Renegotiating French Identity

Musical Culture and Creativity in France during Vichy and the German Occupation
 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 19. April 2018
  • |
  • 600 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-068151-7 (ISBN)
 
In Renegotiating French Identity, Jane Fulcher addresses the question of cultural resistance to the German occupation and Vichy regime during the Second World War. Nazi Germany famously stressed music as a marker of national identity and cultural achievement, but so too did Vichy. From the opera to the symphony, music did not only serve the interests of Vichy and German propaganda: it also helped to reveal the motives behind them, and to awaken resistance among those growing disillusioned by the regime. Using unexplored Resistance documents, from both the clandestine press and the French National Archives, Fulcher looks at the responses of specific artists and their means of resistance, addressing in turn Pierre Schaeffer, Arthur Honegger, Francis Poulenc, and Olivier Messiaen, among others. This book investigates the role that music played in fostering a profound awareness of the cultural and political differences between conflicting French ideological positions, as criticism of Vichy and its policies mounted.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • USA
12
  • 43,70 MB
978-0-19-068151-7 (9780190681517)
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Jane F. Fulcher is Professor of Musicology at the University of Michigan and the author of French Cultural Politics and Music from the Dreyfus Affair to the First World War (1999) and The Composer As Intellectual: Music and Ideology in France 1914-1940, among other publications. She has also served as a visiting professor at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris.
Acknowledgments Introduction: The new historiography of Vichy and recent theoretical insights: implications for study of the music created and performed Recent historiographic insights into the regime's conflicting visions and evolution Initial new directions in larger studies of Vichy culture New issues: dual surveillance, the complex bureaucratic matrix, and the cultural field Vichy's musical culture and the still looming questions: what did result, when, and where? Concomitant theoretical issues: how were musical works inscribed, framed, and read? Public and creative responses: the question of collective and individual French identity What constituted resistance in music, and what kinds of innovations did it foster? Reformulating older questions and posing new ones 1. The essential political and institutional background Beyond a monolithic view of Vichy and its doctrine of the Révolution Nationale Vichy and its relation to the Germans Vichy's brand of patriotism and nationalism Beneath the apparent traditionalism The evolution of the regime and the significant markers German and Vichy repression, and the development of the resistance Vichy's reconstruction of French identity Vichy's negotiations of French cultural identity Vichy and the question of the French national heritage, or cultural tradition The limits allowed by the Germans in the reconfiguration of French national identity Vichy's cultural institutions and the divergent, evolving mandates A consistent Vichy cultural agenda? Beyond conceptions of a Vichy patriotic "double game" A Vichy musical program? Its evolving aims and the musical field The role of Ministers of National Education and of the Secrétaire Générale in music The role of the Germans and their interest in concerts and in the musical press German and French broadcasts of classical concerts The Germans and the Paris Conservatoire The Germans and intervention in French recordings Vichy's own constraints and shifting goals in music Vichy "experts" in music, and the case of Jacques Rouché Another Vichy "expert"-Alfred Cortot Vichy and its goals in recordings Vichy's corporate organization of the musical profession Vichy and state commissions in music The Case of the opéra: Rouché's initial latitude but growing Vichy and German Pressures Vichy's interest in the Conservatoire and its regional branches Subversion within institutions and performance venues The development of the musical resistance and its response both to the Germans and to Vichy 2. Re-inscribing, framing, and subverting an operatic icon: Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande The double advantage of both Berlioz and Debussy Pelléas: its nature, style, and the initial French reception in 1940 Désormière's "classic" interpretation in a still relatively autonomous musical field The 1940 production and the opera's enunciation within the context Ambiguity, liminality, and the opera's impact at Vichy's start Pelléas at Vichy: refocusing the opera's national significance through performance The recording of Pelléas and its increasing dissonance with the new discursive framing Resistance responses to the Franco-German cultural discourse Pelléas and the battle over national memory: the 1942 commemoration and production in Paris The discursive framing and context of the 1942 production of Pelléas Vichy's political turn, mounting resistance, and the 1943 Debussy commemoration The Resistance appropriation of Debussy and of Pelléas Debussy as emblematic of authentic French classicism Debussy and Pelléas as cultural emblems of liberation From propaganda to national healing: Debussy in the reconstruction of cultural memory 3. From the legal to the illegal: Schaeffer's journey toward resistance and artistic exploration Vichy's attempt to remake French youth and Schaeffer's own personal agenda Radio-Jeunesse and Vichy's new sound culture Schaeffer's quest to make tradition dynamic in Jeune France Jeune France's organization and range of projects Jeune France and Mounier's "revolutionary humanism" Jeune France and the creative curation of tradition Musical innovation within Schaeffer's Jeune France Schaeffer's movement from the legal to the illegal Schaeffer's subjective re-assessment and reflection on the "language of things" Schaeffer's search for an "invisible theater" and new meanings, or realms of perception Schaeffer and the Studio d'Essai: from new perceptual fields to resistance 4. The soft or hard borders of French identity: Honegger's iconic role and subjectivity during Vichy Honegger omnipresent Honegger's modernism and the modernist strain condoned by both Vichy and the Germans Honegger's supporters and their ideological trajectories The evolution of the French fascist aesthetic and Honegger's complex relation to it Gaston Bergery and his support for Honegger From state collaboration to collaborationism: the fine line and Honegger's symbolism Music and the goal of the group collaboration Honegger and the musical synthesis promoted by later 1941 The composer's dual cultures and his style in Antigone The original material inscription, enunciation, and reception of the opera The context for the selection of Antigone at the Paris Opera Antigone's physical and ideological re-inscription at the Opéra in early 1943 The multivalent potential of the opera's text and style The critical and public reception of Antigone at the Paris Opera in 1943 The performative impact of Antigone in 1943 Paris Honegger's search for identity in Vichy and occupied France Honegger's contradictions as critic The Second Symphony and Honegger's subjective conundrum Monologic or Dialogic? The critical reception of the Second Symphony Honegger the resistant? His postwar sanctions 5. Poulenc's metamorphosis: his journey towards resistance and a stylistic counter-discourse From one nationalism to another Poulenc at Vichy's dawn Vichy traditionalism in Les Animaux modèles? From the search for personal authenticity to a new political awareness Resistance nationalism and its artistic goals Theories and models of French musical resistance Poulenc's search for his own resistance style Exploring the tactic of stylistic disruption: Poulenc's Sonata for Violin and Piano Poulenc's turn to the literary resistance's stylistic paradigms Metamorphosis and its meaning in Poulenc's Figure humaine The importance of trajectories and of symbolic meanings within their context 6. Messiaen in a Catholic Church divided: spiritual authority, subjective agency, and artistic breakthrough Messiaen's refusal and his nonconformist background Mobilization, capture, and creativity Internment, internal liberty, and Messiaen's Quatuor Levels of utterance in Messiaen's Quatuor Reactions to the Quatuor and to its textual framing Release and recruitment into Schaeffer's "Band of Christian Democrats" Messiaen's artistic explorations in Portique pour une fille de France The politics of Messiaen's appointment to the Paris Conservatoire Performance of and support for Messiaen's previous compositions Messiaen's new circles and private commissions Vichy's political direction, division within the church, and Messiaen's creative choices Sartre, Messiaen, Hello, and subjective choice New content and approaches to form in the Visions de l'Amen Responses to the challenge of Messiaen's Visions de l'Amen Messiaen's turn to resistance themes and models Man and God in the Trois petites liturgies de la presence divine The Resistance embrace of Messiaen and of his work Conclusion: Vichy's shifting cultural goals and tactics: the results, the responses, and how to perceive them Notes Bibliography Index

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