Orthodontics

Current Principles and Techniques
 
 
Mosby (Verlag)
  • 6. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 15. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 928 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-44432-3 (ISBN)
 

Comprehensive, cutting-edge content prepares you for today's orthodontics! Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques, 6th Edition provides evidence-based coverage of orthodontic diagnosis, planning strategies, and treatment protocols, including esthetics, genetics, temporary anchorage devices, aligners, technology-assisted biomechanics, and much more. New to this edition is an Expert Consult website using videos and additional visuals to show concepts difficult to explain with words alone. Expert Consult also adds three online-only chapters, research updates, and a fully searchable version of the text. From respected editors Lee Graber, Robert Vanarsdall, Katherine Vig, and Greg Huang, along with a veritable Who's Who of expert contributors, this classic reference has a concise, no-nonsense approach to treatment that makes it the go-to book for orthodontic residents and practitioners!

    • Comprehensive coverage provides a one-stop resource for the field of orthodontics, including foundational theory and the latest on the materials and techniques used in today's practice.
    • Experienced, renowned editors lead a team of expert, international contributors, bringing the most authoritative clinical practice and supporting science from the best and brightest in the industry.
    • More than 3,400 images include a mixture of radiographs, full-color clinical photos, and anatomic or schematic line drawings, showing examples of treatment, techniques, and outcomes.
    • Extensive references make it easy to look up the latest in orthodontic research and evidence-based information, and all references also appear online.
    • Detailed, illustrated case studies show the decision-making process, showing the consequences of various treatment techniques over time.
      • NEW! Seven all-new chapters include Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging; Upper Airway, Cranial Morphology, and Sleep Apnea; Management of Impactions; Iatrogenic Effects of Orthodontic Appliances; Minimally and Non-Invasive Approaches to Accelerate Tooth Movement; Management of Dental Luxation and Avulsion Injuries in the Permanent Dentition; and Patient Management and Motivation for the Child and Adolescent Patient.
      • NEW! Expert Consult website includes online-only chapters, instructional videos, many references linked to PubMed, and research updates including additional case studies.
      • UPDATED CHAPTERS include Biomechanical Considerations with Temporary Anchorage Devices, Bonding in Orthodontics, Clear Aligner Treatment, Lingual Appliance Treatment, Psychological Aspects of Diagnosis and Treatment, Clinically Relevant Aspects of Dental Materials Science in Orthodontics, The Biologic Basis of Orthodontics, and more.
      • New co-editor Greg J. Huang is joined by new contributors who are highly regarded experts within their respective subspecialties in orthodontics.
      • Englisch
      • St Louis
      • |
      • USA
      Elsevier Health Sciences
      • 116,24 MB
      978-0-323-44432-3 (9780323444323)
      0323444326 (0323444326)
      weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
      • Front Cover
      • IFC
      • ORTHODONTICS: CURRENT PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES
      • ORTHODONTICS: CURRENT PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES
      • Copyright
      • PREFACE
      • PART ONE
      • Foundations of Orthodontics
      • PART TWO
      • Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
      • PART THREE
      • Mixed Dentition Diagnosis and Treatment
      • PART FOUR
      • Orthodontic Treatment
      • PART FIVE
      • Specialized Treatment Considerations
      • PART SIX
      • Orthodontic Retention and Post-Treatment Changes
      • PART SEVEN
      • Classic Chapters (online only)
      • CONTENTS
      • One - Foundations of Orthodontics
      • 1 - CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: DEVELOPING A PERSPECTIVE
      • INTRODUCTION
      • SOMATIC GROWTH
      • Differential Development and Maturation
      • Variation in Rates of Growth during Maturation
      • CRANIOFACIAL COMPLEX
      • Structural Units
      • Desmocranium
      • Chondrocranium
      • Viscerocranium
      • Dentition
      • Functional Units
      • Neurocranium
      • Face
      • Oral Apparatus
      • MOLECULAR BASIS OF CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH
      • CRANIAL VAULT
      • Development of the Cranial Vault
      • Mechanisms of Suture Growth
      • Postnatal Growth of the Cranial Vault
      • CRANIAL BASE
      • Development of the Cranial Base
      • Mechanism of Synchondrosal Growth
      • Postnatal Growth of the Cranial Base
      • MIDFACE/NASOMAXILLARY COMPLEX
      • Development of the Midface
      • Postnatal Growth of the Midface
      • MANDIBLE
      • Development of the Mandible
      • Growth of the Mandibular Condyle
      • Histomorphology of the Growing Condyle
      • Age-Related Changes in the Mandibular Condyle
      • Mechanisms of Condylar Growth
      • Postnatal Growth of the Mandible
      • ARCH DEVELOPMENT, TOOTH MIGRATION, AND ERUPTION
      • ADULT CHANGES IN CRANIOFACIAL FORM
      • POSTNATAL INTERRELATIONSHIPS DURING CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH
      • SIGNIFICANCE OF UNDERSTANDING CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH FOR ORTHODONTICS
      • REFERENCES
      • 2 - GENETICS AND ORTHODONTICS
      • ETIOLOGY
      • BACKGROUND AND BASIC DEFINITIONS
      • TYPES OF GENETIC EFFECTS AND MODES OF INHERITANCE
      • Monogenic Traits
      • Autosomal Dominant Traits and Penetrance
      • Variable Expressivity
      • Autosomal Recessive Traits
      • X-Linked Traits and Lyonization (X Inactivation)
      • Complex Traits
      • NATURE VERSUS NURTURE
      • Heritability and Its Estimation
      • Use of Family Data to Predict Growth
      • FACIAL GROWTH
      • Growth Differences during Puberty
      • Mandibular Prognathism/Class III Malocclusion
      • Class II Division 2 (II/2) Malocclusion
      • TOOTH SIZE AND AGNESIS
      • Dental Crown Morphology
      • Dental Agenesis
      • DENTAL ERUPTION PROBLEMS
      • Canine Impaction and/or Displacement
      • Primary Failure of Eruption
      • ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON BILATERAL SYMMETRY
      • GENETIC FACTORS AND EXTERNAL APICAL ROOT RESORPTION
      • PERSONALIZED-PRECISION ORTHODONTICS
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 3 - The Biologic Basis of Orthodontics
      • TOOTH-SUPPORTING TISSUES
      • Gingiva
      • Periodontal Ligament
      • Root Cementum
      • Alveolar Bone
      • PHYSIOLOGIC TOOTH MIGRATION
      • ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENTS
      • Orthodontic Forces and Tissue Reaction
      • TISSUE RESPONSE IN PERIODONTIUM
      • Initial Period of Tooth Movement
      • Hyalinization Phase
      • Hyalinized Zone and Root Resorption
      • Secondary Period of Tooth Movement
      • Types of Tooth Movements
      • Tipping
      • Torque
      • Bodily Movement
      • Rotation
      • Extrusion
      • Intrusion
      • Movements in the Labial/Buccal Direction
      • Movements into Reduced Alveolar Bone Height
      • Transmission of Orthodontic Forces into a Cellular Reaction
      • TISSUE RESPONSE IN SUTURES
      • Structure of the Suture
      • Suture Response to Orthodontic/Orthopedic Forces
      • TISSUE RESPONSE IN THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
      • Structure of the Temporomandibular Joint
      • Condylar Cartilage
      • Mandibular Neck
      • Temporal Component
      • Temporomandibular Joint Response to Orthopedic Forces
      • POSTTREATMENT STABILITY
      • Tissue Reactions Seen in Orthodontic Retention and Relapse
      • Changes during the Postretention Period
      • SUMMARY
      • ORTHODONTIC FORCES STIMULATE BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
      • MECHANOTRANSDUCTION MEDIATES THE BONE MODELING RESPONSE TO ORTHODONTIC FORCE
      • LOCAL BIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS OF ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • NEUROPEPTIDES AND ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • RANK/RANKL/OPG SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF OSTEOCLASTOGENESIS AND TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OSTEOGENESIS INVOLVED IN ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • PHYSICAL METHODS THAT STIMULATE THE BIOLOGY OF ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • Injury-Facilitated Acceleration of Tooth Movement
      • Vibration-Induced Acceleration of Tooth Movement
      • Laser Irradiation-Induced Acceleration of Tooth Movement
      • TRANSLATION OF BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES INTO ORTHODONTIC PRACTICE: THE FUTURE OF OUR PROFESSION?
      • REFERENCES
      • 4 - Bone Physiology, Metabolism, and Biomechanics in Orthodontic Practice
      • OSTEOLOGY
      • Differential Osteology of the Maxilla and Mandible
      • Temporomandibular Articulation
      • BONE PHYSIOLOGY
      • Specific Assessment Methodology
      • Classification of Bone Tissue
      • Woven Bone
      • Lamellar Bone
      • Composite Bone
      • Bundle Bone
      • SKELETAL ADAPTATION: REMODELING AND MODELING
      • Bone Remodeling
      • Bone Modeling
      • CORTICAL BONE GROWTH AND MATURATION
      • Cutting and Filling Cones
      • Structural and Metabolic Fractions
      • BONE METABOLISM
      • CALCIUM CONSERVATION
      • Endocrinology
      • METABOLIC BONE DISEASE
      • BIOMECHANICS
      • SUTURES
      • DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS
      • ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • Occlusal Trauma and Root Resorption
      • Remodeling/Repair of Root
      • Induction of the Tooth Movement Response
      • PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT RESPONSE
      • OSTEOBLAST HISTOGENESIS AND BONE FORMATION
      • OSTEOCLAST RECRUITMENT AND BONE RESORPTION
      • Intermittent versus Continuous Mechanics
      • Differential Anchorage
      • Rate of Tooth Movement
      • Periodontitis and Orthodontics
      • Endosseous Implants
      • Retromolar Implant Anchorage
      • CURRENT STATUS OF MINISCREW IMPLANTS
      • Osseointegration
      • Bone Contact
      • Bone Remodeling
      • Failure of Miniscrew Implants-Design or Unique Biological Constraints?
      • Rigidity of Miniscrew Implants
      • ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING BONE ADAPTATION, REMODELING, AND MODELING
      • EXPEDITED TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • Regional Acceleratory Phenomena
      • Bone Remodeling Rate
      • Current Evidence of Expedited Tooth Movement from Experimental Studies on Rodents and Canines
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 5 - Application of Bioengineering to Clinical Orthodontics
      • SIGN CONVENTIONS
      • BIOMECHANICS OF TOOTH MOVEMENT
      • Centers of Rotation
      • Bracket Path and the Required Force System
      • Force Magnitude and the Rate of Tooth Movement
      • Relationship of Force Magnitude to Pain and Tooth Mobility
      • Optimal Force and Stress
      • THE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE
      • Active and Reactive Members
      • Moment-to-Force Ratio
      • Load-Deflection Rate
      • Maximal Elastic Moment
      • Manner of Loading
      • Mechanical Properties of Metals
      • Basic Behavior of Alloys
      • Elastic Limit
      • Modulus of Elasticity
      • Shape-Memory Alloys
      • Ideal Orthodontic Alloys
      • Wire Cross Section
      • Selection of the Proper Wire (Alloy and Cross Section)
      • Wire Length
      • Amount of Wire
      • Stress Raisers
      • Sections of Maximal Stress
      • Direction of Loading
      • Attachment
      • Forces from a Continuous Arch
      • Principles of Spring Design
      • Fiber-Reinforced Composite Applications
      • The Role of Friction
      • 3D Biomechanics
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 6 - CLINICALLY RELEVANT ASPECTS OF DENTAL MATERIALS SCIENCE IN ORTHODONTICS
      • IMPACT OF APPLIANCE PROPERTIES ON MECHANICS
      • Stainless Steel Brackets
      • Stiffness
      • Roughness
      • Base-Wing Joint
      • Hardness
      • Friction
      • Material Properties and Torque
      • Titanium Brackets
      • Ceramic Brackets
      • Brittleness and Fracture
      • Ceramics in Wet Environments
      • Effect of Grain Size
      • ARCHWIRES
      • Clinical Impact of NiTi Archwire Properties
      • Superelastic and Nonsuperelastic NiTi in Crowding Alleviation
      • PHOTOCURING AND ADHESIVES
      • Photocuring
      • Light Intensity
      • Lamps
      • Biological Properties of Blue Light and Adhesives
      • Blue Light Effects
      • Grinding of Adhesives: Production of Aerosol and Estrogenic Action
      • MATERIALS FOR FIXED RETAINERS
      • Properties of Wires and Composite Resins Used for Fixed Retainers
      • Wires
      • SUMMARY
      • Acknowledgments
      • REFERENCES
      • 7 - The Role of Evidence in Orthodontics
      • THE HIERARCHY OF EVIDENCE
      • SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES
      • HOW MUCH EVIDENCE DO WE NEED?
      • WHERE TO FIND THE EVIDENCE
      • THE FUTURE OF EVIDENCE-BASED ORTHODONTICS
      • CONCLUSIONS
      • REFERENCES
      • Two - Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
      • 8 - The Decision-Making Process in Orthodontics
      • BACKGROUND CONCEPTS
      • Quality of Life: The Modern Health Care Paradigm
      • Understanding Normal versus Ideal Occlusion
      • Dental and Skeletal Compensations: Nature's Way of Camouflaging Discrepancies
      • Recognizing Orthodontic Problems
      • Limitations of Orthodontic Treatment
      • PATIENT EVALUATION: THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS IN ORTHODONTICS
      • Overview of the Problem-Oriented Approach
      • Collection of Interview Data
      • First Contact
      • Interview at First Appointment
      • Meeting the Patient and Eliciting the Chief Concern
      • Clinical Evaluation
      • Facial Proportions and Appearance
      • Intraoral Examination
      • . Once the visual and tactile examination of the face is complete, an evaluation should be made of the intraoral hard and soft t...
      • . The size of the tongue is often hard to assess, but an attempt should be made to evaluate its general dimensions at rest and w...
      • . An important part of the clinical examination is to establish the path of closure of the mandible and to determine if the maxi...
      • Diagnostic Records
      • What Records Are Needed?
      • . Taking impressions and pouring up dental casts is rapidly being superseded by obtaining digital images directly from intraoral...
      • . In modern cephalometrics, it is important that the cephalograms are obtained with the head oriented in NHP rather than automat...
      • . Technologic advances have significantly added to the possible additional records that could be obtained. They are considered i...
      • Technologic Advances in Diagnosis
      • . The conversion of photography from an analog to a digital process has revolutionized imaging in all fields, with orthodontics ...
      • . The ability to morph images with special computer software and the creation of algorithms that can simulate the facial outcome...
      • . Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces 3D volumetric images that can be reliably measured.23 Among the advantages of CB...
      • . Plaster models of the teeth have been used to obtain 3D diagnostic records since the beginning of orthodontics. The advent of ...
      • Analysis of Diagnostic Records
      • Cast Analysis
      • Cephalometric Analysis
      • . It is not possible to establish the true nature of a malocclusion without information about the underlying skeletal relationsh...
      • . In this chapter, we wish to emphasize that it is the relationships between skeletal and dental units and not any particular se...
      • . In any patient, a Class II dental relationship may be due to any combination of four major factors: (1) maxillary skeletal exc...
      • . Measurements to provide recognition of maxillary skeletal deficiency or midface retrusion rarely are included in traditional c...
      • . The Angle classification focused cephalometric attention on the anteroposterior plane of space and directed attention away fro...
      • . Dental vertical problems refer to too much or too little eruption of teeth in relation to their own supporting bone. A common ...
      • Classification: Organizing the Database
      • Angle Classification
      • Systematic Description: Ackerman-Proffit Classification
      • . To overcome the difficulties just discussed, we recommend using a classification scheme in which five or fewer characteristics...
      • . Although it helps to understand the logic of the system, it is understood best by viewing how it is used in organizing the dat...
      • . This includes assessing anterior tooth display, as well as the relative convexity and concavity and divergence of the face in ...
      • . Alignment is the key word in this group
      • among the possibilities are ideal, crowded (arch length deficiency), spaced, and muti...
      • . The faciolingual relationships of the posterior teeth are noted and whether posterior crossbite is present. A judgment is also...
      • . In this dimension, the Angle classification is useful, but the goal is to evaluate overjet/reverse overjet in terms of whether...
      • . Bite depth is used to describe the vertical relationships. Again, one must determine whether the problem is skeletal, dentoalv...
      • Summary of Diagnosis
      • TREATMENT PLANNING: THE PROBLEM-ORIENTED APPROACH
      • Prioritizing the Problem List
      • Considerations in Evaluating Treatment Possibilities
      • To Extract or Not to Extract?
      • Therapeutic Modifiability
      • The Patient-Parent Conference
      • Informed Consent
      • The Final Step: The Treatment Plan Details (Mechanotherapy Plan)
      • REFERENCES
      • 9 - Special Considerations in Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
      • PURPOSES AND GOALS OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT
      • Orthodontics and Quality of Life
      • Role of the Orthodontist in Total Facial Aesthetic Planning
      • Records
      • Facial Photographs
      • Digital Video Technology in Orthodontic Records
      • Intraoral Photographs
      • Cephalometric Radiographs
      • Contemporary Applications of Cephalometry
      • Computer Imaging in Contemporary Treatment Planning
      • CLINICAL EXAMINATION OF FACIAL SYMMETRY AND PROPORTION: ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN TREATMENT PLANNING
      • Application of Database Programs to Clinical Information
      • EVALUATION OF FACIAL PROPORTIONS (MACROAESTHETICS)
      • Frontal Vertical Facial Relationships
      • Increased Face Height
      • Decreased Face Height
      • Transverse Facial and Dental Proportions
      • Central Fifth of the Face
      • Medial Two-Fifths of the Face
      • Outer Two-Fifths of the Face
      • Evaluation of Nasal Proportions
      • Radix
      • Nasal Dorsum
      • Nasal Tip
      • Columella
      • Nasolabial Angle
      • Lip Projection
      • Excessive versus Inadequate Lip Projection
      • Effects on the Labiomental Sulcus
      • Chin Projection
      • Throat Form
      • Miniaesthetics (Evaluation of the Smile)
      • Importance of the Smile in Orthodontics
      • Analysis of the Smile
      • Diagnostic Smile Analysis: Measurement of Characteristics
      • Vertical Characteristics of the Smile
      • Transverse Characteristics of the Smile
      • Oblique Characteristics of the Smile
      • Dental Microaesthetics and Its Applications to the Smile
      • Gingival Shape and Contour
      • Bracket Placement in Preparation for Changes in Gingival Shape
      • REFERENCES
      • 10 - PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      • PATIENT PERCEPTIONS
      • PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
      • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
      • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
      • Bipolar Disorder
      • Panic Disorder
      • Depression
      • Eating Disorders
      • Personality Disorders
      • "Difficult" Patients
      • PATIENTS HAVING ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
      • Psychological Status and Motivation
      • Expectations
      • Satisfaction
      • PATIENTS WITH CRANIOFACIAL DEFORMITIES
      • Psychological Issues
      • Patients with Clefts of the Lip and Palate
      • Patients with Acquired Deformities
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 11 - Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging
      • STRATEGIES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION DOSE RISK
      • Factors That Influence Dose and Risk Estimation1
      • Biological Factors
      • Technical Factors
      • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS OF THE USE OF CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN ORTHODONTICS
      • Tooth Morphology and Relative Position within the?Alveolar Bone
      • Temporomandibular Joint Health and Disease
      • Airway Assessment
      • Dentofacial Deformities and Craniofacial Anomalies
      • IMAGE ANALYSES AND THE USE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE MODELS AND SUPERIMPOSITIONS
      • Challenges to Advance Our Understanding of Growth and Treatment Responses
      • Step-by-Step Three-Dimensional Image Analysis?Procedures
      • TREATMENT PLANNING WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED SURGERY
      • Surgical Planning and Simulation
      • Simulation of Soft Tissue Changes
      • Intraoperative Guidance: Surgical Navigation
      • Tracking Technology
      • FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • REFERENCES
      • 12 - UPPER AIRWAY, CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY, AND SLEEP APNEA
      • INTRODUCTION
      • AIRWAY COMPLICATIONS HAVE FAR-REACHING EFFECTS
      • ANATOMY AND GROWTH
      • Overview
      • Hyoid Bone Position and Morphologic Features
      • Relationship of Different Skeletal Patterns to Airway Morphologic Structure
      • AIRWAY MEASUREMENTS AND IMAGING
      • Overview
      • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
      • Acoustic Rhinometry
      • Pharyngometry
      • INFLUENCE OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ON THE AIRWAY
      • Treatment Including Extractions
      • Rapid Maxillary Expansion
      • Functional Orthopedic Appliances
      • Orthognathic Surgery
      • Summary of Orthodontic Treatment Effects on the Airway
      • SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING: AIRWAY DISORDERS AND MANAGEMENT
      • Definitions and Testing Reports
      • Classifications of Sleep-Disordered Breathing
      • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      • Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome
      • Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome
      • Sleep Hypoventilation Syndromes
      • Epidemiologic Factors
      • Pathophysiologic Factors
      • Clinical Presentation
      • Physical Characteristics
      • Clinical Prediction of Significant Sleep-Disordered Breathing
      • Tests and Questionnaires
      • Friedman Classification
      • Mallampati Score Method
      • Kushida Index
      • Berlin Questionnaire
      • STOPBang Questionnaire
      • Epworth Sleepiness Scale
      • Cephalometric Analysis
      • Sleep Disorders Questionnaire
      • Diagnostic Testing of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      • Treatment Modalities
      • Treatment Options
      • Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification
      • Positive Airway Pressure
      • Oral Appliances
      • Surgical Treatment
      • Oropharyngeal Exercises
      • Upper Airway Electrical Neurostimulation
      • Preventive Management
      • IMPORTANCE OF A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
      • References
      • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      • 13 - ORTHODONTIC THERAPY AND THE PATIENT WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER
      • THE CONCEPT OF ORTHOPEDIC STABILITY
      • INTRODUCTION
      • FINDING THE MUSCULOSKELETAL STABLE POSITION
      • EVALUATING THE PATIENT FOR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS
      • A TMD Screen History
      • A TMD Screen Examination
      • Muscle Palpation
      • Temporomandibular Joint Palpation
      • Range of Mandibular Movement
      • Occlusal Evaluation
      • DEVELOPING THE ORTHODONTIC/TMD TREATMENT PLAN
      • MANAGING TMD SYMPTOMS THAT ARISE DURING ORTHODONTIC THERAPY
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 14 - The Orthodontist's Role in a Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Team
      • DIAGNOSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
      • Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Lip/Palate
      • Ultrasound Technique and Limitations
      • Advantages of Prenatal Cleft Diagnosis
      • Disadvantages of Prenatal Cleft Diagnosis
      • THE TEAM APPROACH
      • ROLE OF THE ORTHODONTIST
      • Neonate and Infant (Birth to 2Years of Age)
      • Primary Dentition Stage (2 to 6Years of Age)
      • Mixed Dentition Stage (7 to 12Years of Age)
      • Primary Alveolar Bone Grafting
      • Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting
      • Permanent Dentition Stage
      • Growth Considerations
      • Skeletal-Facial Considerations
      • Orthognathic Surgery
      • Role of the Orthodontist
      • Distraction Osteogenesis
      • MANAGEMENT OF THE MISSING LATERAL INCISOR SPACE
      • SUMMARY
      • Acknowledgements
      • REFERENCES
      • Three - Mixed Dentition Diagnosis And Treatment
      • 15 - PATIENT MANAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION FOR THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PATIENT
      • BEHAVIOR GUIDANCE
      • Pain Management
      • First Impressions
      • DIFFERENCES IN BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT BETWEEN PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY AND ORTHODONTICS
      • Communication Guidance
      • PATIENT AT-HOME RESPONSIBILITIES
      • Oral Hygiene and Diet
      • REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES
      • EXTRAORAL APPLIANCES
      • HEADGEAR FOR CLASS II CORRECTION
      • REMOVABLE INTRAORAL APPLIANCES
      • ORTHODONTIC APPOINTMENTS
      • INTRAORAL ELASTICS
      • REMOVABLE RETAINERS
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 16 - Optimizing Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Treatment Timing and Mixed Dentition Therapy
      • THE TIMING OF TREATMENT INTERVENTION
      • Modification of Craniofacial Growth
      • Patient Cooperation
      • Practice Management
      • THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MATURATION METHOD
      • WHEN TO INTERVENE
      • TREATMENT OF TOOTH-SIZE/ARCH-SIZE DISCREPANCY?PROBLEMS
      • Space Maintenance during the Transition of the Dentition
      • Transpalatal Arch
      • Lingual Arch
      • SERIAL EXTRACTION
      • ARCH EXPANSION
      • Types of Expansion
      • Orthodontic Expansion
      • Passive Expansion
      • Orthopedic Expansion
      • Rationale for Early Orthopedic Expansion
      • Permanent Dentition
      • Mixed Dentition
      • Orthopedic Expansion Protocols
      • Maxillary Adaptations
      • Mandibular Adaptations
      • The Schwarz Appliance
      • Lip Bumper
      • SPONTANEOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SAGITTAL MALOCCLUSIONS
      • Class II Patients
      • Class III Patients
      • THE TREATMENT OF CLASS II MALOCCLUSION
      • Components of Class II Malocclusion
      • Available Class II Treatment Strategies
      • Maxillary Distalization
      • Extraoral Traction
      • Maxillary Molar Distalization
      • Pendulum and Pendex Appliances
      • Mandibular Enhancement: Functional Jaw Orthopedics
      • Appliance Selection
      • Herbst Appliance
      • Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance
      • The Twin Block Appliance
      • Treatment Timing for Class II Malocclusion
      • Additional Comments Regarding Class II Treatment
      • TREATMENT OF CLASS III MALOCCLUSION
      • Components of Class III Malocclusion
      • Available Class III Treatment Strategies
      • Appliance Selection
      • The Orthopedic Facial Mask
      • The FR-3 Appliance of Fränkel
      • The Orthopedic Chin Cup
      • Additional Comments Regarding Class III Treatment
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • Four - Orthodontic Treatment
      • 17 - CONTEMPORARY STRAIGHT WIRE BIOMECHANICS
      • STRAIGHT WIRE APPLIANCE AND SELF-LIGATION
      • Optimal Bracket Placement
      • Treatment Mechanics
      • Stage 1: Leveling and Aligning
      • Stage 2: Working Stage
      • Stage 3: Finishing Stage
      • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 18 - NONEXTRACTION TREATMENT
      • THE ORIGINAL CETLIN APPROACH
      • Phase Sequences
      • PHASE I: SPACE-GAINING PHASE
      • Upper Arch
      • Palatal Bar
      • Extraoral Force
      • Clinical Management of Headgear
      • The Removable Distalizing Plate
      • Clinical Management of the Distalizing Plate
      • Lower Arch
      • Lip Bumper
      • Class III Mechanics
      • PHASE II: SPACE-UTILIZATION PHASE
      • EVOLUTION OF THE TECHNIQUE
      • Reduction of Patient's Compliance
      • Increase of Anterior Anchorage
      • Reduction of Molar Resistance to Distalizing Forces
      • Improvement of Appliance Efficiency
      • CONCLUSIONS
      • REFERENCES
      • 19 - Standard Edgewise: Tweed-Merrifield Philosophy, Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Force Systems
      • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      • THE ANGLE SYSTEM
      • THE EDGEWISE APPLIANCE
      • CHARLES H. TWEED
      • LEVERN MERRIFIELD
      • Diagnostic Concepts
      • Treatment Concepts
      • DIMENSIONS OF THE DENTITION
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • Facial Disharmony
      • Z Angle
      • Frankfort Mandibular Incisor Angle
      • Cranial Disharmony
      • Skeletal Analysis Values
      • Craniofacial Analysis
      • Dental Disharmony
      • Total Dentition Space Analysis
      • Anterior Space Analysis
      • Midarch Space Analysis
      • Posterior Space Analysis
      • Differential Diagnostic Analysis System
      • TWEED-MERRIFIELD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE
      • Brackets and Tubes
      • Archwires
      • First-, Second-, and Third-Order Bends and Their Interaction
      • First-Order Bends
      • Second-Order Bends
      • Third-Order Bends
      • Auxiliaries
      • Variations of the Appliance
      • TREATMENT WITH THE TWEED-MERRIFIELD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE
      • Sequential Appliance Placement
      • Sequential Tooth Movement
      • Sequential Mandibular Anchorage Preparation
      • Directional Force
      • Timing of Treatment
      • STEPS OF TREATMENT
      • Denture Preparation
      • Denture Correction
      • Sequential Mandibular Anchorage Preparation
      • Class II Force System
      • Orthodontic Correction of the Class II Dental Relationship
      • Denture Completion
      • Denture Recovery
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 20 - BIOMECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH TEMPORARY ANCHORAGE DEVICES
      • CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCEOF TEMPORARY ANCHORAGE DEVICES
      • Characteristics of Temporary Anchorage Device Mechanics
      • Rigid Anchorage
      • Intrusive Mechanics
      • High-Efficiency Mechanics
      • 20
      • Clinical Significance of Temporary Anchorage Device Mechanics
      • Easy and Simple Anchorage Preparation
      • Increased Treatment Efficiency
      • Expansion of the Range of Orthodontic Mechanotherapy
      • Shifting from a Mechanics-Centered Approach
      • Considerations for Temporary Anchorage Device Mechanics
      • Temporary Anchorage Device Stability
      • Temporary Anchorage Device Positioning
      • Load-Bearing Capacity of the Temporary Anchorage Device
      • Biomechanical Considerations
      • Biological Considerations
      • Side Effects Related to Temporary Anchorage Device Mechanics and Their Management
      • CLINICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL APPLICATIONS OF TEMPORARY ANCHORAGE DEVICES
      • General Principles in Biomechanical Application of Temporary Anchorage Device Mechanics
      • Establishment of an Individualized and Optimal Treatment Plan
      • Selection of a Temporary Anchorage Device System and Insertion Site
      • Treatment Strategy
      • Mechanotherapy Design
      • Molar Intrusion
      • Decision Making
      • Biomechanics
      • Treatment Mechanics
      • Molar Distalization
      • Decision Making
      • Biomechanics
      • Molar Protraction
      • Decision Making
      • Biomechanics
      • Anterior Retraction in Extraction Treatment
      • Decision Making
      • Biomechanics
      • REFERENCES
      • 21 - ADULT INTERDISCIPLINARY THERAPY: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      • CURRENT STATUS OF ADULT INTERDISCIPLINARY THERAPY
      • GOALS OF ADULT INTERDISCIPLINARY THERAPY
      • Ideal Orthodontic Treatment Goals and the Adult Patient
      • Individualized Adult Interdisciplinary Orthodontic Treatment Objectives
      • Additional Adult Treatment Objectives
      • DIAGNOSIS OF ADULT ORTHODONTIC CONDITIONS
      • Skeletal Differential Diagnosis
      • Periodontal Differential Diagnosis
      • Temporomandibular Joint Differential Diagnosis
      • CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF THE INTERDISCIPLINARY ADULT THERAPY PATIENT
      • Biomechanical Considerations
      • Control of Occlusion
      • Periodontal Management During the Orthodontic Tooth Movement
      • Significance of Tooth Mobility
      • Periodontal Preparation of Adults before Orthodontic Therapy
      • Behavioral Management Orthodontist and Staff Preparation for Adult Interdisciplinary Patient Management
      • SEQUENCE OF ADULT INTERDISCIPLINARY THERAPY
      • Evaluation of the Skeletal Component of the Malocclusion
      • Periodontal Preparation
      • DENTOALVEOLAR COLLAPSE: ORTHODONTIC AND RESTORATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ADULT INTERDISCIPLINARY PATIENT
      • Application of Principles
      • Conclusion for Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy Patients with Missing Teeth and Dentoalveolar Collapse
      • Evaluation before Debonding or Debanding
      • Coordination of Debonding or Debanding with Other Treatment Providers
      • STABILITY AND RETENTION INDIVIDUALIZED FOR THE INTERDISCIPLINARY ADULT THERAPY PATIENT
      • Communicating with Team Members
      • RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE ADULT INTERDISCIPLINARY THERAPY PATIENT
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 22 - Periodontal-Orthodontic Interrelationships
      • TYPES OF INFLAMMATORY DISEASES
      • Gingivitis: The Reversible Lesion
      • Periodontitis: The Irreversible or Destructive Lesion
      • HIGH-RISK FACTORS
      • Gingival Recession
      • Biotype
      • Transverse Dimension
      • Bone-Anchored Rapid Palatal Expansion
      • EARLY TREATMENT
      • TISSUE RESPONSE TO CERTAIN TYPES OF TOOTH MOVEMENTS
      • Extrusion (Eruption)
      • Intrusion
      • Tipping
      • Bodily Movement into a Defect
      • MUCOGINGIVAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • Mandibular Midline Frenum
      • Maxillary Midline Frenum
      • Gingival Hyperplasia
      • Gingival Retention and Aesthetic Considerations
      • Fiberotomy
      • Mouth Breathing
      • CONSIDERATIONS WITH ECTOPICALLY POSITIONED AND UNERUPTED TEETH
      • Surgical Technique
      • Maxillary Palatal Impactions
      • Second Premolar and Second Molar Impactions
      • Incisor Impactions
      • Ankylosis and External Root Resorption
      • ALVEOLAR DECORTICATION AND AUGMENTATION GRAFTING
      • Background
      • Alveolar Bone Biological Response (Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon)
      • Surgical Technique
      • Decortication
      • Particulate Grafting
      • Patient Management
      • Treatment Indications and Limitations
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 23 - ORTHODONTIC ASPECTS OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
      • BACKGROUND
      • Goals
      • NEED VERSUS DEMAND
      • Orthodontic Retreatment and Skeletal Malocclusions
      • TECHNOLOGIC ADVANCES IN ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
      • Medical Advances
      • Surgical Advances
      • Skeletal Fixation
      • PATIENT TREATMENT
      • Diagnostic Considerations
      • Diagnosing Class II Mandibular Deficiency and Class III Mandibular Excess
      • Treatment Planning Options
      • Indications for Camouflage Treatment
      • Contraindications to Camouflage Treatment
      • Upper and Lower Jaw Skeletal-Dental Problem
      • Therapeutic Diagnosis of Borderline Cases
      • Key Considerations of the Integrated Treatment Plan
      • Treatment Timing
      • Treatment Timing for Maxillary Deficiency Patients
      • Treatment Timing for Mandibular Excess Patients
      • Treatment Timing for Mandibular Deficiency Patients
      • Considerations in the Management of Facial Asymmetry
      • SEQUENCE OF TREATMENT FOR ORTHOGNATHIC PATIENTS
      • Importance of the Sequence
      • Step 1: Multiple Provider Team Selection (Interdisciplinary Therapy)
      • Step 2: Goal Clarification
      • Steps 3 Through 16
      • Step 17: Treatment Experience
      • APPLIED CONCEPTS FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF CASES
      • OPTIMIZING STABILITY
      • Orthodontic Considerations
      • Stability
      • Surgical Considerations
      • RISKS OF ORTHODONTIC-ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 24 - SELF-LIGATING BRACKET BIOMECHANICS
      • THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF SELF-LIGATION
      • Stainless Steel Ligatures
      • Elastomeric Ligatures
      • Begg Pins
      • Self-Ligation
      • FACTORS THAT HINDERED THE ADOPTION OF SELF-LIGATION
      • Psychological Factors and Adoption of Self-Ligation
      • AESTHETIC SELF-LIGATING BRACKETS
      • PROPOSED CORE ADVANTAGES OF SELF-LIGATING BRACKETS
      • Speed of Archwire Insertion and Removal
      • Secure Archwire Engagement
      • Friction and Self-Ligation
      • Friction with Active Archwires: Thick, Stiff Wires
      • Friction with Active Archwires: Thin, Flexible Wires
      • Friction in Vivo: Occlusal and Masticatory Forces
      • Secure Ligation and Low Friction as a Combination of Properties
      • The Clinical Significance of Low Friction
      • ACTIVE CLIPS AND PASSIVE SLIDES
      • Thin Aligning Wires Smaller Than 0.018 Inch in Diameter
      • Wires Larger Than 0.018 Inch in Diameter
      • Thick Rectangular Wires
      • Aging of Spring Clips
      • Active or Passive: Conclusion
      • Alignment
      • Friction
      • Robustness and Ease of Use
      • SELF-LIGATION AND TREATMENT EFFICIENCY
      • Possible Reasons for Some Retrospective Studies Finding an Efficiency Advantage for Self-Ligation
      • Possible Reasons for Randomized Controlled Trials Finding No Efficiency Advantage for Self-Ligation
      • A Suggested Treatment Protocol for Future Randomized Controlled Trials
      • Conclusions
      • SELF-LIGATION AND PATIENT COMFORT
      • SELF-LIGATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF TORQUE CONTROL
      • FURTHER CURRENT HYPOTHESES ABOUT SELF-LIGATION
      • FORCE LEVELS WITH SELF-LIGATION AND CONVENTIONAL LIGATION
      • DOES SELF-LIGATION REDUCE THE NEED FOR EXTRACTIONS?
      • Crowding
      • PRACTICAL CONSEQUENCES FOR CLINICAL TECHNIQUE
      • Choice of Self-Ligating Bracket
      • Practical Tips in Light of the Evidence
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 25 - LINGUAL APPLIANCE TREATMENT
      • INTRODUCTION
      • Customized Treatment Goals and Lingual Appliances
      • Use of a Target Setup Model System
      • Accurate Realization of Individual Treatment Goals
      • Reduced Risk of Decalcification
      • MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LABIAL AND LINGUAL TECHNIQUES
      • Anatomic Variations of the Lingual Tooth Surfaces
      • First-Order Compensations
      • Torque Control
      • Exposure of Bonding Area
      • Innovation in Completely Customized Lingual Appliances
      • Efficient Leveling and Aligning with Lingual Appliances
      • Aligning Type 1
      • Aligning Type 2
      • Aligning Type 3
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • 26 - Clear Aligner Treatment
      • BRIEF HISTORY OF CLEAR ALIGNER TREATMENT
      • SCANNING AND DIGITIZATION
      • DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLANNING FOR CLEAR ALIGNER TREATMENT
      • CLINCHECK-AN OVERVIEW
      • BIOMECHANICS OF ALIGNER TREATMENT
      • Simple versus Difficult Movements
      • STAGING OF TOOTH MOVEMENT IN CLINCHECK
      • ATTACHMENT DESIGN IN THE INVISALIGN SYSTEM
      • POWER RIDGES AND PRESSURE AREAS IN THE INVISALIGN SYSTEM
      • ROOT CONTROL IN THE INVISALIGN SYSTEM
      • ROTATION CORRECTION IN THE INVISALIGN SYSTEM
      • EXTRUSION CORRECTION IN THE INVISALIGN SYSTEM
      • AUXILIARIES AND THE INVISALIGN SYSTEM
      • INVISALIGN TEEN
      • PERIODONTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • Five - Specialized Treatment Considerations
      • 27 - Bonding in Orthodontics
      • INTRODUCTION
      • MATERIALS AND DEVICES USED IN ORTHODONTIC BONDING
      • Brackets
      • Ceramic Brackets
      • Metal Brackets
      • Adhesives
      • Composite Resins
      • Glass Ionomer Cements
      • Light Sources
      • Light-Emitting Diodes
      • BONDING
      • Bonding to Enamel
      • Premedication
      • Cleaning
      • Enamel Conditioning
      • Enamel pretreatment
      • Sealing and Priming
      • Bonding
      • Bonding to Artificial Tooth Surfaces
      • Bonding to Porcelain
      • Bonding to Amalgam
      • Bonding to Gold
      • Bonding to Composite Restoratives
      • Indirect Bonding
      • Clinical Procedure
      • Indirect Bonding with Composite Custom Bracket Base
      • Rebonding
      • Conclusion
      • DEBONDING
      • Clinical Procedure
      • Removal of Steel Brackets
      • Removal of Ceramic Brackets
      • Enamel Tearouts and Cracks (Fracture Lines)
      • Removal of Residual Adhesive
      • Amount of Enamel Lost in Debonding
      • Operator Safety during Debonding
      • Prevention and Reversal of Decalcification
      • Microabrasion
      • Resin Infiltration
      • BONDED RETAINERS
      • Bonded Fixed Retainer Materials
      • Bonded Fixed Retainer Adhesives
      • Periodontal Health with Bonded Fixed Retainers
      • Canine-to-Canine Lingual Retainer Bar
      • Bonding the 3-3 Retainer Bar
      • Failure Analysis and Long-Term Experience with the 3-3 Retainer Bar
      • Multistranded Wire Retainers
      • Bonding Multistranded Wire Retainer
      • Failure Analysis and Repair
      • Long-Term Experience with the Multistranded Wire Retainer
      • Direct-Bonded Labial Retainers
      • Technical Procedure
      • Long-Term Results
      • OTHER APPLICATIONS OF BONDING
      • Bonding a Large Acrylic Appliance
      • Technical Procedures
      • Permanent Dentition
      • Deciduous or Mixed Dentition
      • Occlusal Buildup of Posterior Teeth
      • Technical Procedure
      • CONCLUSION
      • REFERENCES
      • 28 - Management of Impactions
      • TEETH NORMALLY ERUPT! (CAUSES)
      • IS THERE AN IMPACTION? (DIAGNOSIS)
      • WHICH TEETH ARE THE MOST LIKELY TO BE AFFECTED? (PREVALENCE)
      • WHERE IS THE TOOTH? (POSITIONAL DIAGNOSIS)
      • ASSESSMENT OF THE OVERALL MALOCCLUSION (TREATMENT PLANNING)
      • RESOLVING THE IMPACTION
      • SURGICAL EXPOSURE
      • SURGICAL OPTIONS
      • ATTACHMENTS
      • TRACTION MECHANISMS, THEIR RANGE AND DIRECTIONAL POTENTIAL
      • FAILURE-PATIENT-DEPENDENT FACTORS
      • FAILURE-ORTHODONTIST-DEPENDENT FACTORS
      • FAILURE-SURGEON-DEPENDENT FACTORS
      • REFERENCES
      • 29 - Management of Dental Luxation and Avulsion Injuries in the Permanent Dentition
      • TISSUE RESPONSE TO TRAUMA
      • ROOT RESORPTION
      • PULPAL RESPONSE
      • Pulp Necrosis
      • Pulp Canal Obliteration
      • ALVEOLAR FRACTURE
      • MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMA AND IMMEDIATE SEQUELAE
      • Concussion and Subluxation
      • Lateral Displacement
      • Extrusive Luxation
      • Intrusive Luxation
      • Avulsion
      • TREATMENT OF AVULSED PERMANENT TEETH WITH CLOSED APEX
      • TREATMENT OF AVULSED PERMANENT TEETH WITH OPEN APEX
      • PREVENTION
      • REFERENCES
      • 30 - Iatrogenic Effects of Orthodontic Treatment
      • Prevalence of Demineralized White Lesions
      • Detection and Measurement of DemineralizedWhite Lesions
      • Transverse Microradiography
      • Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence
      • Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence-Digital
      • Prevention of Demineralized White Lesions
      • Preventing the Loss of Mineral from Enamel (Demineralization)
      • Promoting the Uptake of Mineral into Enamel (Remineralization)
      • Increase salivary flow or increase the pH of saliva
      • Treatment of Demineralized White Lesions
      • Fluoride
      • Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium?Phosphate
      • Resin Infiltration
      • ETIOLOGIC FACTORS
      • RISK FACTORS
      • Diagnostic Factors
      • Tooth Anatomy
      • Demographic Factors
      • Malocclusion Factors
      • Patient Medical History and Habits
      • Treatment Factors
      • Mechanical Factors
      • Magnitude of Applied Force
      • Intermittent versus Continuous Force
      • Early Treatment
      • Expansion
      • Extractions
      • Prolonged Treatment Time
      • Apical Root Displacement
      • MANAGEMENT
      • Imaging
      • History
      • Progress Review
      • What to Do If Root Resorption Is Detected at Progress
      • When Does External Apical Root Resorption Start?
      • When Does External Apical Root Resorption Stop?
      • What Happens to Teeth with Short Roots Long Term?
      • Are There Any Methods to Detect Root Resorption before?It is Visible on Radiographs?
      • REFERENCES
      • 31 - Minimally and Noninvasive Approaches to Accelerate Tooth Movement
      • Introduction
      • Biological Mechanism
      • Techniques and Indications
      • Techniques
      • Indications
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Studies
      • Vibration and Treatment with Clear Aligners
      • Biological Mechanism of Bone Response to Vibration
      • REFERENCES
      • 32 - Biodigital Orthodontics: Integrating Technology with Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Targeted Therapeutics
      • INTRODUCTION
      • CURRENT CRAFT-BASED CARE MODEL
      • PATIENT-CENTERED AND PROFESSIONAL-BASED MODEL OF CARE
      • INTEGRATED DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM: SURESMILE AND THE ORAMETRIX DIGITAL LABORATORY
      • Technology
      • OraMetrix Digital Laboratory and Manufacturing
      • SURESMILE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
      • Pre-SureSmile Therapeutic Phase: The Digital Diagnostic Model
      • SureSmile Therapeutic Phase
      • Outcome Evaluation Phase
      • PROACTIVE DECISION MAKING
      • Principle of Smart Orthodontics
      • Principle of Risk Analysis
      • Principle of Constraint Recognition and Management
      • Principle of Anticipatory Orthodontics
      • PRINCIPLES OF TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
      • Adaptive Prescription
      • Principle of Image-Guided Smart Bracket Placement and Archform Selection
      • Principle of Minimal Archwire Replacement
      • Principle of Constraint Management
      • Principle of Concurrent Mechanics
      • Principle of Additive or Subtractive Bending, Preferential Staging, and Shaping
      • Principles of Consistent Force Systems and Reactive Force Management
      • Principle of Complementary Force System
      • Principle of Optimization of Archwire and Material Selection
      • EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • Six - Orthodontic Retention and Posttreatment Changes
      • 33 - Stability, Retention, and Relapse
      • HISTORY OF RETENTION
      • Occlusal School
      • Apical Base School
      • Mandibular Incisor School
      • Musculature School
      • RETENTION THEORIES PROPOSED IN THE LITERATURE
      • Theory 1: Teeth That Have Been Moved Tend to Return to Their Former Position27-29
      • Theory 2: Elimination of the Cause of the Malocclusion Will Prevent Recurrence22
      • Theory 3: Malocclusion Should Be Overcorrected
      • Theory 4: Proper Occlusion Is an Important Factor in Holding Teeth in Their Corrected Positions
      • Theory 5: Bone and Adjacent Tissues Must Be Allowed to Reorganize around Newly Positioned Teeth
      • Theory 6: If the Lower Incisors Are Placed over Basal Bone, They Are More Likely to Remain in Good Alignment
      • Theory 7: Corrections Carried out during Periods of Growth Are Less Likely to Relapse
      • Theory 8: Arch Form, Particularly the Mandibular Arch, Cannot Be Permanently Altered with Appliance Therapy
      • OTHER FACTORS RELATED TO RETENTION
      • Tooth-Size Discrepancies
      • Interproximal Reduction
      • Growth Factors and Posttreatment Change
      • Third Molars
      • Duration of Retention
      • Occlusal Adjustment
      • UW POSTRETENTION REGISTRY: LESSONS LEARNED
      • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF RETENTION
      • RETENTION APPLIANCES
      • POSITIONER IN RETENTION PLANNING
      • DURATION OF RETENTION
      • RECOVERY AFTER RELAPSE
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • Seven - Classic Chapters (Online Only)
      • 34 - Interceptive Guidance of Occlusion with Emphasis on Diagnosis
      • DIAGNOSTIC RECORDS
      • Intraoral, Panoral, or Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Images
      • Cephalometric Radiographs
      • Facial Photographs
      • Study Models
      • Intraoral Photographs
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • The Face
      • Proportional Facial Analysis
      • The Standard
      • Alveolodental Protrusion
      • Alveolodental Retrusion
      • Prognathism
      • Retrognathism
      • The Teeth
      • Clinical Analysis
      • Dental Development in the Mixed Dentition
      • Total Space Analysis
      • Conventional Method
      • Tweed Method
      • Total Space Analysis
      • Timing of Guided Primary Tooth Removal
      • TREATMENT
      • CLASS I TREATMENT
      • Serial Extraction in Class I Treatment
      • PREMOLARS
      • Typical Patient for Class I Serial Extraction
      • KEY MEASUREMENTS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND CASE EVALUATION
      • REFERENCES
      • 35 - Functional Appliances
      • ORIGIN
      • ANDRESEN ACTIVATOR
      • BITE-OPENING CONTROVERSY
      • Head Posture during Sleep
      • Working Hypotheses
      • Sagittal Change
      • Vertical Opening Variations
      • MECHANISMS OF CLASS II CORRECTION WITH FUNCTIONAL?ORTHOPEDICS
      • Class II Correction: A Likely Scenario
      • Bionator
      • CONSTRUCTION BITE
      • Anterior Mandibular Posturing
      • Hamilton Expansion Activator
      • Fränkel Appliance
      • Double Plates
      • Clark Twin Block Appliance
      • Magnetic Appliances
      • Stöckli-Teuscher Combined Activator-Headgear?Orthopedics
      • Fixed Functional Appliances
      • Herbst Appliance
      • Sagittal Changes
      • Vertical Changes
      • Long-Term Posttreatment Changes
      • Jasper Jumper
      • SUMMARY
      • 36 - Treatment of the Face with Biocompatible Orthodontics
      • THE DAMON SYSTEM CONCEPT
      • EARLY OBSERVATIONS OF DAMON SYSTEM TREATMENT
      • CONTEMPORARY ORTHODONTIC PHILOSOPHIES
      • Achieve Facial Harmony via Facially Driven Treatment Planning
      • Use of Nonextraction Therapy Where Possible and Light-Force Mechanics
      • FORCE MANAGEMENT
      • Achieving Extremely Light-Force Mechanics: A Passive Tube
      • A Look at Sliding Mechanics
      • Case for Using Extremely Light Forces in Passive Tubes
      • CASE PRESENTATIONS AND CLINICAL ANALYSES
      • Treatment with the Herbst Appliance of Growing Patients with Skeletal Class II Dentition
      • Clinical Principles for Using the Herbst Appliance
      • Clinical Application of the Herbst Appliance
      • DAMON SYSTEM ESSENTIALS
      • Damon System Appliance
      • Damon Standard Prescription
      • High-Torque and Low-Torque Alternatives to the Damon Standard Prescription
      • Upper central incisors
      • Upper lateral incisors
      • Upper and lower canines
      • Lower central and lateral incisors
      • Damon System Archwires and Archwire Sequencing
      • Light Round Wire Phase
      • High-Tech Edgewise Phase
      • Major Mechanics Phase
      • Finishing Phase
      • Tieback Usage with the Damon System
      • Using Elastics with the Damon System
      • Lingual Retainer Wire and Splint Retainer
      • SUMMARY
      • REFERENCES
      • INDEX
      • A
      • B
      • C
      • D
      • E
      • F
      • G
      • H
      • I
      • J
      • K
      • L
      • M
      • N
      • O
      • P
      • Q
      • R
      • S
      • T
      • U
      • V
      • W
      • X
      • Z

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