Diagnostic Cytopathology

Expert Consult: Online and Print
 
 
Churchill Livingstone Title (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 24. Mai 2010
  • |
  • 954 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-4895-1 (ISBN)
 

This edition stresses not just the diagnostic cytological features of the various conditions encountered, but also the diagnostic pitfalls and the grey areas between so as to enable the reader to give more evidence-based reports. In recognition of their rapid expansion, there are new chapters on recent technological developments and on the cytodiagnosis of childhood tumours. A special section on the importance of multidisciplinary team meetings that include the cytopathologist as a core member of the team has also been included at the end of each chapter. As active members of this team, cytopathologists can define their role in the management pathway and thus bring the patient and the microscope together as never before. The full text can be accessed online and images downloaded via Expert Consult.

  • Englisch
  • London
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • Höhe: 219 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 276 mm
  • |
  • Dicke: 0 mm
  • 120,11 MB
978-0-7020-4895-1 (9780702048951)
070204895X (070204895X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Diagnostic Cytopathology
  • Copyright Page
  • Instructions for online access
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • Dedication
  • Section 1 Introduction
  • Chapter 1 Cytopathology: the history, the present and the future direction
  • The early historical era
  • Development and expansion of exfoliative cytology
  • Consolidation of cytopathology as a discipline
  • Responsibilities of cytology as a discipline
  • Cytopathology in the twenty-first century
  • Meeting new professional challenges
  • Epilogue
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 2 Respiratory System
  • Chapter 2 Respiratory tract
  • Introduction
  • Preparatory techniques and diagnostic applications
  • General respiratory tract findings
  • Criteria for assessing adequacy of samples
  • Non-specific reactive changes in cytological preparations
  • Bacterial infective diseases
  • Viral infections
  • Fungal infections
  • Parasitic infections
  • Non-specific inflammatory lung conditions
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary disease
  • Non-infective granulomatous lung disease
  • Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD)
  • Specific types of pulmonary fibrosis
  • Occupational lung disease
  • Other benign pulmonary conditions
  • Role of cytology in non-neoplastic pulmonary disease
  • Classification and background
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Large cell carcinomas
  • Carcinoid tumours
  • Other carcinomas
  • Metastatic carcinoma
  • Other rare tumours
  • Benign mesenchymal tumours
  • Lymphoma, leukaemia and related disorders
  • Sarcoma in the lung
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 3 Serous Cavities
  • Chapter 3 Serous effusions
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy, histology and cytology
  • Specimen types, collection and processing
  • Interpretation of serous effusion cytopathology
  • Ancillary techniques
  • Immunocytochemistry of effusions
  • Reactive conditions causing effusions
  • Mesothelioma
  • Metastatic carcinoma in effusion fluids
  • Haematolymphoid disorders
  • Metastatic sarcomas, melanoma and other neoplastic effusions
  • Malignant effusions: evaluation of unknown primary
  • Diagnostic pitfalls in cytopathology of serous cavity fluids
  • Management role
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 4 Breast
  • Chapter 4 The breast
  • Introduction
  • The normal breast
  • Inflammatory conditions
  • Breast cysts and fibrocystic change
  • Benign tumours and tumour-like lesions
  • Epithelial hyperplasias and tumour-like lesions
  • Borderline epithelial and stromal lesions
  • Malignant breast tumours
  • Other malignant tumours
  • Radiation-induced changes in the breast
  • FNA in the management strategies of symptomatic and screening detected abnormalities
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 5 Alimentary System
  • Chapter 5 Salivary glands
  • Introduction
  • Normal salivary gland components
  • Aspiration technique
  • Ectopic salivary glands
  • Non-neoplastic conditions
  • Miscellaneous conditions
  • Tumours of the salivary gland
  • Role of FNA in the management of salivary gland lesions
  • Diagnostic accuracy
  • Approach to salivary gland cytology
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 6 Oral cavity
  • Introduction
  • Normal oral mucosa
  • Oral precursor lesions
  • Oral and oropharyngeal cancers
  • Infections
  • Vesiculo-bullous disorders
  • Pigmented lesions
  • Jaw cysts
  • Role of cytology in the management of oral cancer and precursor lesions
  • Oral submucosal swellings
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 7 Oesophagus and gastrointestinal tract
  • Introduction
  • Normal anatomy and histology
  • Cytology sampling methods and preparation
  • General principles
  • Pitfalls
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Duodenum
  • Colon
  • Anal canal
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 6 Hepatobiliary System and Pancreas
  • Chapter 8 Liver
  • Introduction
  • Tumour classification
  • Normal morphology
  • Non-neoplastic conditions
  • Benign neoplasms
  • Malignant neoplasms - primary
  • Malignant neoplasms - metastatic
  • Role of liver FNA in the management of liver lesions
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 9 Gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts
  • Introduction
  • Endoscopic techniques
  • Complications and contraindications
  • Normal cytology
  • Benign conditions
  • Dysplasia
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Special tumour types
  • Diagnostic pitfalls
  • The role of cytology in management of diseases of hepatobiliary ducts
  • Diagnostic accuracy
  • The future
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 10 Pancreas
  • Introduction: technical aspects
  • Normal histology and cytology
  • Reactive and inflammatory processes
  • Solid malignant neoplasms
  • Metastatic tumours
  • Pancreatic cysts
  • The role of FNA in the management of pancreatic lesions
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 7 Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Chapter 11 Kidney and retroperitoneal tissues
  • Introduction
  • Indications and contraindications for FNA of kidney
  • FNA technique
  • The unsatisfactory specimen
  • Malignant tumours of kidney
  • Benign primitive renal tumours
  • Cystic neoplasms
  • Ancillary techniques
  • The retroperitoneum
  • Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis
  • The role of the cytopathologist in clinical management
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 12 Urine cytology
  • Introduction
  • Specimen types
  • Diagnostic categories
  • Specimen processing
  • Cytomorphological criteria of benign and neoplastic urinary tract specimens
  • Malignancy and its pitfalls
  • High-grade urothelial carcinoma
  • Low-grade urothelial carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Other malignancies
  • Urinary biomarkers
  • Quality assurance and improvement
  • The role of the cytopathologist in patient management
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 8 Lymphoreticular System
  • Chapter 13 Lymph nodes
  • Introduction
  • The role of cytology in lymph node diagnosis
  • Technical aspects
  • Normal lymph node histology and cytology
  • Reactive lymphadenopathy
  • Acute infective lymphadenopathy
  • Malignant lymphomas
  • Metastatic lymph node disease
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 14 Other lymphoreticular organs
  • Introduction
  • Waldeyer's ring
  • Thymus and mediastinum
  • Spleen
  • Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  • Diagnostic value of FNA in assessment of extranodal lymphoid tissue
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 9 Transplantation and Immunosuppression
  • Chapter 15 Organ transplantation
  • Introduction
  • Kidney transplant cytology
  • Liver transplant cytology
  • The role of the cytopathologist in patient management
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 16 Immunosuppression
  • Introduction
  • Technical aspects
  • Opportunistic infection
  • Neoplastic disease
  • Associated conditions and pitfalls: immunosuppression due to miscellaneous conditions
  • The role of cytology in management of the immunosuppressed patient
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 10 Endocrine System
  • Chapter 17 Thyroid gland
  • Anatomy and physiology
  • Historical perspective
  • Clinical indications for FNA of thyroid nodules, the influence of thyroid imaging and mode of FNA guidance
  • Technique
  • Contraindications and complications
  • Normal cytological findings
  • Developmental abnormalities
  • Acquired non-neoplastic conditions
  • Thyroid neoplasms
  • Specimen adequacy and diagnostic accuracy
  • Integrated management schemes for thyroid cytology
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 18 Other endocrine organs
  • The parathyroid glands
  • The adrenal glands
  • Other paraganglionomas including carotid body tumours
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 11 Male Genital Tract
  • Chapter 19 Prostate gland
  • Introduction
  • Diagnostic procedure
  • Causes of prostatic enlargement
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Neuroendocrine (small cell) carcinoma
  • Transitional cell carcinoma
  • Rare epithelial tumours
  • Non-epithelial neoplasms
  • The role of cytology in management of prostate cancer
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 20 Testis and scrotum: cytology of testicular and scrotal masses and male infertility
  • Introduction
  • Diagnostic work-up of testicular and scrotal masses
  • Benign lesions of the scrotum
  • Tumours of the testis
  • Testicular cytology for infertility
  • Role of FNA cytology in testicular and scrotal lesions and male infertility
  • Summary of testis FNA and male infertility
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 12 Female Genital Tract
  • Chapter 21 Vulva, vagina and cervix: normal cytology, hormonal and inflammatory conditions
  • Introduction
  • Gross and microscopic anatomy
  • Cytological identification of epithelial cells
  • Other epithelial and inflammatory cells in cervical and vaginal smears
  • Cells other than inflammatory and epithelial cells
  • Assessment of quality of smears
  • Influence of sex hormones on squamous epithelium
  • Other hormonal effects
  • Inflammation and infection of the vagina and cervix
  • Special types of cervicitis and vaginitis
  • Bacterial microorganisms of the vagina and cervix
  • Protozoa
  • Fungi
  • Viruses
  • Iatrogenic lesions
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 22 Cervical screening programmes
  • Introduction
  • Principles of screening
  • History of cervical screening in the UK
  • The UK cervical screening programmes
  • Quality assurance and governance
  • Litigation
  • Comparison with other national cervical screening programmes
  • New methods in cervical screening
  • Summary
  • The future
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 23 Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
  • Introduction
  • Clinical features of invasive carcinoma of the cervix
  • Histological classification
  • Aetiology and pathogenesis of carcinoma of the cervix
  • The relationship between CIN and cervical cancer
  • Screening for prevention of carcinoma of the cervix
  • Cytological terminology of cervical pre-cancer
  • The cytology of CIN and invasive squamous cell carcinoma
  • Low-grade (formerly mild) dyskaryosis, including koilocytosis: CIN 1
  • High-grade dyskaryosis (incorporating moderate and severe dyskaryosis): CIN 2 and CIN 3
  • Invasive squamous cell carcinoma
  • Borderline nuclear changes
  • The cervical cytology test in pregnancy
  • Accuracy of cervical cytology
  • Management of the patient with abnormal cytology
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 24 Glandular neoplasms of the cervix
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma precursor lesions
  • Invasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix
  • Immunochemical and molecular markers in glandular neoplasia
  • Management of women with cytological prediction of glandular abnormality
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 25 Other tumours and lesions of cervix, vulva and vagina
  • Introduction
  • Tumour-like conditions of the cervix
  • Epithelial changes simulating neoplasia
  • Uncommon tumours of the cervix
  • Tumours of the vulva
  • Tumours of the vagina
  • The role of the cytopathologist in clinical management
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 26 Cytology of the body of the uterus
  • Introduction
  • Endometrial sampling and processing
  • Cells present in endometrial samples
  • Cytological findings in direct preparations using cytoarchitectural features
  • Cytological findings in LBC preparations using cytoarchitectural features: non-neoplastic endometrium
  • Hormone-dependent modifications
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD)
  • Papillary metaplastic change in endometrium
  • Endometrial adenocarcinoma
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumour (carcinosarcoma)
  • Trophoblastic tumours
  • Non-endometrial tumours
  • Immunocytochemistry using LBC
  • Reporting format for endometrial cytodiagnosis based on cytoarchitectural criteria
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 27 Ovaries, fallopian tubes and associated lesions
  • Introduction
  • Obtaining cytological material
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Pelvic serous carcinoma of the peritoneum
  • Other pelvic cysts
  • The role of peritoneal washings
  • The role of cytology in management of ovarian lesions
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 13 Skin, Soft Tissues and Musculoskeletal System
  • Chapter 28 Skin
  • Introduction
  • Normal skin
  • Technical procedures
  • Infections
  • Bullous lesions
  • Benign and malignant tumours of the surface epithelium
  • Melanocytic naevi and malignant melanoma
  • Tumours of the skin adnexae
  • Cutaneous lymphomas
  • Soft tissue lesions affecting the skin and subcutis
  • Other conditions
  • The role of skin cytology in clinical management
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 29 Soft tissue and musculoskeletal system
  • Introduction
  • Technical procedures
  • Complications of FNA of soft tissue and bone tumours
  • Cytological findings in normal and reactive soft tissues
  • Cytological findings in normal and reactive bone
  • Soft tissue tumours
  • Benign soft tissue tumours
  • Tumours of peripheral nerves
  • Tumours of smooth muscle
  • Tumours of striated muscle
  • Tumours of blood vessels
  • Tumours of uncertain histogenesis
  • Malignant soft tissue tumours
  • Malignant tumours of uncertain, unknown or debated origin
  • Skeletal tumours/ lesions
  • Osteogenic tumours
  • Notochordal tumours
  • Neuroectodermal tumours
  • Lymphohistiocytic lesions
  • Inflammatory lesions of bone
  • Metastatic tumours
  • The role of FNA cytology in management of soft tissue lesions
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 30 Synovial fluid
  • Introduction
  • Synovial fluid cytology
  • The cytocentrifuge preparation
  • Cells
  • Clinical applications of synovial fluid microscopy and the value of diagnostic algorithms
  • The place of synovial fluid microscopy in clinical management
  • Summary
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 14 Central Nervous System
  • Chapter 31 Brain and cerebrospinal fluid
  • INTRAOPERATIVE CYTOLOGY OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Introduction
  • Intraoperative neuropathological techniques
  • Cytology of the normal brain
  • Reactive processes
  • Non-neoplastic conditions
  • Tumours
  • Pituitary
  • Chordoma
  • Metastatic tumours
  • New techniques
  • The role of CNS intraoperative cytology in patient management
  • THE CYTOLOGY OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
  • Introduction
  • Cerebrospinal fluid production and flow
  • Source of CSF samples
  • Laboratory testing on CSF and when cytology is appropriate
  • Slide preparation and laboratory methods
  • Cytological examination of the CSF
  • Normal cell types, contaminants and artefacts
  • CSF cytology in non-neoplastic conditions
  • CSF cytology for tumour diagnosis
  • Diagnostic pitfalls in CSF tumour cytology
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 32 Eyelids, orbit and eye
  • Introduction
  • Eyelids
  • Conjunctiva
  • Cornea
  • Ocular globe
  • Anterior segment
  • Posterior segment
  • Orbit
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 15 Childhood Tumours
  • Chapter 33 Childhood tumours
  • Introduction
  • Role of the cytopathologist
  • Main tumours
  • Non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas
  • Neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma and other soft tissue tumours
  • Ewing (sarcoma) family of tumours (pPNET)
  • Other tumours
  • Conclusion
  • REFERENCES
  • Section 16 New Techniques
  • Chapter 34 New techniques
  • Introduction
  • Diagnostic molecular cytopathology
  • Technological advances (non-molecular)
  • The future of diagnostic molecular cytopathology
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z

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