Application Acceleration and WAN Optimization Fundamentals

Cisco Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 20. Januar 2012
  • |
  • 384 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-13-303475-2 (ISBN)

IT organizations face pressure to increase productivity, improve application performance, support global collaboration, improve data protection, and minimize costs. In today's WAN-centered environments, traditional LAN-oriented infrastructure approaches are insufficient to meet these goals. Application Acceleration and WAN Optimization Fundamentals introduces a better solution: integrating today's new generation of accelerator solutions to efficiently and effectively scale networks beyond traditional capabilities while improving performance and minimizing costs through consolidation.

Ted Grevers and Joel Christner begin by reviewing the challenges network professionals face in delivering applications to globally distributed workforces. You learn how accelerators are transforming application business models, enabling IT departments to centralize and consolidate resources while also delivering consistently superior performance.

Grevers and Christner show how to identify network consumers, prioritize traffic, and guarantee appropriate throughput and response times to business-critical applications. You learn how to use quality of service techniques such as packet classification and marking and traffic policing, queuing, scheduling, and shaping.

Next, you compare options for integrating accelerators and optimization services into your network and for optimizing content delivery. The authors show how to address application protocol-related performance problems that cannot be resolved through compression or flow optimization alone. In the final chapter, the authors walk you through several real-world scenarios for utilizing accelerator technology.

Ted Grevers, Jr., is the solution manager for the Cisco® Video IPTV Systems Test and Architecture (C-VISTA) team. He has extensive experience in the content delivery network (CDN) market, focusing on enterprise and service provider content delivery and application optimization needs.

Joel Christner, CCIE® No. 15311, is the manager of technical marketing for the Cisco Application Delivery Business Unit (ADBU). He has extensive experience with application protocols, acceleration technologies, LAN/WAN infrastructure, and storage networking. Grevers and Christner are key contributors to the design and architecture of Cisco application delivery and application acceleration solutions.

  • Provide high-performance access to remote data, content, video, rich media, and applications
  • Understand how accelerators can improve network performance and minimize bandwidth consumption
  • Use NetFlow to baseline application requirements and network utilization
  • Ensure network resources are allocated based on business priorities
  • Identify performance barriers arising from networks, protocols, operating systems, hardware, file systems, and applications
  • Employ application-specific acceleration components to mitigate the negative impact of latency and bandwidth consumption
  • Integrate content delivery networks (CDN) to centrally manage the acquisition, security, and distribution of content to remote locations
  • Leverage WAN optimization technologies to improve application throughput, mitigate the impact of latency and loss, and minimize bandwidth consumption
  • Optimize the performance of WANs and business-critical WAN applications

This book is part of the Cisco Press® Fundamentals Series. Books in this series introduce networking professionals to new networking technologies, covering network topologies, sample deployment concepts, protocols, and management techniques.

Category: Cisco Press/Networking

Covers: Network Optimization

1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Indianapolis
  • |
  • USA
Pearson Education (US)
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • 15,30 MB
978-0-13-303475-2 (9780133034752)

Ted Grevers, Jr. , is the solution manager of the Cisco Managed Media Solution (C-MMS) for the

Cisco Video/IPTV Systems Test and Architecture (C-VISTA) team, focused on Cisco service

provider customers. The C-MMS offering provides live streaming media and on-demand content

delivery to cable high-speed data subscribers, adding QoS to DOCSIS service flows, ensuring

an enhanced quality of experience. Ted joined Cisco via the SightPath acquisition in early 2000

as a systems engineer. The SightPath acquisition became the foundation for the Cisco Content

Networking product offering with the Content Engine (CE) and ultimately the Wide Area

Application Engine (WAE). Shortly after the acquisition, Ted transitioned to the Content

Networking Business Unit in 2001 as a technical marketing engineer and then became manager

of technical marketing in 2002. Currently attending Framingham State College, Ted is completing

his undergraduate degree. Milford, MA, is home to Ted, his wife, and three children.

Joel E. Christner, CCIE No. 15311, is the manager of technical marketing within the Application

Delivery Business Unit (ADBU) at Cisco. Joel and his team are responsible for the technical

marketing aspects associated with the Cisco Application Networking Services (ANS) advanced

technology products including Cisco Wide Area Application Services (WAAS) and Application

and Content Networking Services (ACNS). These responsibilities include creating white papers,

presentations, training, competitive analysis, and collateral; enabling sales; and driving product

requirements and strategic direction with the product management team. Before joining the

ADBU, Joel was a member of the storage networking advanced technology team within Cisco.

Joel is a graduate student at Columbia University working toward a master's degree in computer

science. He holds a bachelor of science degree in electronics engineering technology. Joel lives

with his wife in San Jose, CA.


Managing Applications 3

Testing New Applications 4

Reducing Application Latency 5

Managing Distributed Servers 6

Protecting Data on Distributed Servers 6

Providing Timely Remote Service and Support 8

Using Centralized Management Methods 8

Facing the Unavoidable WAN 8

Changing the Application Business Model 9

Consolidating and Protecting Servers in the New IT Operational Model 10

Server Consolidation 11

Compliance, Data Protection, Business Continuity, and Disaster Recovery 15

Summary 18

Chapter 2 Barriers to Application Performance 21

Networks and Application Performance 21

Bandwidth 25

Latency 33

Throughput 45

Application and Protocol Barriers to Application Performance 50

Application Protocols 51

Network Stability 57

Operating System Barriers to Application Performance 61

Microsoft Corporation 61

Sun Microsystems 63

Red Hat 64

Hewlett-Packard 65

IBM 66

Hardware Barriers to Application Performance 67

Central Processing Unit 67

Random Access Memory 69

Disk Storage 70

File System Considerations 74

Network Interface Cards 79

Summary 81

Chapter 3 Aligning Network Resources with Business Priority 83

Viewing Network Utilization 84

NetFlow 84

Network Based Application Recognition 90

Employing Quality of Service 92

Packet Classification 95

Pre-Queuing Operators 96

Queuing and Scheduling 100

Post-Queuing Optimization 105

Understanding Accelerator Control Features and Integration 106

Overview of Accelerator Technology 106

Integrating Accelerators into the Network 117

Architecture of Accelerator Services 121

Summary 125

Chapter 4 Overcoming Application-Specific Barriers 127

Understanding Application-Specific Acceleration 128

Application-Specific Caching 128

Advantages of Application-Specific Caching 129

Cache Validation and Content Freshness 130

Streaming Media: RTSP, HTTP, and Flash 146

Web-Based Database Applications 149

Read-Ahead 154

Message Prediction 157

Pipelining and Multiplexing 159

Summary 161

Chapter 5 Content Delivery Networks 163

Evolution of Content Delivery Networks 164

Understanding CDN Solutions 165

A Common Content Distribution Scenario 166

Understanding CDN Components 168

Managing a CDN 173

Identifying Target Content 173

Understanding Protocol Requirements 173

Choosing Suitable Content Acquisition Methods 174

Managing Multiple Platforms Across Distributed Networks 178

Managing Costs 180

Usage Planning 181

Sharing the WAN 183

Using Desktop Management Suites with Content Delivery Networks 184

Combining Solutions 185

Combining Management Functions 185

Establishing Storage Requirements 187

Using Centralized Network Settings 188

Centralized Streaming Control 189

Centralized Administration of Authentication and Authorization 189

Centralized Access Control List Administration 191

Centralized SNMP Control 192

Centralized Monitoring 192

Centralized Edge Management 193

Understanding Content-Serving Protocols 194

CIFS 194

HTTP 195


FTP 197

RTSP 197

TFTP 199

Streaming Media Live or On Demand 199

Live Streaming 199

Video on Demand 200

Authenticating Requests for Prepositioned Content 200

Acquiring Content 202

Cookie-Based Acquisition 204

Origin Server Content Placement 204

Content Size Considerations 205

Department-Managed Portals 207

Understanding CDN Distribution Models 207

Direct Fetch 207

Distributed Hierarchy 210

Understanding Time-of-Day Distribution 215

Know the Network 216

Unicast Distribution 217

Multicast Distribution 218

Encrypted and In-the-Clear Distribution 223

Understanding Software-Based Content Delivery Networks 224

Native Protocol Playback of Streaming Media 226

Streaming Media and Executive Demand 228

Understanding Explicit and Transparent Proxy Modes 230

Using CDN Calculation Tools 231

General Content Storage 232

Streaming Media Storage 233

Calculating Content Delivery Times 234

Summary 235

Chapter 6 Overcoming Transport and Link Capacity Limitations 237

Understanding Transport Protocol Limitations 238

Understanding Transmission Control Protocol Fundamentals 240

Connection-Oriented Service 241

Guaranteed Delivery 242

Bandwidth Discovery 246

Overcoming Transport Protocol Limitations 250

Of Mice and Elephants: Short-Lived Connections and Long Fat Networks 251

Overcoming Packet Loss-Related Performance Challenges 258

Advanced TCP Implementations 261

Accelerator TCP Proxy Functionality 267

Overcoming Link Capacity Limitations 270

Accelerators and Compression 271

Accelerator Compression Architectures 281

Summary 289

Chapter 7 Examining Accelerator Technology Scenarios 291

Acme Data Corporation: Protecting Data and Promoting Global Collaboration 292

Observed Challenges 294

Accelerator Solution 295

C3 Technology LLC: Saving WAN Bandwidth and Replicating Data 302

Observed Challenges 303

Accelerator Solution 303

Command Grill Corporation: Improving HTTP Application Performance 308

First Attempts to Improve Application Performance 309

Accelerator Solution 309

Almost Write Inc.: Implementing Content Delivery Networking 314

Observed Challenges 316

Accelerator Solution 316

Summary 320

Appendix A Common Ports and Assigned Applications 323

Appendix B Ten Places for More Information 347

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