Handbook of Aviation and Space Medicine

First Edition
 
 
CRC Press
  • erschienen am 18. April 2019
  • |
  • 422 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-429-66709-1 (ISBN)
 

This highly practical guide is ideal for any medical professional who deals with the aerospace environment or is involved in the healthcare of aircrew or individuals preparing for or returning from aerospace travel. The book covers all the main aspects of aerospace medicine, including the salient physiology and clinical aspects in note form for rapid assimilation, and makes plentiful use of figures, algorithms and tables throughout.

Key Features:

. Comprehensive covering all aspects of clinical aerospace medicine and relevant physiology

. Note-based for rapid reference in the clinical setting

. Highly practical with illustrations and tables supporting the text throughout

. From a highly experienced international team of editors and contributors

. Ideal as a handbook companion, complementing the definitive reference Ernsting's Aviation and Space Medicine, for use 'on the go'

The book will be an indispensable companion to all civil and military aviation medicine practitioners including those preparing for professional qualifying examinations, and a useful aid for other physicians with an interest in aviation medicine or who are required to inform patients regularly regarding the likely effects of flight, including family practitioners and hospital doctors, physiologists with an interest in the area and occupational and public health personnel.

  • Englisch
  • Milton
  • |
  • Großbritannien
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
36 schwarz-weiße Abbildungen, 77 schwarz-weiße Zeichnungen, 35 schwarz-weiße Tabellen
  • 19,54 MB
978-0-429-66709-1 (9780429667091)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt

Wing Commander Nicholas Green is Whittingham Professor in Aviation Medicine, RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine, RAF Henlow, Bedfordshire, UK

Colonel Steven Gaydos is a US Army Senior Aviator and Master Flight Surgeon Board Certified in Aerospace, Occupational and Emergency Medicine, Director of Graduate Medical Education, US Army School of Aviation Medicine, Fort Rucker, Alabama, USA

Dr Ewan Hutchison is Consultant in Aviation and Occupational Medicine and Head of Medical Assessment at the Civil Aviation Authority, Gatwick Airport, West Sussex, UK

Wing Commander Edward Nicol is Consultant Cardiologist, Chair of the NATO Aviation Cardiology Group and the RAF Consultant Advisor in Medicine, Aviation Medicine Clinical Service, RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine, RAF Henlow, Bedfordshire, UK

  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword by David Gradwell
  • Foreword by Thomas W. Travis
  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Fixed wing aircraft
  • 1.1 Definitions
  • 1.2 Aircraft Roles
  • 1.3 Operating Environment
  • Atmosphere
  • Chapter 2: Rotary wing operations
  • 2.1 Basic Flight Design and Aerodynamics
  • 2.2 Aeromedical Issues/Stressors of Flight
  • 2.3 Selected Aeromedical Issues
  • Chapter 3: Maritime aviation
  • 3.1 Historical Notes
  • 3.2 Shipboard Environment
  • 3.3 Unique Aspects of Aviation in Maritime Environment
  • 3.4 Aviation Medicine in Shipboard Environment
  • Chapter 4: Parachuting
  • 4.1 Basic Terminology
  • 4.2 Historical Background
  • 4.3 Parachute Operation
  • 4.4 Niche Parachutes
  • 4.5 Statistics
  • 4.6 Parachute Injuries
  • 4.7 Chronic Injury Patterns
  • 4.8 Niche Injuries
  • Chapter 5: Remotely piloted aircraft systems
  • 5.1 Overview of RPAS
  • 5.2 Assessment of Medical Fitness
  • 5.3 Role of Aerospace Medicine Practitioners
  • Chapter 6: Space flight
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Microgravity
  • 6.3 Space Motion Sickness
  • 6.4 Neurovestibular Effects
  • 6.5 Cardiovascular Effects
  • 6.6 Musculoskeletal Effects
  • Effects
  • In-Flight Countermeasures
  • Potential Operational Implications
  • 6.7 Immune System and Haematopoietic Effects
  • 6.8 Behavioural and Psycho-Social Effects
  • 6.9 Habitability and Crew Environment
  • 6.10 Health Risk and Hazards During ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA)
  • 6.11 Space Radiation Environment
  • 6.12 Flight/Crew Surgeon Roles and Responsibilities
  • 6.13 Future Space Medical Issues
  • Chapter 7: Pressure change
  • 7.1 What is pressure?
  • 7.2 What is the Composition of the Atmosphere?
  • Atmospheric Changes with Altitude
  • 7.3 Gas Laws
  • 7.4 Effects of Pressure Change on the Human Body
  • Pulmonary Barotrauma
  • Chapter 8: Sub-atmospheric decompression illness
  • 8.1 Definitions
  • 8.2 Mechanism of DCS
  • 8.3 Clinical Presentation
  • Musculoskeletal - Bends
  • Cutaneous - Creeps
  • Pulmonary - Chokes
  • Neurological - Staggers
  • Neurological - Syncope/Collapse
  • Neurological - Visual Disturbance
  • Neurological - Audiovestibular
  • Constitutional
  • Classifications of DCS
  • Evolution of Symptoms
  • 8.4 Predisposing Factors
  • Physical
  • Personal
  • 8.5 Differential Diagnoses
  • 8.6 In-Flight Management
  • 8.7 Post-Flight Management (Active Treatment)
  • 8.8 Post-Descent Collapse
  • 8.9 Prevention of Sub-Atmospheric DCS
  • 8.10 Principles of Denitrogenation
  • 8.11 Aeromedical Management - Fitness for Flight
  • 8.12 White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH)
  • Chapter 9: Acute hypoxia and hyperventilation
  • 9.1 What is Hypoxia?
  • 9.2 Alveolar Gas Equation
  • Water Vapour Pressure
  • 9.3 Hypoxic Ventilatory Response
  • 9.4 Hyperventilation
  • Cerebral Blood Flow
  • Symptoms and Signs of Hypocapnia
  • 9.5 Physiological Responses to Acute Hypoxia
  • Over Seconds to Minutes
  • Over Minutes to Hours
  • 9.6 Haemoglobin
  • 9.7 Tissue Oxygen Tension
  • 9.8 Symptoms and Signs of Hypoxia
  • Up to 10,000 ft
  • 10,000-15,000 ft
  • Above 15,000 ft
  • 9.9 Factors Increasing Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia
  • 9.10 Time of Useful Consciousness (TUC)
  • 9.11 Oxygen Paradox
  • 9.12 Physiologically Equivalent Altitudes
  • 9.13 Operational Significance of Hypoxia
  • Chapter 10: Prevention of hypoxia
  • 10.1 Approaches to Hypoxia Prevention
  • 10.2 Use of Oxygen Systems to Prevent Hypoxia
  • Minimum Acceptable Concentration of Oxygen
  • Maximum Acceptable Concentration of Oxygen
  • Oxygen Schedule
  • 10.3 Performance Requirements of Oxygen Systems
  • Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Peak Flow
  • Breathing Resistance
  • Dead Space
  • 10.4 Aviation Oxygen Masks
  • Requirements
  • Valves
  • Functions
  • Types of Masks
  • 10.5 Actions on Event of Suspected Hypoxia
  • Chapter 11: The pressure cabin and oxygen systems
  • 11.1 Function of Pressure Cabin
  • 11.2 How Does it Work?
  • 11.3 Design of Pressurisation System
  • 11.4 Oxygen Systems
  • Functions of an aircraft oxygen system
  • Threshold Altitude for Oxygen Use
  • Classes of Oxygen System
  • 11.5 Sources of Oxygen
  • Gaseous Oxygen
  • Liquid Oxygen
  • On-Board Oxygen Generation (OBOG)
  • 11.6 Oxygen Delivery - Constant Flow Systems
  • 11.7 Oxygen Delivery - Demand Systems
  • 11.8 Oxygen System Design Considerations
  • Chapter 12: Loss of cabin pressure and rapid decompression
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Background
  • 12.3 Causes of Aircraft Cabin Decompression
  • Deliberate Full Depressurisation/Decompression
  • Failure of Pressurisation Systems
  • Loss of Structural Integrity
  • 12.4 Likelihood of Decompression
  • Commercial Aircraft
  • Military Aircraft
  • Private Aircraft
  • 12.5 Physics of Rapid Decompression
  • 12.6 Rate of Decompression
  • 12.7 Hazards of Rapid Decompression
  • 12.8 Inadvertent Decompression-Immediate Actions (Emergency Drills)
  • Immediate Action Drills Following Cabin Decompression
  • Commercial Airliners
  • Military Transport Aircraft
  • Military Fast Jet Aircraft
  • Chapter 13: High-altitude protection
  • 13.1 Profound Hypoxia
  • Breathing Gas Requirements
  • Severity of Hypoxia Following Decompression
  • 13.2 Pressure Breathing for Altitude Protection (PBA)
  • Physiological Requirement
  • Physiological Consequences of PBA
  • Breathing Pressure Limits
  • 13.3 Full Pressure Suits
  • Chapter 14: Cosmic radiation
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • Main Hazards
  • 14.2 Background: Cosmic Radiation and Space Weather
  • 14.3 Units of Measurement and Exposure
  • 14.4 Effects of Cosmic Radiation
  • 14.5 Legislation
  • 14.6 Spaceflight
  • Chapter 15: Acceleration physiology
  • 15.1 What Is G?
  • Background
  • Acceleration
  • Forms of Acceleration
  • Definition of G
  • Physics of an Aircraft in a Turn: Circular Motion
  • Acceleration Produced by Circular Motion
  • Acceleration Terminology
  • Gravity
  • G Onset Rate
  • 15.2 Subjective Effects of Acceleration
  • Weight
  • Vision
  • Unconsciousness
  • 15.3 Cardiovascular Effects of Acceleration
  • Hydrostatic Pressure
  • Venous Pooling
  • Baroreceptor Reflex
  • Retinal Circulation
  • Standard Grey-Out Pattern Thought to Occur Because
  • Cerebral Blood Flow
  • Functional Oxygen Reserve
  • 'G Measles' or Petechial Haemorrhage
  • Cardiac Rhythm
  • G Tolerance
  • 15.4 Negative G
  • Negative G (-Gz) Experienced in Outside Loop or 'Bunt'
  • 15.5 G-Induced Loss of Consciousness
  • 15.6 Risk Factors for G-LOC: G Awareness
  • 15.7 Pulmonary Effects of Acceleration
  • Lung Volume
  • Ventilation/Perfusion
  • Acceleration Atelectasis
  • Chapter 16: Prevention of G-LOC
  • 16.1 Anti-G Straining
  • Background
  • Anti-G Straining Manoeuvre (AGSM)
  • G Warm-Up
  • 16.2 Anti-G Suits
  • Five Bladder Anti-G Suit
  • Full Coverage Anti-G Suit
  • Anti-G Valve
  • Positive Pressure Breathing for G Protection (PBG)
  • 16.3 High G Training
  • 16.4 Other Methods to Improve G Tolerance
  • 16.5 Musculoskeletal Injury and Conditioning
  • Chapter 17: Short-duration acceleration
  • 17.1 Mechanics of Impact
  • 17.2 Human Tolerance
  • Gx Impact
  • Gy Impact
  • Gz Impact
  • 17.3 Physical Basis of Injury
  • Anatomical Injuries
  • Skeletal Injury
  • Joints
  • Abdominal Cavity
  • Chest
  • Spine
  • Chapter 18: Restraint systems and escape from aircraft
  • 18.1 Function of Restraint Systems
  • 18.2 Properties of a Restraint System
  • 18.3 Types of Restraint Systems
  • Lap Belts
  • Three-Point Harness
  • Four-Point Harness
  • Five-Point Harness
  • Airbags
  • 18.4 Aircraft Assisted Escape Systems (Ejection Seats)
  • 18.5 Ejection Sequence
  • 18.6 Ejection Envelope
  • 18.7 Ejection Injury
  • Chapter 19: Human physiology and the thermal environment
  • 19.1 Body Heat Balance
  • 19.2 Metabolic Cost of Aircrew Tasks
  • 19.3 Thermal Environment
  • 19.4 Physiological Parameters
  • 19.5 Heat Exchange
  • Interaction of Physical and Physiological Thermal Factors
  • Effect of Clothing
  • 19.6 Thermoregulation
  • Physiological Thermoregulation
  • Behavioural Thermoregulation
  • 19.7 Cold Stress
  • Background
  • Hazard
  • Indices
  • 19.8 Heat Stress
  • Background
  • Hazard
  • Indices
  • Chapter 20: Aircrew equipment - General
  • 20.1 Background
  • 20.2 Hazards, Risks and Mitigations
  • 20.3 Protection from Fire
  • Chapter 21: Aircrew equipment - Head injury and protection
  • 21.1 Types of Head Injury
  • 21.2 Mechanics of Head Injury
  • Skull Injury
  • Brain and Vascular Injury
  • Characteristics of Head Acceleration
  • Head Injury Tolerance
  • 21.3 Prevention of Head Injury
  • Aircrew Helmet Design
  • Helmet Standards
  • Additional Functions of Aircrew Helmet
  • Chapter 22: Aircrew equipment - Thermal protection and survival
  • 22.1 Heat
  • Identifying Those at Risk
  • Assessing the Environment
  • Effect on Performance
  • Prevention/Protection
  • 22.2 Cold
  • Assessing the Environment
  • Prevention/Protection
  • 22.3 Principles of Survival
  • 22.4 Water Immersion
  • Cold Shock
  • Underwater Escape
  • Swim Failure
  • Chapter 23: Noise, hearing and vibration
  • 23.1 Noise
  • Sound: Sensation from Stimulation of Auditory Mechanism
  • Components
  • Hazardous Noise
  • 23.2 Hearing
  • Range and Speech
  • Anatomy of Hearing
  • Hearing Loss
  • 23.3 Vibration
  • Vibration Basics
  • Vibration Theory
  • Vibration in Humans
  • Hazards of Vibration
  • Vibration Limits
  • Protection against Vibration
  • Chapter 24: Hearing protection and communication
  • 24.1 Exposure to Noise
  • Background
  • 24.2 Hearing Protection
  • Conventional Aircrew Noise Protection
  • Noise Attenuation of Conventional Protection
  • Limitations of Conventional Protection
  • Enhanced Hearing Protection
  • 24.3 Communications in Aircraft
  • Types of Communication Used
  • Aircraft Communication System
  • 24.4 Speech Intelligibility Assessment
  • Aided Communication
  • Non-Aided Communication
  • Chapter 25: Vision
  • 25.1 Vision in Aviation
  • 25.2 Visual Acuity
  • Refractive Error and Refractive Correction
  • Acceptable Visual Acuity for Aviation
  • Management of Refractive Errors
  • 25.3 Light/Dark Adaptation and Colour Vision
  • Retinal Cell Types
  • Dark Adaption
  • Purkinje Shift
  • 25.4 Abnormal Colour Vision
  • Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency
  • Acquired Colour Vision Deficiency
  • Colour Deficiency in Aviation
  • Assessment of Colour Vision
  • 25.5 Depth Perception
  • 25.6 Visual Fields
  • 25.7 Ocular Muscle Balance
  • 25.8 Flight Hazards to Vision
  • Glare
  • Solar Damage
  • Laser
  • Empty Field Myopia
  • High-Speed Flight
  • Canopy Distortions
  • Chapter 26: Visual systems
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • Visual Sensors
  • Thermal Imaging Sensors
  • 26.2 Night Vision Goggles
  • NVG Cockpit Lighting Compatibility
  • NVG Limitations
  • 26.3 Thermal Imaging Sensors
  • 26.4 Visual System Requirements
  • Field of View
  • Monocular/Biocular/Binocular
  • Resolution/Acuity
  • 26.5 Challenges of Integrating Visual Systems
  • Depth Perception and Hyperstereopsis
  • Biocular/Binocular Issues
  • Accommodation and Eyestrain
  • Ocular Dominance and Binocular Rivalry
  • Displaced Visual Inputs
  • Latency
  • Symptomatology - Pilot Surveys
  • Mass, Centre of Gravity, Stability, Comfort
  • Vibration
  • Equipment Integration
  • Chapter 27: Spatial orientation and disorientation in flight
  • 27.1 What Is Spatial Disorientation?
  • 27.2 Mechanisms for Normal Orientation
  • Vision
  • Vestibular
  • Kinaesthetic
  • Auditory
  • 27.3 Causes of Spatial Disorientation
  • Inattention Causes
  • Visual Causes
  • Vestibular Causes
  • Insufficient Orientation Cues
  • Central Causes
  • 27.4 Risk Factors for Spatial Disorientation
  • 27.5 Preventing Spatial Disorientation
  • Equipment
  • Training
  • Chapter 28: Motion sickness
  • 28.1 What Is Motion Sickness?
  • 28.2 Signs and Symptoms of MS
  • 28.3 Warning Signs of MS
  • 28.4 Vehicle Accelerations That Cause MS
  • 28.5 Why the MS Response Occurs
  • 28.6 Operational Significance
  • 28.7 Factors Contributing to Susceptibility
  • 28.8 MS Countermeasures
  • Chapter 29: Human systems integration (HSI)
  • 29.1 Why Do HSI?
  • 29.2 HSI Domains
  • Manpower
  • Personnel
  • Training
  • Human Factors Engineering
  • System Safety
  • Health Hazards
  • Organisational and Social
  • 29.3 HSI Goals
  • 29.4 Aerospace Medicine Practitioner HSI Roles
  • Chapter 30: Selection and training
  • 30.1 History
  • 30.2 Principles of Selection and Training
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • 30.3 Selection Modes
  • 30.4 Pilot Training
  • 30.5 Learning Theory
  • Chapter 31: The flight deck and cockpit
  • 31.1 Illustrative Historical Progress and Transformation
  • Wright Brothers Flyer (1903)
  • Sopwith Camel (1917)
  • De Havilland Chipmunk (1946)
  • Grob Tutor (1999)
  • Shorts Tucano (1986)
  • BAeS Hawk TMk1 (1976)
  • BAeS Hawk TMk2
  • Eurofighter Typhoon
  • 31.2 Human Factors
  • 31.3 Cockpit Ergonomics
  • Chapter 32: Human factors and crew resource management
  • 32.1 Definitions
  • 32.2 Why Train HF and CRM?
  • 32.3 Evolution of CRM
  • 32.4 Threat and Error Management
  • Threats
  • Errors
  • Undesired Aircraft State (UDS)
  • Management
  • 32.5 CRM Training Requirements
  • Awareness/Knowledge
  • Training and Practice
  • 32.6 CRM Assessment
  • 32.7 Reinforcement of CRM
  • 32.8 Drawbacks of CRM
  • 32.9 CRM beyond the Flight Deck
  • Chapter 33: Fatigue and countermeasures
  • 33.1 Fatigue in Aviation
  • 33.2 Fatigue Factors
  • Homeostatic Component
  • Circadian Component
  • Sleep-Inertia Component
  • 33.3 Mother Nature's Design
  • 33.4 The Homeostatic Component
  • 33.5 The Circadian Component
  • 33.6 The Sleep-Inertia Component
  • 33.7 Problematic Interactions among the Three Components
  • 33.8 Recommendations for Countering Fatigue in Aviation
  • Optimization of Crew Scheduling
  • In-Flight Counter-Fatigue Strategies
  • Preflight Counter-Fatigue Strategies
  • Chapter 34: Errors and accidents
  • 34.1 Human Error
  • 34.2 Error Types
  • 34.3 Organisational Approaches to Error
  • 34.4 Human Error Analysis
  • Benefits of HEA
  • Limitations of HEA
  • 34.5 Error Prevention
  • 34.6 Aviation Accidents - Definition
  • 34.7 Aviation Accidents - Human Error Investigation Techniques
  • Chain of Events Models
  • Epidemiological Models
  • Systemic Models
  • Chapter 35: Accident investigation
  • 35.1 Principles of Aviation Accident Investigation
  • 35.2 On-Site Accident Investigation
  • Analysis of Aircraft Crashworthiness
  • 35.3 Off-Site Accident Investigation
  • Chapter 36: Assessing risk and making decisions
  • 36.1 Background
  • 36.2 The 1% Safety Rule
  • 36.3 Limitations of the 1% Safety Rule
  • 36.4 Probability and Consequence of Medical Events
  • Medical Events
  • Aircrew Role
  • 36.5 Aeromedical Disposition
  • Chapter 37: Medication in aircrew
  • 37.1 Definition
  • 37.2 Treat the Patient, Then the Pilot
  • 37.3 Considerations When Prescribing
  • 37.4 Herbs and Homeopathy
  • 37.5 Dear DR
  • Chapter 38: International regulation of medical standards
  • 38.1 Framework for Regulatory Activity in Civil Aviation
  • 38.2 Flexibility and Accredited Medical Conclusion
  • 38.3 Overview of Regulatory Medical Requirements
  • 38.4 Requirements for Military Aircrew
  • 38.5 Setting and Monitoring International Military Medical Standards
  • Chapter 39: Aircrew medicals
  • 39.1 Introduction
  • 39.2 Aviation Medical Examiners
  • 39.3 Medical Examinations
  • Components of Typical Aircrew Medical
  • 39.4 Frequency of Medicals
  • Chapter 40: Anthropometry
  • 40.1 Definition
  • 40.2 Why Is Anthropometry Important in Aviation?
  • Aircraft Design
  • Aircrew Selection
  • Anthropometric Surveys
  • 40.3 What Human Characteristics Are Used in Anthropometry?
  • 40.4 How Are Anthropometric Characteristics Assessed?
  • Manual Measures
  • Automatic Measures
  • 40.5 What Factors Influence Anthropometric Ranges?
  • 40.6 How Are Anthropometric Data Described?
  • Chapter 41: The health of the cabin crew
  • 41.1 Cabin Crew Duties
  • Security and Safety
  • Customer Service Role
  • 41.2 Physical and Psychological Attributes
  • Physical
  • Pre-Existing Medical Conditions
  • Social and Mental Health
  • 41.3 Potential Health Risks
  • Cabin Environment
  • Destination
  • Travel Advice
  • 41.4 Medical Assessment/Certification of Fitness
  • Chapter 42: Air traffic control
  • 42.1 Role of Air Traffic Control
  • 42.2 ATCO Work Environments
  • Tower or the Visual Control Room (VCR)
  • Approach or Terminal Radar
  • En-Route or Area Control Centres
  • Oceanic Control Centres
  • 42.3 Occupational Hazards and Requirements
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Musculoskeletal/Ergonomic
  • Shift Work and Fatigue Management
  • Workplace Pressure
  • 42.4 New Technologies and Future Workstations
  • Chapter 43: Passenger fitness to fly
  • 43.1 The Aviation Environment
  • 43.2 Preflight Assessment
  • Conditions Likely to Be Rejected for Travel
  • Conditions That May Be Assessed Fit If Appropriately Escorted
  • 43.3 Pregnancy
  • 43.4 Medical Information Form (MEDIF)
  • 43.5 Oxygen Requirements
  • 43.6 Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)
  • 43.7 Military Passengers
  • 43.8 Additional Information
  • Chapter 44: Travel health and infectious diseases
  • 44.1 Introduction
  • 44.2 Consultation
  • 44.3 Travel Advice
  • Pre-Travel Advice
  • Advice When Overseas
  • Advice after Travel
  • 44.4 Risk Assessment
  • Chapter 45: Aviation public health
  • 45.1 International Aviation Public Health
  • 45.2 Preventing International Spread of Disease
  • 45.3 Infectious Disease Outbreaks
  • At the Airport
  • On Board
  • At Destination
  • 45.4 Prevention of Spread of Insect Vectors
  • 45.5 Food Safety
  • Chapter 46: Planning for aeromedical evacuation
  • 46.1 Organisation
  • Principles
  • Forms
  • Categorisation
  • 46.2 Capabilities
  • Forward AE
  • Tactical/Strategic AE
  • 46.3 Planning Considerations
  • 46.4 General Medical Considerations
  • 46.5 Specific Clinical Considerations
  • 46.6 Basic Aeromedical Risk Assessment
  • 46.7 Quality Care and Governance
  • 46.8 Sources of Further Information
  • Chapter 47: Clinical considerations in prolonged aeromedical transfer
  • 47.1 Background
  • 47.2 Medical Considerations
  • 47.3 Physiological Considerations
  • 47.4 Tissue Oxygen Delivery
  • Chapter 48: Hypertension
  • 48.1 Background
  • 48.2 Diagnosis
  • 48.3 Global Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
  • 48.4 Aeromedical Concerns
  • 48.5 Management - General Measures
  • 48.6 Management - Pharmacological Measures
  • Thiazide Diuretics
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blocking (ARB) Agents
  • Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB)
  • Beta-Blockers
  • 48.7 Resistant Hypertension
  • 48.8 Aeromedical Disposition
  • 48.9 Ongoing Review
  • Chapter 49: Atherosclerosis
  • 49.1 Background
  • Effect of Stenosis
  • 49.2 Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
  • Mild CAD
  • Moderate to Severe CAD
  • 49.3 Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD)
  • Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 49.4 Revascularization
  • Scope
  • Methods
  • Follow-Up
  • 49.5 Aeromedical Risk Assessment in CAD
  • Chapter 50: Congenital heart disease
  • 50.1 Background
  • 50.2 Risk Assessment in Aircrew
  • 50.3 Specific Conditions
  • Coronary Artery Anomalies
  • Congenital Valve Disease
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  • Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
  • Atrial Septal Defects (ASD)
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • Chapter 51: Valvular heart disease
  • 51.1 Background
  • 51.2 Risk Assessment in Aircrew
  • 51.3 Congenital Valve Disease
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve disease
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • 51.4 Acquired Valve Disease
  • Aortic Valve Disease
  • Mitral Valve Disease
  • Chapter 52: Heart muscle disease
  • 52.1 Background
  • 52.2 Risk Assessment in Aircrew with HMD
  • 52.3 Cardiomyopathy
  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
  • Infiltrative Cardiomyopathy
  • Athlete's Heart
  • 52.4 Myocarditis and Pericarditis
  • Chapter 53: Arrhythmias and electrophysiology
  • 53.1 Background
  • 53.2 Approach to Screening in Aircrew
  • Second Level Investigation
  • Specialist Investigations
  • 53.3 Syncope
  • Background
  • Aeromedical Concerns
  • 53.4 Sinus Node Dysfunction
  • 53.5 Atrioventricular Conduction Disturbance
  • 53.6 Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB)
  • 53.7 Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB)
  • 53.8 Atrial Ectopy
  • 53.9 Ventricular Ectopy (VE)/Premature Ventricular Complexes (PVC)
  • 53.10 Supraventricular Tachycardia
  • Background
  • Aeromedical Concerns
  • Management
  • 53.11 Asymptomatic Pre-Excitation
  • 53.12 Atrial Fibrillation
  • Background
  • Aeromedical Concerns
  • Management
  • 53.13 Atrial Flutter
  • Aeromedical Concerns
  • Management
  • 53.14 Non-Sustained and Sustained Ventricular Tachycardias
  • Background
  • Aeromedical Concerns
  • Management
  • 53.15 Inherited Arrhythmogenic Conditions (Channelopathies)
  • Brugada Syndrome (BrS)
  • Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)
  • Chapter 54: Cardiac investigations
  • 54.1 Background
  • 54.2 Electrocardiograph (ECG)
  • 54.3 Second-Line Investigations
  • Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE)
  • Exercise ECG/Exercise Tolerance Test (ExECG/ETT)
  • Extended Holter ECG
  • 54.4 Specialist Coronary Anatomy Investigations
  • CT Coronary Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring
  • Invasive Coronary Angiography (ICA)
  • 54.5 Specialist Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
  • Cardiac MRI (CMR)
  • Chapter 55: Respiratory disease
  • 55.1 Passenger Fitness to Fly Assessment
  • Background
  • Hypoxic Challenge Test
  • Supplementary Oxygen
  • 55.2 Airway Diseases (Asthma & Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
  • Passengers
  • Aircrew and ATCOs
  • 55.3 Sarcoidosis
  • 55.4 Pneumothorax
  • Passengers and Patients
  • Aircrew and ATCOs
  • 55.5 Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
  • Passengers
  • Aircrew and ATCOs
  • 55.6 Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  • 55.7 Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease
  • Passengers
  • Aircrew and ATCOs
  • Chapter 56: Gastroenterology
  • 56.1 GI Physiology in the Aviation Environment
  • 56.2 Aviation Gastroenterology
  • 56.3 Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux and Peptic Ulcer Disease (GORD/PUD)
  • 56.4 Coeliac Disease
  • 56.5 Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Crohn's Disease
  • 56.6 Gallstone Disease and Pancreatitis
  • 56.7 Liver Disorders
  • Chapter 57: Metabolic and endocrine disorders
  • 57.1 Background
  • 57.2 Diabetes and Glycaemic Dysregulation
  • Glycaemic Dysregulation
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • 57.3 Thyroid
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • 57.4 Parathyroid
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • 57.5 Pituitary Disorders
  • Pituitary Tumours
  • Treatment
  • 57.6 Gonadal Disorders
  • 57.7 Adrenal
  • Cushing's Syndrome
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Phaeochromocytoma
  • 57.8 Obesity
  • Chapter 58: Malignant disease
  • 58.1 Introduction
  • 58.2 General Considerations for Fitness
  • 58.3 Certification after Treatment
  • Factors to Consider
  • Example
  • 58.4 Colorectal Cancer
  • 58.5 Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  • 58.6 Melanoma
  • 58.7 Germ-Cell Tumours of Testicles
  • 58.8 Breast
  • 58.9 Prostate
  • Chapter 59: Renal disease and aviation
  • 59.1 Introduction
  • 59.2 The Effects of Kidney Disease on the Aviator
  • Renal Colic
  • Declining Renal Function
  • Increased Cardiovascular Disease
  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Associated Conditions
  • Medications
  • 59.3 Assessment of Kidney Disease
  • 59.4 Haematuria and Proteinuria
  • 59.5 Renal Stone Disease
  • Aeromedical Implications
  • 59.6 Dialysis and Transplantation
  • 59.7 Single Kidney
  • 59.8 Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
  • 59.9 Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Alpha-Adrenergic Antagonists
  • Alpha Reductase Inhibitors
  • Chapter 60: Neurological disease
  • 60.1 Introduction
  • 60.2 Static with Low Risk of Progression
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Peripheral Nerve Injury
  • Cranial Nerve Injury
  • 60.3 Static with Moderate/High Risk of Progression
  • Cerebrovascular Events (CVE)
  • Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)
  • Cavernous Haemangiomas
  • Haemorrhagic CVE/Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
  • Perimesencephalic SAH
  • Other CVEs
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • 60.4 Episodic and Infectious Disease
  • Seizures and Epilepsy
  • Headache and Neuralgia
  • Progressive and Degenerative Disorders
  • Chapter 61: Ear, nose and throat
  • 61.1 Clinical Examination
  • 61.2 Hearing Loss (HYPOACUSIS)
  • Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)
  • Otosclerosis
  • Presbyacusis
  • Aviation Management of Hearing Loss
  • 61.3 Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma)
  • 61.4 Vestibular Function Disturbance
  • Ménière's Disease
  • Viral Vestibular Neuronitis (Labyrinthitis)
  • Alternobaric Vertigo
  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
  • 61.5 Other ENT Disorders
  • Barotrauma
  • Tympanic Perforation
  • Otitis Media (Acute, with or without Effusion, and Chronic Suppurative)
  • Cholesteatoma
  • Chapter 62: Orthopaedics
  • 62.1 Introduction
  • 62.2 Trauma
  • Fractures
  • Post-Traumatic Arthritis
  • Ejection Seat Injuries
  • 62.3 Elective Care
  • Soft Tissue Joint Surgery
  • Joint Replacement Surgery
  • Chronic Disease
  • Chapter 63: Haematology
  • 63.1 Anaemia
  • Haemolytic Anaemia
  • Sickle Cell Disease
  • Thalassaemia
  • 63.2 Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Polycythaemia
  • 63.3 Haematological Malignancies
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • 63.4 Disorders of Haemostasis
  • Thrombocytopaenia
  • Autoimmune Thrombocytopaenia
  • Haemophilia
  • Von Willebrand Disease
  • Deep Venous Thromboembolism
  • Anticoagulation
  • Thrombophilia
  • 63.5 Air Travel and Thrombosis
  • Assessing Risk of Travel-Related Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Advice for Air Travel Lasting More Than 6 Hours
  • Other Factors
  • 63.6 Blood and Marrow Donation
  • 63.7 Splenectomy
  • Chapter 64: Aviation psychiatry
  • 64.1 Background
  • 64.2 Medical Regulations
  • 64.3 General Psychiatric Assessment
  • 64.4 Specialist Psychiatric Assessment
  • 64.5 Treatment
  • Depression
  • Treatment Discontinuation
  • 64.6 Follow-Up
  • 64.7 Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders
  • General Assessment of Alcohol and Drug Disorders
  • Specialist Assessment of Alcohol and Drug Disorders
  • Treatment and Follow-Up
  • 64.8 Fear of Flying
  • Index

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