Adjustment Computations

Spatial Data Analysis
 
 
John Wiley & Sons Inc (Verlag)
  • 6. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. September 2017
  • |
  • 720 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-39031-2 (ISBN)
 
The definitive guide to bringing accuracy to measurement, updated and supplemented
Adjustment Computations is the classic textbook for spatial information analysis and adjustment computations, providing clear, easy-to-understand instruction backed by real-world practicality. From the basic terms and fundamentals of errors to specific adjustment computations and spatial information analysis, this book covers the methodologies and tools that bring accuracy to surveying, GNSS, GIS, and other spatial technologies. Broad in scope yet rich in detail, the discussion avoids overly-complex theory in favor of practical techniques for students and professionals. This new sixth edition has been updated to align with the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field, and includes new video lessons and updated problems, including worked problems in STATS, MATRIX, ADJUST, and MathCAD.
All measurement produces some amount of error; whether from human mistakes, instrumentation inaccuracy, or environmental features, these errors must be accounted and adjusted for when accuracy is critical. This book describes how errors are identified, analyzed, measured, and corrected, with a focus on least squares adjustment--the most rigorous methodology available.
* Apply industry-standard methodologies to error analysis and adjustment
* Translate your skills to the real-world with instruction focused on the practical
* Master the fundamentals as well as specific computations and analysis
* Strengthen your understanding of critical topics on the Fundamentals in Surveying Licensing Exam
As spatial technologies expand in both use and capability, so does our need for professionals who understand how to check and adjust for errors in spatial data. Conceptual knowledge is one thing, but practical skills are what counts when accuracy is at stake; Adjustment Computations provides the real-world training you need to identify, analyze, and correct for potentially crucial errors.
6. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 11,63 MB
978-1-119-39031-2 (9781119390312)
1119390311 (1119390311)
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DR. CHARLES D. GHILANI is a Professor Emeritus of Engineering. He taught in the B.S. Surveying Engineering and A.S. Surveying Technology programs at Pennsylvania State University. He holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and a B.S. degree in mathematics and education from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is an honorary member of the Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors (P.S.L.S.), the president of the American Association for Geodetic Surveying, and the editor of Surveying and Land Information Science. He has received the Milton S. Eisenhower Distinguished Teaching Award in 2013, and the 2017 Surveying and Geomatics Educator's Society Educator Award.
  • "Cover "
  • "Title Page "
  • "Copyright "
  • "Contents "
  • "Preface "
  • "Acknowledgments "
  • "Chapter 1: Introduction"
  • "1.1 Introduction "
  • "1.2 Direct and Indirect Measurements "
  • "1.3 Measurement Error Sources "
  • "1.4 Definitions "
  • "1.5 Precision versus Accuracy "
  • "1.6 Redundant Observations in Surveying and Their Adjustment "
  • "1.7 Advantages of Least Squares Adjustment "
  • "1.8 Overview of the Book "
  • "Problems "
  • "Chapter 2: Observations and Their Analysis"
  • "2.1 Introduction "
  • "2.2 Sample versus Population "
  • "2.3 Range and Median "
  • "2.4 Graphical Representation of Data "
  • "2.5 Numerical Methods of Describing Data "
  • "2.6 Measures of Central Tendency "
  • "2.7 Additional Definitions "
  • "2.8 Alternative Formula for Determining Variance "
  • "2.9 Numerical Examples "
  • "2.10 Root Mean Square Error and Mapping Standards "
  • "2.11 Derivation of the Sample Variance (Bessel's Correction) "
  • "2.12 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Practical Exercises "
  • "Chapter 3: Random Error Theory"
  • "3.1 Introduction "
  • "3.2 Theory of Probability "
  • "3.3 Properties of the Normal Distribution Curve "
  • "3.4 Standard Normal Distribution Function "
  • "3.5 Probability of the Standard Error "
  • "3.5.1 The 50% Probable Error"
  • "3.5.2 The 95% Probable Error"
  • "3.5.3 Other Percent Probable Errors"
  • "3.6 Uses for Percent Errors "
  • "3.7 Practical Examples "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 4: Confidence Intervals"
  • "4.1 Introduction "
  • "4.2 Distributions Used in Sampling Theory "
  • "4.2.1 2 Distribution"
  • "4.2.2 Studentâ??s t Distribution"
  • "4.2.3 F Distribution"
  • "4.3 Confidence Interval for the Mean: t Statistic "
  • "4.4 Testing the Validity of the Confidence Interval "
  • "4.5 Selecting a Sample Size "
  • "4.6 Confidence Interval for a Population Variance "
  • "4.7 Confidence Interval for the Ratio of Two Population Variances "
  • "4.8 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Chapter 5: Statistical Testing"
  • "5.1 Hypothesis Testing "
  • "5.2 Systematic Development of a Test "
  • "5.3 Test of Hypothesis for the Population Mean "
  • "5.4 Test of Hypothesis for the Population Variance "
  • "5.5 Test of Hypothesis for the Ratio of Two Population Variances "
  • "5.6 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Chapter 6: Propagation of Random Errors in Indirectly Measured Quantities"
  • "6.1 Basic Error Propagation Equation "
  • "6.1.1 Generic Example"
  • "6.2 Frequently Encountered Specific Functions "
  • "6.2.1 Standard Deviation of a Sum"
  • "6.2.2 Standard Deviation in a Series"
  • "6.2.3 Standard Deviation of the Mean"
  • "6.3 Numerical Examples "
  • "6.4 Software "
  • "6.5 Conclusions "
  • "Problems "
  • "Practical Exercises "
  • "Chapter 7: Error Propagation in Angle and Distance Observations"
  • "7.1 Introduction "
  • "7.2 Error Sources in Horizontal Angles "
  • "7.3 Reading Errors "
  • "7.3.1 Angles Observed by the Repetition Method"
  • "7.3.2 Angles Observed by the Direction Method"
  • "7.4 Pointing Errors "
  • "7.5 Estimated Pointing and Reading Errors with Total Stations "
  • "7.6 Target-Centering Errors "
  • "7.7 Instrument Centering Errors "
  • "7.8 Effects of Leveling Errors in Angle Observations "
  • "7.9 Numerical Example of Combined Error Propagation in a Single Horizontal Angle "
  • "7.10 Using Estimated Errors to Check Angular Misclosure in a Traverse "
  • "7.11 Errors in Astronomical Observations for Azimuth "
  • "7.12 Errors in Electronic Distance Observations "
  • "7.13 Centering Errors When Using Range Poles "
  • "7.14 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 8: Error Propagation in Traverse Surveys"
  • "8.1 Introduction "
  • "8.2 Derivation of Estimated Error in Latitude and Departure "
  • "8.3 Derivation of Estimated Standard Errors in Course Azimuths "
  • "8.4 Computing and Analyzing Polygon Traverse Misclosure Errors "
  • "8.5 Computing and Analyzing Link Traverse Misclosure Errors "
  • "8.6 Software "
  • "8.7 Conclusions "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 9: Error Propagation in Elevation Determination"
  • "9.1 Introduction "
  • "9.2 Systematic Errors in Differential Leveling "
  • "9.2.1 Collimation Error"
  • "9.2.2 Earth Curvature and Refraction"
  • "9.3 Random Errors in Differential Leveling "
  • "9.3.1 Reading Errors"
  • "9.3.2 Instrument Leveling Errors"
  • "9.3.3 Rod Plumbing Error"
  • "9.3.4 Estimated Errors in Differential Leveling"
  • "9.4 Error Propagation in Trigonometric Leveling "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 10: Weights of Observations"
  • "10.1 Introduction "
  • "10.2 Weighted Mean "
  • "10.3 Relationship Between Weights and Standard Errors "
  • "10.4 Statistics of Weighted Observations "
  • "10.4.1 Standard Deviation"
  • "10.4.2 Standard Error of Weight W and Standard Error of the Weighted Mean"
  • "10.5 Weights in Angle Observations "
  • "10.6 Weights in Differential Leveling "
  • "10.7 Practical Examples "
  • "Problems "
  • "Chapter 11: Principles of Least Squares"
  • "11.1 Introduction "
  • "11.2 Fundamental Principle of Least Squares "
  • "11.3 The Fundamental Principle of Weighted Least Squares "
  • "11.4 The Stochastic Model "
  • "11.5 Functional Model "
  • "11.6 Observation Equations "
  • "11.6.1 Elementary Example of Observation Equation Adjustment"
  • "11.7 Systematic Formulation of the Normal Equations "
  • "11.7.1 Equal-Weight Case"
  • "11.7.2 Weighted Case"
  • "11.7.3 Advantages of the Systematic Approach"
  • "11.8 Tabular Formation of the Normal Equations "
  • "11.9 Using Matrices to Form the Normal Equations "
  • "11.9.1 Equal-Weight Case"
  • "11.10 Least Squares Solution of Nonlinear Systems "
  • "11.11 Least Squares Fit of Points to a Line or Curve "
  • "11.11.1 Fitting Data to a Straight Line"
  • "11.11.2 Fitting Data to a Parabola"
  • "11.12 Calibration of an EDM Instrument "
  • "11.13 Least Squares Adjustment Using Conditional Equations "
  • "11.14 The Previous Example Using Observation Equations "
  • "11.15 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Chapter 12: Adjustment of Level Nets"
  • "12.1 Introduction "
  • "12.2 Observation Equation "
  • "12.3 Unweighted Example "
  • "12.4 Weighted Example "
  • "12.5 Reference Standard Deviation "
  • "12.5.1 Unweighted Example"
  • "12.5.2 Weighted Example"
  • "12.6 Another Weighted Adjustment "
  • "12.7 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 13: Precisions of Indirectly Determined Quantities"
  • "13.1 Introduction "
  • "13.2 Development of the Covariance Matrix "
  • "13.3 Numerical Examples "
  • "13.4 Standard Deviations of Computed Quantities "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 14: Adjustment of Horizontal Surveys: Trilateration"
  • "14.1 Introduction "
  • "14.2 Distance Observation Equation "
  • "14.3 Trilateration Adjustment Example "
  • "14.4 Formulation of a Generalized Coefficient Matrix for a More Complex Network "
  • "14.5 Computer Solution of a Trilaterated Quadrilateral "
  • "14.6 Iteration Termination "
  • "14.6.1 Method of Maximum Iterations"
  • "14.6.2 Maximum Correction"
  • "14.6.3 Monitoring the Adjustmentâ??s Reference Variance"
  • "14.7 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 15: Adjustment of Horizontal Surveys: Triangulation"
  • "15.1 Introduction "
  • "15.2 Azimuth Observation Equation "
  • "15.2.1 Linearization of the Azimuth Observation Equation"
  • "15.3 Angle Observation Equation "
  • "15.4 Adjustment of Intersections "
  • "15.5 Adjustment of Resections "
  • "15.5.1 Computing Initial Approximations in the Resection Problem"
  • "15.6 Adjustment of Triangulated Quadrilaterals "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 16: Adjustment of Horizontal Surveys: Traverses and Horizontal Networks"
  • "16.1 Introduction to Traverse Adjustments "
  • "16.2 Observation Equations "
  • "16.3 Redundant Equations "
  • "16.4 Numerical Example "
  • "16.5 Minimum Amount of Control "
  • "16.6 Adjustment of Networks "
  • "16.7 2 Test: Goodness of Fit"
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 17: Adjustment of GNSS Networks"
  • "17.1 Introduction "
  • "17.2 GNSS Observations "
  • "17.3 GNSS Errors and the Need for Adjustment "
  • "17.4 Reference Coordinate Systems for GNSS Observations "
  • "17.5 Converting Between the Terrestrial and Geodetic Coordinate Systems "
  • "17.6 Application of Least Squares in Processing GNSS Data "
  • "17.7 Network Preadjustment Data Analysis "
  • "17.7.1 Analysis of Fixed Baseline Measurements"
  • "17.7.2 Analysis of Repeat Baseline"
  • "17.7.3 Analysis of Loop Closures"
  • "17.7.4 Minimally Constrained Adjustment"
  • "17.8 Least Squares Adjustment of GNSS Networks "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 18: Coordinate Transformations"
  • "18.1 Introduction "
  • "18.2 The Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate "
  • "18.3 Equation Development "
  • "18.4 Application of Least Squares "
  • "18.5 Two-Dimensional Affine Coordinate Transformation "
  • "18.6 The Two-Dimensional Projective Coordinate Transformation "
  • "18.7 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation "
  • "18.8 Statistically Valid Parameters "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 19: Error Ellipse"
  • "19.1 Introduction "
  • "19.2 Computation of Ellipse Orientation and Semiaxes "
  • "19.3 Example Problem of Standard Error Ellipse Calculations "
  • "19.3.1 Error Ellipse for Station Wisconsin"
  • "19.3.2 Error Ellipse for Station Campus"
  • "19.3.3 Drawing the Standard Error"
  • "19.4 Another Example Problem "
  • "19.5 The Error Ellipse Confidence Level "
  • "19.6 Error Ellipse Advantages "
  • "19.6.1 Survey Network Design"
  • "19.6.2 Example Network"
  • "19.7 Other Measures of Station Uncertainty "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 20: Constraint Equations"
  • "20.1 Introduction "
  • "20.2 Adjustment of Control Station Coordinates "
  • "20.3 Holding Control Station Coordinates and Directions of Lines Fixed in a Trilateration Adjustment "
  • "20.3.1 Holding the Direction of a Line Fixed by Elimination of Constraints"
  • "20.4 Helmert's Method "
  • "20.5 Redundancies in a Constrained Adjustment "
  • "20.6 Enforcing Constraints through Weighting "
  • "Problems "
  • "Practical Problems "
  • "Chapter 21: Blunder Detection in Horizontal Networks"
  • "21.1 Introduction "
  • "21.2 A Priori Methods for Detecting Blunders in Observations "
  • "21.2.1 Use of the K Matrix"
  • "21.2.2 Traverse Closure Checks"
  • "21.3 A Posteriori Blunder Detection "
  • "21.4 Development of the Covariance Matrix for the Residuals "
  • "21.5 Detection of Outliers in Observations: Data Snooping "
  • "21.6 Detection of Outliers in Observations: The Tau Criterion "
  • "21.7 Techniques Used in Adjusting Control "
  • "21.8 A Data Set with Blunders "
  • "21.9 Some Further Considerations "
  • "21.9.1 Internal Reliability"
  • "21.9.2 External Reliability"
  • "21.10 Survey Design "
  • "21.11 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Practical Problems "
  • "Chapter 22: The General Least Squares Method and Its Application to Curve Fitting and Coordinate Transformations"
  • "22.1 Introduction to General Least Squares "
  • "22.2 General Least Squares Equations for Fitting a Straight Line "
  • "22.3 General Least Squares Solution "
  • "22.4 Two-Dimensional Coordinate Transformation by General Least Squares "
  • "22.4.1 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation"
  • "22.4.2 Two-Dimensional Affine Coordinate Transformation"
  • "22.4.3 Two-Dimensional Projective Transformation"
  • "22.5 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation by General Least Squares "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 23: Three-Dimensional Geodetic Network Adjustment"
  • "23.1 Introduction "
  • "23.2 Linearization of Equations "
  • "23.2.1 Slant Distance Observations"
  • "23.2.2 Azimuth Observations"
  • "23.2.3 Altitude Angle Observations"
  • "23.2.4 Horizontal Angle Observations"
  • "23.2.5 Differential Leveling Observations"
  • "23.2.6 Horizontal Distance Observations"
  • "23.3 Minimum Number of Constraints "
  • "23.4 Example Adjustment "
  • "23.4.1 Addition of Slant Distances"
  • "23.4.2 Addition of Horizontal Angles"
  • "23.4.3 Addition of Zenith Angles"
  • "23.4.4 Addition of Observed Azimuths"
  • "23.4.5 Addition of Elevation Differences"
  • "23.4.6 Adjustment of Control Stations"
  • "23.4.7 Results of Adjustment"
  • "23.4.8 Updating Geodetic Coordinates"
  • "23.5 Building an Adjustment "
  • "23.6 Comments on Systematic Errors "
  • "23.7 Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 24: Combining GNSS and Terrestrial Observations"
  • "24.1 Introduction "
  • "24.2 The Helmert Transformation "
  • "24.3 Rotations between Coordinate Systems "
  • "24.4 Combining GNSS Baseline Vectors with Traditional Observations "
  • "24.5 Another Approach to Transforming Coordinates between Reference Frames "
  • "24.6 Other Considerations "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Chapter 25: Analysis of Adjustments"
  • "25.1 Introduction "
  • "25.2 Basic Concepts, Residuals, and the Normal Distribution "
  • "25.3 Goodness of Fit Test "
  • "25.4 Comparison of GNSS Residual Plots "
  • "25.5 Use of Statistical Blunder Detection "
  • "Problems "
  • "Chapter 26: Computer Optimization"
  • "26.1 Introduction "
  • "26.2 Storage Optimization "
  • "26.3 Direct Formation of the Normal Equations "
  • "26.4 Cholesky Decomposition "
  • "26.5 Forward and Back Solutions "
  • "26.6 Using the Cholesky Factor to Find the Inverse of the Normal Matrix "
  • "26.7 Spareness and Optimization of the Normal Matrix "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Appendix A: Introduction to Matrices"
  • "A.1 Introduction "
  • "A.2 Definition of a Matrix "
  • "A.3 Size or Dimensions of a Matrix "
  • "A.4 Types of Matrices "
  • "A.5 Matrix Equality "
  • "A.6 Addition or Subtraction of Matrices "
  • "A.7 Scalar Multiplication of a Matrix "
  • "A.8 Matrix Multiplication "
  • "A.9 Computer Algorithms for Matrix Operations "
  • "A.9.1 Addition/Subtraction of Two Matrices"
  • "A.9.2 Matrix Multiplication"
  • "A.10 Use of the Matrix Software "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Appendix B: Solution of Equations by Matrix Methods"
  • "B.1 Introduction "
  • "B.2 Inverse Matrix "
  • "B.3 The Inverse of a 2 Ã? 2 Matrix"
  • "B.4 Inverses by Adjoints "
  • "B.5 Inverses by Elementary Row Transformations "
  • "B.6 Example Problem "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Appendix C: Nonlinear Equations and Taylorâ??s Theorem"
  • "C.1 Introduction "
  • "C.2 Taylor Series Linearization of Nonlinear Equations "
  • "C.3 Numerical Example "
  • "C.4 Using Matrices to Solve Nonlinear Equations "
  • "C.5 Simple Matrix Example "
  • "C.6 Practical Example "
  • "C.7 Concluding Remarks "
  • "Problems "
  • "Programming Problems "
  • "Appendix D: The Normal Error Distribution Curve and Other Statistical Tables"
  • "D.1 Development for Normal Distribution Curve Equation "
  • "D.2 Other Statistical Tables "
  • "D.2.1 The 2 Distribution"
  • "D.2.2 t Distribution"
  • "D.2.3 F Distribution (Also known as Fisher distribution)"
  • "Appendix E: Confidence Intervals for the Mean"
  • "Appendix F: Map Projection Coordinate Systems"
  • "F.1 Introduction "
  • "F.2 Mathematics of the Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection "
  • "F.2.1 Zone Constants"
  • "F.2.2 Direct Problem"
  • "F.2.3 Inverse Problem"
  • "F.3 Mathematics from the Transverse Mercator "
  • "F.3.1 Zone Constants"
  • "F.3.2 Direct Problem"
  • "F.3.3 Inverse Problem"
  • "F.4 Stereographic Map Projection "
  • "F.5 Reduction of Observations "
  • "F.5.1 Reduction of Distances"
  • "F.5.2 Reduction of Geodetic Azimuths"
  • "Appendix G: Companion Website"
  • "G.1 Introduction "
  • "G.2 File Formats and Memory Matters "
  • "G.3 Software "
  • "G.3.1 ADJUST"
  • "G.3.2 STATS"
  • "G.3.3 MATRIX"
  • "G.3.4 Mathcad Worksheets"
  • "G.3.5 Spreadsheets"
  • "G.4 Using the Software as an Instructional Aid "
  • "Appendix H: Answers to Selected Problems"
  • "Bibliography "
  • "Index "
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