity Effects
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Pharmacological Effects
  • Teratogenic Effects
  • Long-Term Chronic Effects (Carcinogenesis)
  • Antimicrobial Effects
  • Hormonal Effects
  • Carryover of the Feed of Coccidiostats and Other Medicated Feed
  • Minimum Required Performance Limits and Reference Point for Action
  • Pesticide Substances/Residues From Consumption of Stockfeed Treated With Agricultural Chemicals
  • Biocidal Substances Used in Animal Husbandry
  • Feed Additives Legislation
  • Technological Additives
  • Sensory Additives
  • Nutritional Additives
  • Zootechnical Additives
  • Comparative Setting Toxicological Standards for Food Safety
  • Establishment of European Community Maximum Residue Limits for Drugs and Feed Additives
  • Maximum Residue Level
  • Establishment of Codex Maximum Residue Limits for Drugs and Feed Additives
  • Changes in Calculation of MRLs
  • United States of America: Food and Drug Administration Tolerance Setting
  • Drug Withdrawal/Withholding Periods
  • Industrial Chemicals
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 8 Toxicokinetics in Veterinary Toxicology
  • Introduction
  • Underlying Physiology
  • Absorption
  • Distribution
  • Biotransformation
  • Excretion
  • Empirical (Compartmental) Toxicokinetic Models
  • Introduction
  • Measures of Absorption
  • Volume of Distribution
  • Clearance
  • Half-Life
  • Flip-Flop Kinetics
  • Residues
  • Physiologically Based Toxicokinetics
  • Introduction
  • Model Construction
  • Parameter Estimation and Identifiability
  • Model Validation
  • Applications
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 9 Toxicological Testing: In Vivo and In Vitro Models
  • Introduction
  • In Vivo Models in Toxicity Testing
  • Introduction
  • Routes of Test Compound Administration
  • Reproductive Toxicity Tests
  • Developmental Toxicity Testing
  • Cutaneous Toxicity Testing
  • Genotoxicity Testing
  • Carcinogenicity Tests
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Immunotoxicity
  • Transgenic Animals in Toxicity Testing
  • In Vitro Models of Toxicity Testing
  • Introduction
  • Types of Cell Culture System Used in Toxicity Testing
  • Endpoint Determination for In Vitro Testing Systems
  • Cell Viability
  • Membrane Leakage
  • Cell Growth and Proliferation
  • Cell Morphology
  • Cell Volume
  • Cell Shape
  • Membrane Integrity
  • Growth Patterns
  • Metabolic Assay
  • ATP Levels
  • Dehydrogenase Activity
  • Calcium Homeostasis
  • Cell or Tissue-Specific Markers of Toxicity
  • Proteomic Analysis
  • Genomic Analysis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 10 Toxicoproteomics in Diagnostic Toxicology
  • Introduction
  • Analytical Tools for Proteomic Analyses
  • The Proteome and Sample Complexity
  • Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography
  • Protein and Peptide Microarrays
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Bioinformatics Tools
  • Proteomics Applications in Diagnostic Toxicology
  • Aquatic Toxicology and Pesticides
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Toxins
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 11 Toxicology and the Law
  • Introduction
  • Reasons for Conducting Toxicology Analyses
  • When the Reason for Testing the Sample Is Known
  • When the Reason for Testing the Sample Is Not Known or Changes After Testing
  • Hypothetical Case
  • Jurisdiction: What Are the Rules and Who Decides the Winner ?
  • Standard of Proof: How Sure Do I Need to Be?
  • Evidence
  • Documents
  • Specimens
  • Testimony
  • Admissibility of Expert Testimony
  • Frye
  • Daubert
  • Is the Expert Qualified?
  • Has the Person Been Trained and Educated in the Discipline of Toxicology?
  • Has the Person Been Certified as a Toxicologist?
  • Do Other Criteria Support an Argument That the Person Is a Toxicologist?
  • General Causation
  • Specific Causation: The Differential Diagnosis
  • Application of Daubert in Toxicology Cases
  • Some Questions to Consider When Using Laboratory Results
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • II. Organ Toxicity
  • 12 Nervous System Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • Structural Toxicoses
  • Neuronopathy
  • Axonopathy
  • Myelinopathy
  • Functional Toxicoses
  • Acetylcholine
  • Catecholamine Neurotransmitters
  • Serotonin
  • Glycine
  • GABA
  • Glutamate/Aspartate
  • Histamine
  • Mixed Neurotransmitter Effects
  • Ion Channels
  • Sodium Channels
  • Potassium Channels
  • Chloride Channels
  • Other Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 13 Respiratory Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • The Upper Airways
  • Normal Function
  • Toxic Diseases of the Nasal Passages
  • Toxic Diseases of the Conducting Airways
  • The Gas Exchange Region
  • Normal Function
  • Ventilation
  • Perfusion
  • Diffusion
  • Avian Respiration
  • General Principles in the Pathogenesis of Lung Damage Caused by Chemicals
  • Oxidant Burden
  • Toxic Inhalant Gases
  • Chlorine
  • Ammonia
  • Anhydrous Ammonia
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Methane
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone
  • Particle Size and Clearance
  • Particle Size and Deposition Mechanisms
  • Particle Clearance
  • Lung Injury
  • Acute Responses to Lung Injury
  • Airway Reactivity
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Nasal and Upper Airway Reactivity
  • Mediators of Lung Toxicosis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chronic Responses of the Lung to Injury
  • Fibrosis
  • Emphysema
  • Asthma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Agents Known to Produce Lung Injury in Animals
  • Zinc Phosphide
  • Smoke
  • Overheated Frying Pans
  • Tryptophan and Perilla Frutescens
  • References
  • 14 Cardiovascular Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • Plant-Induced Cardiotoxicity
  • Phytochemicals Affecting the Cardiac System
  • Glycoside-Containing Plants
  • Cyanide-Containing Plants
  • Alkaloid-Containing Plants
  • Oxalate-Containing Plants
  • Nitrate-Containing Plants
  • Metal-Induced Cardiac Toxicity
  • Arsenic
  • Ionophores (Antibiotics)
  • Fertilizers
  • Herbicides
  • Insecticides and Other Pesticides
  • Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Amitraz
  • Metaldehyde
  • Mycotoxins
  • Ancillary Causes of Cardiac Toxicity
  • Anthropods
  • Hymenoptera
  • Ophidian
  • Cantharidin
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 15 Liver Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • Structural and Functional Organization of the Liver
  • Lobule and Acinus
  • Diverse Function of the Liver
  • Cell Types of the Liver
  • Factors Influencing Toxic Liver Injury
  • Uptake and Concentration of Xenobiotics
  • Bioactivation and Metabolism
  • Inflammation
  • Types of Toxicant-Induced Liver Injury
  • Cell Death
  • Hepatic Steatosis
  • Steatohepatitis
  • Hepatic Fibrosis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Pigment Accumulation
  • Hepatic Neoplasia
  • Megalocytosis
  • Mechanisms of Liver Damage
  • Oxidative Stress Mediated by Free Radicals
  • Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis and Cell Membrane Damage
  • Mitochondrial Injury
  • Disruption of Cytoskeleton
  • Cholestasis
  • Hepatogenous Photosensitization
  • Inhibition of Tissue Repair Response
  • Idiosyncratic Reactions
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 16 Renal Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • Functional Anatomy
  • Toxic Effects on the Kidney
  • Acute Renal Failure
  • Chronic Renal Failure
  • Patterns of Toxic Renal Injury
  • Glomerular Injury
  • Proximal Tubular Injury
  • Distal Nephron/Renal Papillary Injury
  • Nephrotoxic Agents
  • Mycotoxins
  • Ochratoxins
  • Citrinin
  • Drugs
  • Aminoglycoside Antibiotics
  • NSAIDs
  • Metals
  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Plants
  • Amaranthus spp.
  • Lilium spp. and Hemerocallis spp.
  • Quercus spp.
  • Vitis spp.
  • Miscellaneous
  • Ethylene Glycol
  • Melamine:Cyanuric Acid
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 17 Reproductive Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption
  • Introduction
  • Important Definitions And Concepts
  • Reproduction
  • Reproductive Toxicity
  • Teratogenesis
  • Wilson's General Principles of Teratology
  • Mechanisms of Reproductive Toxicity and Teratogenesis
  • Reproductive Toxicants and Teratogens
  • Hormones and Hormone Receptors
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones and their "Nuclear" Receptors
  • Genomic and Non-Genomic Mechanisms of Action of Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Mechanisms of Endocrine Disruption
  • "Classic" Receptor-Mediated Endocrine Disruption
  • Endocrine Disruption Independent of Receptor-Mediated Interactions
  • "Androgenic" and "Estrogenic" Effects of Xenobiotics
  • Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, Endocrine Disruptors and Hormonally Active Agents
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Endocrine Disruption
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists
  • Mechanisms of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Endocrine Disruption
  • Epigenetic Mechanisms of Action of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
  • Disruption of "Non-Reproductive" Endocrine Systems
  • Normal Animal Reproduction
  • Neuroendocrine Control of Reproduction
  • Puberty
  • The Onset of Puberty
  • The Endocrinology of Puberty
  • The Susceptibility of the Pubertal Process to Reproductive Toxicants
  • Normal Male Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
  • Reproductive Anatomy of the Male
  • Testicular Structure
  • Excurrent Duct System
  • Accessory Sex Glands
  • External Genitalia
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Proliferation (Mitosis or Spermatocytogenesis)
  • Meiosis
  • Differentiation (spermiogenesis)
  • The Cycle of the Seminiferous Epithelium
  • Male Reproductive Physiology
  • Gonadal Steroid Synthesis in the Testes
  • Endocrine Regulation of Spermatogenesis
  • Positive and Negative Feedback Loops Involved in Male Reproduction
  • Epididymal and Accessory Sex Gland Function
  • Sexual Behavior, Erection, Emission and Ejaculation
  • Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
  • Reproductive Anatomy of the Female
  • Female Reproductive Physiology
  • The Estrous Cycle
  • Follicular Development
  • Ovarian Follicular Synthesis of Estrogens
  • The Effects of Estrogenic Feedback on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
  • Ovulation
  • Formation and Function of a CL
  • Summary of the Effects of Estrogens and Progesterone During the Female Reproductive Cycle
  • Oocyte/Sperm Transport, Normal Capacitation of Sperm and Fertilization
  • Transport of the Ovulated Oocyte
  • Transport and Capacitation of Spermatozoa
  • Transport of Spermatozoa
  • Capacitation of Spermatozoa
  • Fertilization
  • The Endocrinology of Pregnancy and Placentation
  • Gestational Hormones
  • Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy
  • Placentation
  • Types of Placentas
  • Placental Function
  • The "Placental Barrier"
  • Normal Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Blastocyst Formation and Differentiation of the Germ Cell Layers
  • Sex Determination and Sexual Differentiation of Reproductive Function
  • Genotypic Sex and Development of the Primitive Sex Cords
  • Gonadal Sex Determination and Phenotypic Sexual Differentiation
  • Development of the Male Phenotype
  • Development of the Female Phenotype
  • Sexual Differentiation of the Brain
  • Parturition and Lactation
  • Physiology of Parturition
  • Physiology of Lactation
  • Lactogenesis
  • Control of Prolactin Secretion
  • The Mechanisms and Effects of Reproductive Toxicants
  • The Effects of EDCs on Wildlife Species, Humans and Domestic Animals
  • Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife Species
  • "Androgenic" and "Estrogenic" Effects of EDCs on Wildlife Species
  • Endocrine Disruption in Humans
  • The Effects of Reproductive Toxicants on Domestic Animals
  • Abortion, Teratogenesis and Impaired Fertility in Domestic Animals
  • Endocrine Disruption in Domestic Animals
  • Toxicants Affecting the Male Reproductive Function
  • Selected Male Reproductive Toxicants and Mechanisms of Action
  • Cell-Specific Reproductive Toxicants
  • Heavy Metals
  • Gossypol
  • Xenoestrogens and Antiestrogens
  • Xenoandrogens and Antiandrogens
  • Phthalates
  • Toxicants Affecting the Female Reproductive Function
  • Selected Female Reproductive Toxicants and Mechanisms of Action
  • Cell-Specific Reproductive Toxicants
  • Heavy Metals
  • Phytoestrogens
  • Zearalenone
  • Synthetic Xenoestrogens and Antiestrogens
  • Xenoandrogens
  • Teratogenesis and Abortion
  • Mechanisms of Actions of Teratogenesis and Abortion
  • Heavy Metals
  • Selected Plant-Associated Teratogens and Abortifacients
  • Veratrum Californicum
  • Multiple Congenital Contractures
  • Pine Needle Abortion
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • III. Nanoparticles, Radiation and Carcinogens
  • 18 Toxicity of Nanomaterials
  • Introduction
  • Nanomaterials Characterization
  • Animal or Tissue Exposures
  • In Vitro Exposures to Nanomaterials
  • Intratracheal Instillation-Pharyngeal Aspiration
  • Ultrafine Particles
  • Carbon Nanotubes
  • Intranasal Exposure
  • Inhalation Exposure
  • Epidemiological Data
  • Sulfur Dioxide (Oxides of Sulfur Particles)
  • Swine Barn Dust Exposure
  • Nanoparticle Exposure in the Home
  • Dog Exposures to Automobile Exhaust Aerosols
  • Emerging Challenges
  • References
  • 19 Ionizing Radiation in Veterinary Medicine
  • Introduction to Ionizing Radiation
  • Alpha and Beta Particles
  • Gamma Rays and X-rays
  • Measuring Ionizing Radiation
  • Sources of Radiation
  • Natural Sources
  • Nuclear Weapons
  • Nuclear Power
  • Sterilization of Food
  • Medical Uses of Radiation in Human and Veterinary Medicine
  • Absorption, Distribution, and Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Animals
  • Acute Effects of Radiation Exposure in Animals
  • Long-Term Impacts of Radiation Exposure in Animals
  • Mitigating Acute Radiation Exposures in Animals
  • Minimizing Exposure
  • Prophylaxis
  • Triage and Screening
  • Decontamination
  • Additional Treatments and Monitoring
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 20 Carcinogenesis: Mechanisms and Models
  • Introduction
  • Terminology
  • Agents Causing Carcinogenesis
  • Chemical Carcinogenesis
  • Chemical Carcinogens Occur in Nature and Can Also Be Formed by Nonindustrial and Industrial Processes
  • Chemical Carcinogens Can Be Genotoxic or Nongenotoxic
  • Genotoxic (DNA-Reactive) Carcinogens Interact With DNA
  • Nongenotoxic (Non DNA-Reactive) Carcinogens Do Not Directly Interact With DNA
  • Carcinogens and Dose-Response
  • Carcinogenesis Is a Multistep Biological Process That Involves Three Major Events: Initiation, Promotion, and Progression
  • Tumor Initiation Is an Irreversible Genetic Event That Produces Preneoplastic Cells
  • Tumor Promotion Is a Nongenetic Process That Affects the Growth Kinetics of the Initiated Cells and It Can Be Reversible
  • Tumor Progression Is a Genetic Process That Involves Transformation of a Benign Tumor Into a Malignant Tumor and Metastasis...
  • Carcinogenesis as a Function of Age and the Multistage Model of Carcinogenesis
  • Mode of Action of Chemical Carcinogens
  • The Majority of Genotoxic Carcinogens Interact With DNA Through Three Different Types of Chemical Reactions: Alkylation, Ar...
  • Alkylation Involves the Addition of an Alkyl Carbocation to DNA
  • Arylamination Involves the Addition of an Electrophilic Aryl Nitrenium Ion to DNA
  • Aralkylation Involves the Addition of an Aralkyl Group to DNA
  • Cellular Defense Against DNA Damage: DNA Repair and Removal of DNA Adducts
  • Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and the Genetic Basis of Carcinogenesis
  • Cellular Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes Are Implicated in Carcinogenesis
  • Activation of Oncogenes and Inactivation of Tumor Suppressor Genes are Intimately Associated With Tumor Development
  • Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes Encode Protein Products That Are Involved in the Regulation of Growth and Survival of ...
  • Viral Carcinogenesis
  • Radiation Carcinogenesis
  • The Risk of Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis Is Directly Related to the Amount of Energy Deposited Into the Tissue by Radiation
  • The Mechanism of Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis Involves Severe Macromolecular Damage and Genomic Instability
  • Epigenetic Basis of Carcinogenesis
  • Epigenetic Changes During Carcinogenesis Have Been Widely Studied and Well Documented
  • Classification of Carcinogens
  • Assays for Carcinogens
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • IV. Drugs of Use and Abuse
  • 21 Toxicity of Over-the-Counter Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Suspected OTC Drug Reactions
  • Analgesics
  • Acetaminophen
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Clinical Chemistry
  • Diagnosis and Management
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Clinical Chemistry
  • Diagnosis and Management
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Aspirin and Other Salicylates
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Clinical Chemistry and Postmortem Findings
  • Management
  • Cold, Cough and Allergy Medications
  • Decongestants
  • Toxicity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Clinical Chemistry
  • Diagnosis and Management
  • Antihistamines
  • Toxicity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Management
  • Drugs Used to Treat Gastrointestinal Symptoms
  • Antacids
  • H2 Histamine Receptor Antagonists
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Mineral Antacids
  • Laxatives, Cathartics and Enemas
  • Bulk-Forming Laxatives
  • Lubricant Laxatives
  • Irritant Laxatives
  • Hyperosmotic Cathartics
  • Enemas
  • Antidiarrheal Drugs
  • Topical Drugs
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 22 Toxicity of Drugs of Abuse
  • Introduction
  • Illicit Drugs and Small Animals
  • Illicit Drugs and Large Animals
  • The Veterinarian and the Drug Enforcement Administration
  • Depressants
  • Marijuana
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Pathology
  • Barbiturates
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Opioids
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Other CNS Depressants
  • Flunitrazepam
  • GHB
  • Stimulants
  • Cocaine
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Amphetamines
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Other Stimulants
  • MDMA
  • Khat, Mephedrone and Methylenedioxypyrovalerone
  • Betel quid
  • Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs
  • LSD and LSA
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Phencyclidine and Ketamine
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Other Compounds
  • Mescaline
  • Salvia divinorum
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • V. Metals and Micronutrients
  • 23 Arsenic
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 24 Cadmium
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 25 Chromium, Iodine, and Phosphorus
  • Chromium
  • Iodine
  • Phosphorus
  • References
  • 26 Copper
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 27 Fluoride
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 28 Iron
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • General
  • Acute Toxicity in Dogs, Cattle, Pigs and Adult Horses
  • Neonatal Pigs
  • Neonatal Horses
  • Iron Storage Disease
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 29 Lead
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and future directions
  • References
  • 30 Manganese
  • Introduction and Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 31 Mercury
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Nervous System
  • Renal System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • GI Tract
  • Hematopoietic System
  • Other Effects
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 32 Molybdenum
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Absorption
  • Distribution
  • Elimination
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 33 Selenium
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Absorption
  • Distribution
  • Metabolism
  • Elimination
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 34 Sodium Chloride (Salt)
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 35 Sulfur
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 36 Zinc
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • VI. Insecticides
  • 37 Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • OP Pesticides
  • OP Nerve Agents/Gases
  • Carbamates
  • Pharmacokinetics of OPs and CMs
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment of Acute Poisoning
  • OP-induced Intermediate Syndrome
  • Chronic Toxicity
  • Tolerance Development
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 38 Organochlorines
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 39 Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 40 Neonicotinoids
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 41 Amitraz
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Acute Toxicity
  • Chronic Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Warnings
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 42 Fipronil
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Laboratory Animals
  • Dogs and Cats
  • Domestic Animals
  • Birds and Fish
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 43 Macrocyclic Lactone Endectocides
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicity Data
  • Clinical Effects
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • VII. Herbicides and Fungicides
  • 44 Toxicity of Herbicides
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Inorganic Herbicides and Organic Arsenicals
  • Phenoxy Acid Derivatives
  • Bipyridyl Derivatives
  • Ureas and Thioureas
  • Phosphonomethyl Amino Acids or Inhibitors of Aromatic Acid Biosynthesis
  • Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitors
  • Triazines and Triazoles
  • Substituted Anilines
  • Amides and Acetamides
  • Dinitrophenol Compounds
  • Triazolopyrimidine Herbicides
  • Imidazolinones
  • Benzoic Acids
  • Carbamates, Thiocarbamates and Dithiocarbamate Compounds
  • Others
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 45 Toxicity of Fungicides
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Inorganic Fungicides
  • Metallic Fungicides
  • Halogenated Substituted Monocyclic Aromatics
  • Chloroalkylthiodicarboximides (Phthalimides)
  • Anilinopyrimidines
  • Carbamic Acid Derivatives
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Conazoles
  • Morpholines
  • Amides
  • Others
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • VIII. Rodenticides
  • 46 Anticoagulant Rodenticides
  • Introduction
  • History and Chemical Classes
  • Hydroxycoumarins
  • Bromadiolone
  • Brodifacoum
  • Coumatetralyl
  • Coumafuryl
  • Difenacoum
  • Warfarin
  • Indanedione Group
  • Chlorophacinone
  • Diphacinone
  • Primary Mechanism of Action and Metabolism
  • Primary Mechanism of Action
  • Metabolism
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Bioavailability
  • Distribution
  • Elimination
  • Duration
  • Toxicity
  • Target Species
  • By Chemical
  • Resistance
  • Pest Management Approaches
  • Nontarget Exposures
  • Mammals
  • Humans
  • Pediatric Versus Adult Exposures
  • Diagnosis
  • History
  • Clinical Signs
  • Coagulopathy
  • Necropsy/Autopsy
  • Response to Vitamin K1 Treatment
  • Treatment
  • General
  • Supportive
  • Specific
  • Diagnosis
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Exposed Animals: Liquid (Serum, Blood, Urine)
  • Solid: (Hair, Feces, Tissues and Food)
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 47 Non-Anticoagulant Rodenticides
  • Strychnine
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Bromethalin
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Red Squill
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • Fluoroacetate
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Alpha-Naphthyl Thiourea
  • Introduction
  • Toxicokinetics and Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Zinc Phosphide
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Thallium
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • IX. Gases, Solvents and Other Industrial Toxicants
  • 48 Toxic Gases and Vapors
  • Introduction
  • General Principles
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Absorption and Distribution
  • Metabolism
  • Excretion via the Respiratory Tract
  • Regional Gas Dose Ratios for Human Risk Assessment Based on Animal Data
  • Extrapolating Duration of Exposure for Human Risk Assessment
  • Specific Toxic Gases
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Overview, Uses, and Sources of Exposure
  • Toxic Dose
  • Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Vulnerable Populations
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Overview, Uses, and Sources of Exposure
  • Toxic Dose
  • Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Vulnerable Populations
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Oxides of Nitrogen (Silo Filler's Disease)
  • Overview, Uses, and Sources of Exposure
  • Toxic Dose
  • Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Vulnerable Populations
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Gaseous Ammonia
  • Overview, Uses, and Sources of Exposure
  • Toxic Dose
  • Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Vulnerable Populations
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Smoke Inhalation
  • Overview, Uses, and Sources of Exposure
  • Toxic Dose
  • Pathophysiology
  • Vulnerable Populations
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 49 Alcohols and Glycols
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Alcohol Toxicoses
  • Ethanol Toxicosis
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Methanol Toxicosis
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Isopropanol Toxicosis
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Glycol Toxicoses
  • Propylene Glycol Toxicosis
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Butylene Glycol Toxicosis
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Treatment
  • Ethylene Glycol Toxicosis
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Signs
  • Early Laboratory Abnormalities
  • Late Laboratory Abnormalities
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 50 Petroleum
  • Introduction
  • Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Completing
  • Drilling
  • Fracking
  • Sources of Toxic Substances
  • Air Emissions
  • Flowback and Produced Water
  • Well Rework
  • Sumps
  • Selected Toxic Substances
  • Antihydrates and Antifreezes
  • Grease and Motor Oil
  • Veterinary Medical Use of Petroleum
  • Toxicology of Petroleum
  • Ingestion of Petroleum by Livestock
  • Clinical Signs and Pathology Observed in Field Incidents
  • Experimental Studies
  • Toxicopathology of Petroleum and Oilfield Chemicals
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pulmonary Pathology of Petroleum
  • Hepatic Pathology of Petroleum
  • Gastrointestinal Pathology of Petroleum
  • Renal Pathology of Petroleum
  • Nervous System Pathology of Petroleum
  • Cardiac Pathology of Petroleum
  • Pathological Effects of Petroleum in Embryos
  • Toxicology of Sour Petroleum
  • Experimental Studies on Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Pathology of Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Exposure to Environmental Sulfur
  • Toxicology of Sulfur Dioxide in Cattle
  • Analytical Toxicology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Epidemiological Studies: Cattle
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 51 Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans
  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Sources
  • Environmental Fate
  • Exposure
  • PBB Incident in Michigan
  • Toxicokinetics
  • PCBs and PBBs
  • PCDDs and PCDFs
  • Toxicity
  • Male Reproductive Effects
  • Female Reproductive Effects
  • Developmental and Teratogenic Effects
  • Neuroendocrine Effects
  • Neurobehavioral Effects
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Dioxin-like Chemicals
  • Nondioxin-like Chemicals
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 52 Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Physicochemical Properties
  • Brominated Flame Retardants
  • Perfluorinated Compounds
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Brominated Flame Retardants
  • Perfluorinated Compounds
  • Mechanism of Action and Toxicity
  • Brominated Flame Retardants
  • Perfluorinated Compounds
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • X. Avian and Aquatic Toxicology
  • 53 Avian Toxicology
  • Introduction
  • Environment as a Toxicological Risk Factors in Birds
  • Physiologic Differences of Birds Relevant to Toxicology
  • Respiratory System
  • Metabolic System
  • Excretion
  • General Comments About Diagnosing Avian Intoxications
  • Natural Toxicants
  • Algal Toxins
  • Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy
  • Plants
  • Mycotoxins
  • Aflatoxins
  • Fusariotoxins
  • Ochratoxin and Citrinin
  • Zootoxins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Botulinum Toxin
  • Feed Additives
  • Sodium
  • Ionophores
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides
  • Organochlorine Insecticides
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides)
  • Pyrethrins/Pyrethroids
  • Neonicotinoids
  • Rodenticides
  • Anticoagulants
  • Avicides
  • Metals
  • Lead
  • Zinc
  • Mercury
  • Iron
  • Environmental Toxicants
  • Petroleum
  • Cyanide
  • Toxic Gases
  • Ammonia
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene: Teflon
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 54 Aquatic Toxicology
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Water Safety
  • Nitrogen Cycle
  • Ammonia
  • Nitrite (NO2-)
  • Nitrate (NO3-)
  • Chlorine
  • Metals
  • Copper
  • Methylmercury
  • Mycotoxins
  • Fumonisins and Moniliformin
  • Ochratoxins
  • Trichothecenes
  • Zearalenone
  • Aflatoxins
  • Contaminants in Aquaculture Fish
  • Acoustic Pollution and Fish
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • XI. Bacterial and Cyanobacterial Toxins
  • 55 Botulinum Neurotoxins
  • Introduction
  • Serotypes of Veterinary Significance
  • Bacterial Synthesis
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicodynamics
  • Quantification of Neuromuscular Blocking Potency
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Botulism in Humans
  • Botulism in Veterinary Species
  • Equine Botulism
  • Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bovine Botulism
  • Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Public Health
  • Avian Botulism
  • Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Canine and Feline Botulism
  • Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 56 Enterotoxins
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 57 Cyanobacterial (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Microcystins
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Anatoxins
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Miscellaneous Freshwater Cyanobacterial Toxins
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • XII. Poisonous and Venomous Organisms
  • 58 Terrestrial Zootoxins
  • Introduction
  • Arthropoda
  • Araneae: Spiders
  • Introduction
  • Widow Spiders (Latrodectus spp.)
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Recluse or Violin Spiders (Loxesceles spp.)
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Hobo Spiders (Tegenaria agrestis)
  • Background
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Tarantulas
  • Scorpiones: Scorpions
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Ixodida: Ticks
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Myriapoda: Centipedes and Millipedes
  • Insecta: Insects
  • Introduction
  • Coleoptera: Meloidae (Blister Beetles)
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Hymenoptera: Bees, Wasps, and Hornets
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Hymenoptera: Ants
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Amphibia, Anura: Toads
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Reptilia
  • Snakes
  • Introduction
  • Crotalids
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Effects
  • Treatment
  • Elapids
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Lizards
  • Background
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Aves
  • Mammalia
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • XIII. Estrogenic Toxicants
  • 59 Chemical-Induced Estrogenicity
  • Introduction
  • Estrogenic Chemicals of Concern
  • Introduction and Background
  • Mechanisms of Estrogen-Induced Transactivation: ERa and ERß Domain Structure
  • Xenoestrogens and Phytoestrogens as Selective ER Modulators: Complexity of Estrogenic Activity
  • Development of Bioassays for Clinically Relevant SERMs
  • Xenoestrogens and Phytoestrogens as SERMs
  • Serms: Implications for Risk Assessment
  • Role of Environmental Estrogens in Diseases
  • Background
  • Estrogens and Women's Health
  • Risks for Breast Cancer Genetic Factors
  • Hormonal Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
  • Lifestyle and Dietary Risk Factors
  • Environmental Estrogens and Breast Cancer
  • Estrogens as Risk Factors for Male Reproductive Tract Problems
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 60 Phytoestrogens
  • Introduction
  • Description
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinectics/Toxicokinetics
  • Plant Impact
  • Animal Biotransformation
  • Absorption
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Excretion
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Impact on Steroidogenesis
  • Additional Impact on Cell Functions
  • Altered Signal Transduction and Cell Proliferation
  • Adverse Health Effects
  • Developmental Effects
  • Hormones and Estrous Cycles
  • Infertility
  • Male Infertility
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • XIV. Poisonous Plants
  • 61 Poisonous Plants of the United States
  • Introduction
  • AstraGalus and Oxytropis Species (Locoweeds, nitro spp., and Selenium spp.)
  • Locoweeds
  • Description
  • Distribution and ecology
  • Toxicology
  • Toxin
  • Conditions of Grazing
  • Prevention of Poisoning and Management Recommendations
  • Summary
  • Nitro-containing Astragalus (milkvetches)
  • Description
  • Distribution
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Seleniferous Astragalus
  • Description
  • Distribution
  • Toxicity
  • Prevention of Poisoning
  • Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)
  • Description
  • Distribution and Habitat
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Management of Poisoning
  • Grazing Management
  • Graze Sheep Before Cattle
  • Drug Intervention
  • Herbicidal Control
  • Lupines (Lupinus spp.)
  • Description
  • Distribution
  • Toxicology
  • Cattle Grazing
  • Prevention, Management, and Treatment
  • Summary
  • Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum)
  • Description
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Water Hemlock (Cicuta spp.)
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Ponderosa pine Needles (Pinus spp.)
  • Description
  • Distribution
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.)
  • Description and Distribution
  • Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby)
  • Threadleaf snakeweed (G. microcephala (DC) Gray)
  • Ecology
  • Toxicology
  • Management and Treatment
  • Rayless Goldenrod (Haplopappus heterophyllus)
  • Description
  • Distribution
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Halogeton (Halogeton Glomeratus)
  • Description and Ecology
  • Toxicology
  • Treatment of Poisoned Animals
  • Management to Prevent Poisoning
  • Oak Poisoning
  • Conditions of Poisoning
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Photosensitizing Plants
  • Description and Distribution
  • Toxicology
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Death Camas
  • Description, Habitat, and Geographical Distribution
  • Toxicity of Death Camas to Livestock
  • Management and Prevention
  • Veratrum spp.
  • Distribution
  • Habitat and Description
  • Toxicology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Bracken Fern (Pteridium and Aquilinum)
  • Distribution and Habitat
  • Description
  • Toxicology
  • Treatment
  • Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)
  • Description
  • Distribution and Habitat
  • Toxicology
  • Treatment and Control
  • Nightshades
  • Toxins
  • Clinical Signs
  • Treatment
  • Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.)
  • Habitat and Distribution
  • Toxicology
  • Clinical Signs
  • Pathology
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 62 Poisonous Plants of the Europe
  • Introduction
  • Plant Identification
  • Diagnosis of Plant Poisoning
  • Pets
  • Livestock
  • Conditions Conducive to Plant Poisoning
  • Predictive and Toxicity Factors
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Species
  • Genetics and Strain
  • Boredom
  • Changes in Surroundings
  • Behavioral Abnormalities
  • Plants
  • Amianthium muscaetoxicum (Liliaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Fly Poison, Stagger Grass, and Crow Poison
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Marijuana, Marihuana, Bhang, Hashish, Ganja, and Sinsemilla
  • Active Principle
  • Conditions of Poisoning
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Colchicum autumnale L (Liliaceae or Colchicaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Colchium, Meadow Saffron, Autumn Crocus, Wonder Bulb, and Naked Ladies
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Conium maculatum (Apiaceae (Formally Umbilliferae) Family)
  • Common Name: Hemlock
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Convallaria majalis (Liliaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Lily of the Valley, May Lily, Jacob's Lily and Our Lady's Tears
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Coriaria myrtifolia (Coriariaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Tanner's Herb, Mediterranean Coriaria, and Redoul
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Datura spp. (Solanaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Thorn Apple
  • Toxicity
  • Conditions of Poisoning
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Datura stramonium (Solanaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Datura, Jimson Weed, False Castor Oil Plant, Stramonium, Spiny Apple, or Mad Apple
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Equisetum spp. (Horsetail Family)
  • Common Names: Horsetail, Monkey Grass, Snake Grass, Scouting Rush
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Galega officinalis L (Papilionaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Goat's Rue
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae Family)
  • Common Names: St. John's Wort, Goat Weed, and Klamath Weed
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Lupinus spp.
  • Common Names: Lupines, Bluebonnet
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Oleander
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Poisonous Plants Affecting the Animals
  • Aconitum napellus (Ranunculaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Aconite, Monkshood, and Wolfsbane
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Pteridium aquilinum L or Pteris aquilina L (Polypodiaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Bracken Fern
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Quercus spp. (Fagaceae Family)
  • Common Names: Live Oaks (Evergreens), and Acorns
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Robinia pseudoacacia (Papilionaceae Family)
  • Common Names: False Acacia, Locust Tree and Black Locust Tree
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Castor Bean
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Senecio spp. (Compositeae Family)
  • Common Names: Ragwort and Groundsel
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Taxus baccata L. (Taxaceae family)
  • Common Name: Yew
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae Family)
  • Common Name: Thuja
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Treatment
  • Nonspecific Treatment
  • Decontamination Procedures
  • Gastric Decontamination
  • Enemas
  • Laxatives and Purgatives (Cathartics)
  • Enhanced Removal and Elimination
  • Specific Treatment
  • Supportive Therapy
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 63 Poisonous Plants of Australia and New Zealand
  • Introduction
  • Reducing Livestock Losses Associated With Poisonous Plants in Australia and New Zealand
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Australian Plants
  • New Zealand Plants
  • 64 Cyanogenic Glycoside-Containing Plants
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Disease
  • Acute Poisoning
  • Chronic Poisoning
  • Factors Affecting Cyanide Levels in Plants
  • Mechanism and Conditions of Poisoning
  • Detoxification Mechanism
  • Diagnosis and Pathology of Cyanide Poisoning
  • Prevention and Treatment of CN poisoning
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 65 Nitrate- and Nitrite-Accumulating Plants
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 66 Toxicity of Yew (Taxus spp.) Alkaloids
  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Chemical Characterization
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Physiology/Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 67 Mushroom Toxins
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Hepatotoxic Cyclopeptides
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Hydrazines
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Muscarinic Agents
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Isoxazoles
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Psilocin and Psilocybin
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Gastrointestinal Irritants
  • Renal Toxic Mushrooms
  • Ramaria Flavo-Brunnescens
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 68 Cottonseed Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • Gossypol
  • Introduction
  • Dietary Bioavailability and Level of Exposure
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Susceptibility to Toxicity
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Acute Gossypol Poisoning
  • Anemia
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Disruption of Reproduction
  • Undesirable Effects of Cottonseed Meals on Eggs
  • Immunotoxicity
  • DiagnosIS
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • XV. Mycotoxins
  • 69 Aflatoxins
  • Introduction
  • Aflatoxigenic Fungi
  • Conditions for Aflatoxin Production
  • Moisture Management of Grain
  • In Vivo Production of Aflatoxins
  • Prevenance of Aflatoxins in Feedstuffs and Foods
  • Sources and Occurrences of Aflatoxicosis
  • Chemistry and Sampling and Analysis
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Absorption
  • Metabolism and Excretion
  • Aflatoxins in Milk
  • Residues in Meat and Eggs
  • Toxicodynamics
  • Mechanisms of Action
  • Immunotoxic Effects
  • Reproductive and Teratogenic Effects
  • Toxicopathology of Aflatoxins
  • Clinicopathology
  • Macroscopic and Microscopic Pathology
  • Edema and Hemorrhage
  • Hepatic Lesions
  • Other Lesions
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Preventative Antidotes
  • Aflatoxin Interactions
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 70 Ergot and Fescue Toxicoses
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 71 Fumonisins
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Chemical Structure
  • Occurrence and Distribution
  • Pharmcokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Sphingolipid Alterations
  • Toxicity
  • Spontaneous and Experimental Fumonisin Toxicosis in Swine
  • Fumonisins in Swine-Pulmonary Effects
  • Fumonisins in Swine-Hepatic Effects
  • Fumonisins in Swine-Cardiovascular Effects
  • Fumonisins in Swine-Immunologic Effects
  • Fumonisin Toxicosis in Horses-Historical
  • Spontaneous and Experimental Fumonisin Toxicosis in Horses
  • Neurologic and Hepatic Effects in Horses
  • Fumonisin Toxicity in Cattle
  • Fumonisin Toxicity in Poultry
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 72 Ochratoxins and Citrinin
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Immunotoxicity
  • Carcinogenicity
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 73 Slaframine
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Chemistry and Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 74 Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Penicillium-Associated Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
  • Aspergillus-Associated Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
  • Neotyphodium-Associated Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
  • Claviceps-Associated Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
  • Bermudagrass Staggers
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicodynamics
  • Central Effects
  • Peripheral Effects
  • Genotoxicity
  • Acute Toxicity
  • Potential Interactions
  • Clinical Aspects of Tremorgenic Mycotoxicoses
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • 75 Trichothecenes
  • Introduction
  • General Toxicological Characteristics
  • T-2 Toxin
  • Deoxynivalenol (DON, Vomitoxin)
  • Stachybotryotoxicosis, Myrotheciotoxicosis, and Dendrodochiotoxicosis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 76 Zearalenone
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Swine
  • Ruminants
  • Equine
  • Poultry
  • Treatment
  • Biomonitoring and Risk Assessment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • XVI. Feed and Water Contaminants
  • 77 Melamine and Cyanuric Acid
  • Introduction
  • Source
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Signs
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 78 Ionophores
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Pathogenesis
  • Occurrence
  • Clinical Signs
  • Postmortem Findings
  • Histopathologic Findings
  • Other Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 79 Nonprotein Nitrogen (Urea) and Hyperammonemia
  • Introduction and Background
  • Chemistry
  • Nonprotein Nitrogen Utilization Under Normal Conditions (Rumen pH 6.5-7.0)
  • The Biological Value of Rumen Microflora Protein
  • Toxicity
  • Clinical Signs
  • Diagnostic Criteria
  • Treatment
  • Ammonia (NH3) Gas
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 80 Water Quality and Contaminants
  • Introduction
  • What Chemicals Should Be Included in Livestock Drinking Water Quality Assessment?
  • Water Quality Analytical Services
  • What Standards Should Be Used to Assess Water Quality?
  • Drinking Water Quality Standards for Animals
  • US EPA Water Quality Criteria for Animals
  • National Academy of Sciences Recommended Limits in Drinking Water for Livestock and Poultry
  • Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines
  • Organic Contaminants
  • Organic Livestock Production
  • Drinking Water Quality Standards for Humans
  • Water Consumption Tables
  • Rationale for Livestock Recommendations
  • Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • Chromium
  • Copper
  • Fluorine
  • Hardness (Author's Addendum)
  • Iron
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Nitrate and Nitrite
  • Total Dissolved Solids
  • Selenium
  • Sulfate
  • Zinc
  • Cyanotoxins From Water
  • Safe Practices To Minimize Cyanotoxin Contamination of Drinking Water
  • References
  • XVII. Analytical Toxicology
  • 81 Analytical Toxicology and Sample Submission Requirements
  • Introduction
  • The Structure of a Toxicology Lab
  • Elemental and Inorganic Chemical Analysis
  • Elemental Analysis
  • Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (abbreviated as AAS or AA)
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES, or just ICP)
  • ICP-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
  • Sample Preparation for Elemental Analysis by AA, ICP, and ICP-MS
  • Block Digestion
  • Microwave Digestion
  • Other Inorganic Analyses
  • Ion Chromatography
  • Nitrate/Nitrite
  • Cyanide
  • Organics Analysis
  • Introduction
  • ELISA
  • Measurement of Acetylcholinesterase Activity
  • Chromatography
  • Introduction
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
  • Gas Chromatography (GC)
  • GC Columns
  • GC Detectors
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
  • HPLC Columns
  • HPLC Mobile Phases
  • HPLC Detectors
  • Ultraviolet Light Detectors
  • Fluorescence Detectors
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Ion Sources
  • ICP
  • Electron Ionization (EI)
  • Electrospray Ionization (ESI)
  • Mass Analyzers
  • Sample Preparation for Organics Analysis
  • Homogenization
  • Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE)
  • QuEChERS Extraction
  • Solid Phase Extraction
  • Derivatization Methods
  • Method Development in Veterinary Analytical Toxicology
  • Analytical Standards
  • Selectivity
  • Sensitivity
  • Detection/Reporting/Quantitation Limits
  • Precision and Accuracy
  • Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Veterinary Toxicology Lab
  • Sample Submission Requirements
  • Sampling of Feed and Forage
  • Sample Shipment
  • References
  • XVIII. Prevention and Treatment
  • 82 Prevention and Treatment of Poisoning
  • Prevention of Poisoning
  • Stabilization and Monitoring
  • Decontamination
  • Ocular Exposure
  • Dermal Exposure
  • Oral Exposure
  • Dilution
  • Emetics
  • Lavage
  • Adsorbents
  • Cathartics
  • Enemas
  • Endoscopy/Gastrostomy
  • Antidotal Therapies
  • Antidotes for Amitraz: Atipamezole and Yohimbine
  • Antidotes for Anticholinesterase Agents: Atropine and Pralidoxime
  • Cyproheptadine HCl
  • Digoxin Immune Fab
  • Antidotes for Ethylene Glycol: Ethanol and Fomepizole
  • Flumazenil
  • Lipid Emulsion
  • Methocarbamol
  • Naloxone HCl
  • N-Acetylcysteine
  • Pamidronate Disodium
  • Phytonadione (Vitamin K1)
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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