Presumptive Design

Design Provocations for Innovation
Morgan Kaufmann (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 10. September 2015
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  • 448 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-803087-5 (ISBN)

Everything you know about the future is wrong. Presumptive Design: Design Provocations for Innovation is for people 'inventing" the future: future products, services, companies, strategies and policies. It introduces a design-research method that shortens time to insights from months to days. Presumptive Design is a fundamentally agile approach to identifying your audiences' key needs. Offering rapidly crafted artifacts, your teams collaborate with your customers to identify preferred and profitable elements of your desired outcome. Presumptive Design focuses on your users' problem space, informing your business strategy, your project's early stage definition, and your innovation pipeline. Comprising discussions of design theory with case studies and how-to's, the book offers business leadership, management and innovators the benefits of design thinking and user experience in the context of early stage problem definition. Presumptive Design is an advanced technique and quick to use: within days of reading this book, your research and design teams can apply the approach to capture a risk-reduced view of your future.

  • Provides actionable approaches to inform strategy and problem definition through design thinking
  • Offers a design-based research method to complement existing market, ethnographic and customer research methods
  • Demonstrates a powerful technique for identifying disruptive innovation early in the innovation pipeline by putting customers first
  • Presents each concept with case studies and exploration of risk factors involved including warnings for situations in which the technique can be misapplied

Leo Frishberg is a Product Design Manager at Intel with more than 40 years' experience in design. Leo co-discovered the techniques in this book in 1984 and has been applying them in practice for over 10 years in a wide variety of contexts including consumer gifts, industrial tools, software application development and emerging businesses. These techniques have been detailed in his writings for Interactions magazine and workshops he's led during CHI conferences.
  • Englisch
  • San Francisco
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  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 54,54 MB
978-0-12-803087-5 (9780128030875)
0128030879 (0128030879)
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  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Why We're Excited About Presumptive Design
  • Who Is This Book For?
  • How to Use This Book
  • Part 1: Context (the Why)
  • Part 2: Principles and Risks (the What)
  • Part 3: How-To Manual and Recipes (the How)
  • Appendices
  • On a Personal Note
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part 1 - Context
  • Chapter 1 - Introducing Presumptive Design
  • Overview
  • This Book's Value Proposition
  • A Twist to the Familiar
  • Agile Culture
  • Participatory
  • A High-Wire Act
  • Rapid Prototyping
  • The Five Principles of Presumptive Design
  • Design to Fail
  • Create, Discover, Analyze
  • Create
  • Discover
  • Analyze
  • Make Assumptions Explicit
  • Iterate, Iterate, Iterate
  • The Faster You Go, the Sooner You'll Know
  • Have Fun!
  • So, Why Bother?
  • Chapter 2 - PrD and Design Thinking
  • Overview
  • Design Thinking
  • A Brief Review of Design Thinking Models
  • The IIT School of Thought
  • Charles Owen
  • Vijay Kumar/Steve Sato Model
  • Bill Buxton and Paul Laseau's Models
  • The UK Design Council Double Diamond Diagram
  • PrD and Sato's Design Thinking Model
  • How PrD Accelerates Learning
  • How PrD Differs from Traditional UCD
  • The Traditional (Waterfall) UCD Cycle
  • The PrD (Agile) Approach
  • Summary
  • Chapter 3 - PrD and an Agile Way of Business
  • Overview
  • The Changing Nature of Business Strategy
  • An Agile Notion of Strategy
  • Knowledge and Decision Frameworks
  • Snowden's Cynefin Framework
  • PrD in the Context of Unknowns
  • Disruptive Innovation and PrD
  • Disruptive Innovation
  • Increasing the Value of Ideas in the Innovation Funnel
  • A Hypothetical Example
  • PrD in a Culture of Agility
  • A Culture of Agility
  • PrD, Design Thinking, and Business Value
  • Summary
  • Part 2 - Principles and Risks
  • Chapter 4 - Design to Fail
  • Overview
  • We're Going to Fail-It's a Question of When and by How Much
  • Designing the Right Thing
  • There's Nothing Wrong About Being Wrong
  • We Seek Intelligent Failures
  • Risk Factors
  • Conclusion
  • Summary
  • Chapter 5 - Create, Discover, Analyze
  • Overview
  • Begin at the End
  • The Artifact Provokes Discovery
  • Analyze What They Mean, Not Just What We Heard
  • Taking the Low Road
  • High-Fidelity Artifacts Look and Feel Like Finished Products
  • Low-Fidelity Artifacts Cost Less
  • Risk Factors
  • Effort
  • Reality, Timidity, and Incrementalism
  • Missing the Point
  • Focusing on the Small
  • Hiding in Plain Sight
  • Diminished Value
  • Summary
  • Chapter 6 - Make Assumptions Explicit
  • Overview
  • Revealing Assumptions Isn't Easy
  • Discussing Solutions, not Assumptions
  • Released Product is No Place to Learn What Stakeholders Need
  • Nonsensical Artifacts Generate Useful Results
  • Good Assumptions are Hard to Find
  • Ass.U.Me-Implicit Assumptions Make Us All Look Stupid
  • We Really Want to Believe
  • We Don't Know Anybody Else's Assumptions Either
  • Risk Factors
  • Insincerity
  • Not Getting to Yes
  • Summary
  • Chapter 7 - Iterate, Iterate, Iterate!
  • Overview
  • Iterating Is Not Wasted Effort
  • Iteration Begins Day One
  • Iterating is a Risk Reduction Strategy
  • Time
  • Money
  • Learning Nothing New
  • Risk Factors
  • Project Constraints
  • Stalling
  • Summary
  • Chapter 8 - The Faster We Go, the Sooner We Know
  • Overview
  • Just Get Started
  • Protecting Our Assets
  • An Early Start Reduces Cost
  • The Future Wasn't Built to Last
  • Predecision Versus Postdecision Timing
  • How Faithful Is Our Artifact?
  • How Little Do We Need?
  • Maximize Insight, Minimize Investment
  • Discovery Through Agility
  • Moving Fast While Staying Real
  • Get Real
  • Real Is in the Eye of the Stakeholder
  • Risk Factors
  • The Need for Design Thinking
  • Analysis Paralysis
  • Summary
  • Chapter 9 - The Perils of PrD
  • Overview
  • Is It the Right Problem?
  • PrD Needs Two Things
  • A Provocative Artifact
  • Magical Artifacts
  • An Artifact to Use
  • Additional Ways PrD Can Fail
  • Talent
  • Courage
  • Must Be Present to Win
  • Building the Artifact
  • Convenience
  • Cost
  • Summary
  • Chapter 10 - Lack of Diversity
  • Overview
  • The Hazards of Homogeneity
  • Social Conformity + Homophily = Groupthink
  • Disagreement Deficit
  • How Groupthink Impacts PrD
  • Diversity of Reasoning
  • Reasoning Roles
  • Researcher
  • Activities in the Creation Session
  • Activities in the Engagement Session
  • Analyst
  • Activities in the Creation Session
  • Activities in the Engagement Session
  • Designer
  • Activities in the Creation Session
  • Activities in the Engagement Session
  • The Builder
  • Activities in the Creation Session
  • Activities in the Engagement Session
  • The Facilitator
  • Activities in the Creation Session
  • Activities in the Engagement Session
  • How Many Again?
  • Personality Attributes
  • Thinking Style Questionnaire
  • Team Balancing Exercise
  • Where Things Go Wrong
  • How Many Is Too Few?
  • Failure to Cohere
  • Detractors
  • Summary
  • Chapter 11 - Believing Our Own Stories
  • Overview
  • Increasing Investment Increases Belief
  • The Three Traps
  • Pitching the Design
  • Presenting the Design
  • Arguing with Stakeholders
  • Confirmation Bias
  • Seeking Supporting Data
  • Resisting Effort
  • Experience Is Not Our Guide
  • Success Is Not So Easily Defined
  • In a Small Pool, Any Fish Looks Big
  • Been There, Done That
  • Owning the Stakeholder's Story
  • The Stakeholders' Stories Reinforce the Team's Assumptions
  • Summary
  • Chapter 12 - Unclear Objectives
  • Overview
  • Explicit and Implicit Objectives
  • It Takes a Village .
  • Structural Failures
  • Lack of Well-Defined Objectives
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Time-Bound
  • Too Many Objectives
  • The Artifact Serves the Objectives
  • Doing Too Much
  • Doing Too Little
  • The Objectives Frame the Report
  • Summary
  • Chapter 13 - Losing Our Audience
  • Overview
  • Users Catch on Rough Edges
  • When Confusion is a Distraction Versus Branch Point
  • Difficult Conversations (Uncooperative Stakeholders)
  • The Discussion Strays from the Objectives
  • Summary
  • Part 3 - How-To Manual and Recipes
  • Chapter 14 - Master Facilitation
  • Overview
  • Fundamental Facilitation Techniques
  • Offering the Artifact, Not the Design
  • Staying Present in the Present Tense
  • Use Their Words
  • Being Present
  • Keeping it Real
  • Maintaining Engagement
  • Judicious Prompting
  • Building Rapport
  • Actively Listening Without Judgment
  • Prompt, but Don't Lead
  • Leading Through Body Language
  • The Five Prompts and How to Avoid Three of Them
  • Honoring Silence
  • The Five Whys
  • Facilitation Unique to PrD
  • The Artifact Is the Thing
  • Social Objects
  • A Personal Object
  • An Active Object
  • A Provocative Object
  • A Relational Object
  • Improvisation Is Key
  • Why PrD Isn't Usability
  • Performing a Task
  • User Goals
  • Thinking Aloud
  • Noting Confusions
  • Capturing Quantitative Data
  • Relevance
  • Collecting Requirements
  • Refining the Design
  • Refining
  • Exploring
  • Do You Like It?
  • The Perils of Subjunctivity
  • Summary
  • Chapter 15 - The Creation Session
  • Overview
  • How Big, How Complicated?
  • Staffing
  • Example 1: Product Line Refresh
  • Example 2: Product Refresh
  • Example 3: New Product Introduction
  • Budget
  • Environment
  • Location
  • Size and Setup
  • Amenities
  • Food
  • A Printed Program
  • Prepping for the Session
  • Invitations, Calendaring, and Prework
  • Agenda
  • Establishing a Theme
  • Running a Creation Session
  • Kicking Off with a Bang
  • Pacing the Session
  • Introducing the Goals
  • Level Setting on Existing Data
  • Presentations
  • Information Kiosks
  • Walking the Walls
  • Engagement Session Tasks and Objectives
  • Artifact Creation
  • Engagement Session Prep and Execution
  • Engagement Sessions in the Creation Session
  • Reporting Out
  • Critique
  • Rewards
  • Judging
  • Orienting the Judges
  • Running the Judging
  • Awards
  • Debrief and Closure
  • Debrief
  • Closure
  • Outcomes
  • The Script
  • The Artifact
  • Facilitation
  • Timing
  • Respect
  • Improvisation
  • Reflection
  • Summary
  • Chapter 16 - The Engagement Session
  • Overview
  • Prepping for the Engagement Session
  • Sampling
  • Users
  • Sample Size
  • Saturation
  • Recruitment
  • Using Sales Teams
  • User Groups
  • Panels of Experts
  • Support Call Center
  • Web or Social Media
  • Third Parties
  • Calendaring, Communication, Setting Expectations
  • Special Preparation
  • Nondisclosure Agreements
  • Logistics: Traveling with an Artifact, Traveling with a Herd
  • Remote or Collocated
  • Nonverbal
  • Context
  • Simplicity of Engagement
  • To Record
  • Capturing Words, Gestures, and Behaviors Literally
  • Providing Evidence to Skeptics
  • Highlight Reels
  • Not to Record
  • Invasive
  • Postprocessing Time
  • Running the Engagement Session
  • How Many Stakeholders, How Many Team Members?
  • How Many Stakeholders?
  • A Case for Two
  • The Environment: The Room, the Table, the Proxemics
  • Facilitating the Session
  • When is the Engagement Session Finished?
  • After the Engagement Session
  • Postsession Dynamics
  • Hot Wash Critique
  • Changing the Artifact or the Script
  • Changing the Artifact
  • Changing the Script
  • The Cold Wash
  • But Really, When is Enough Enough?
  • Summary
  • Appendix A - The Cases
  • Challenging Research Protocols/Social Innovation
  • The Case of Constricted Collective Conversation
  • The Case of the Black-Magic Batman
  • The Case of the Preoccupied Passersby
  • The Case of the Pushy Pillboxes
  • Indirect Artifacts
  • The Case of the PowerPoint Play
  • The Case of the Hard-Boiled Eggs
  • PrD Serving Business Results
  • The Case of the Business Case
  • Using Real Products as Artifacts
  • The Case of the Rx Reminder
  • The Case of the Star Trek Holodeck
  • Direct Artifacts
  • The Case of the New Case
  • The Case of the Balking Bicyclists
  • The Case of the Transformed Treatment
  • The Art of Facilitation
  • The Case of the Reticent Respondent
  • Appendix B - The Art of Box Breaking
  • Overview
  • The Art of Abductive Reasoning
  • Creation Session Activities
  • Prework
  • Prework Logistics
  • Arriving and Introductions
  • Arriving Off-Site
  • Creating a Theme
  • Introductions
  • Finding Your Tribe
  • Team Building
  • Pictophone
  • Multimodal Exercises
  • Affinitizing the Prework
  • Ideation
  • Brainstorming Rules
  • Innovation Games, Gamestorming, and the Convivial Toolbox
  • News from the Future
  • A Key Feature
  • Artifacts from the Future
  • Breaking Boxes
  • Three Solutions
  • Devil's Advocate
  • Literally Breaking Boxes
  • Summary
  • Contributor Biographies
  • List of Figure Credits
  • Part 1
  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2
  • Part 2
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11
  • Part 3
  • Chapter 14
  • Chapter 16
  • Appendix A
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover


Extraordinary begins with discomfort.

-Sally Hogshead

This book is fundamentally about being wrong.

That isn't what I (Leo) thought this book was going to be about when we set out to write it. What better example could I wish for of how easily we get things wrong?

In fact, everything we know is wrong.

Humor me for a moment and reflect on that sentence. Even after re-reading it hundreds of times, I still feel a twinge of ... anger? Self-righteousness? I hear a little voice saying: "Well that may be true for you buddy, but not for me." And I wrote the sentence!

According to the research, that's a completely normal reaction; it has its roots so deeply buried in our evolution that there is nothing we can do about it. Every day we operate in the world based on a set of well-worn beliefs, and mostly we are successful, or so it would seem. So, surely my statement that "everything we know is wrong" is hyperbole. Or not, if you look at the world through Plato's eyes. In brief, all we know about the world comes in through our senses and is processed by our brains before being committed to memory. The whole system is fraught with potential error. In short, how well can we trust our senses, cognition, and memory?

Still, I'm more interested in the emotion around the reaction to the statement than engaging in a philosophical argument. My point is, when we read the statement "everything we know is wrong," we resist agreeing with it. And, now, humor me one more time for a moment: Read the statement again and let yourself accept it as true. It might take a few tries and a couple of deep breaths, but give it a shot.

How does that feel? If you're really engaging here, it should feel uncomfortable. Disorienting. Rudderless. (Of course, if the statement were really true, you wouldn't be able to read these sentences because you're wrong about your ability to read along with everything else. But stick with me for a second.)

To summarize: We don't like to think we're wrong, and we feel uncomfortable when we learn we're wrong.

Irrespective of how frequently we think we are wrong (maybe not about everything, but at least once in our lives-and let's hope you weren't wrong about picking up this book), the real question for us is, "What are we going to do about it?" Our focus is on applying our errors to our best advantage, use them to positive effect, and ultimately make our teams and organizations successful, not in spite of our errors, but because of them.

Let's restate the hyperbole: Everything you know about the future is wrong. That feels a little easier to admit, right? This book is written for people who are "inventing" the future: building products, services, companies, strategies, policies, or whatever, in service of a future state.

Presumptive Design (PrD) begins with the following operating assumptions:

We are wrong (at least about the future). We are in denial of being wrong (except perhaps about the future). We generally don't like learning that we are wrong. (Where are those flying cars, or aerial houses (Figure Pr.1)?) Figure Pr.1 "Maison tournante aérienne" by Albert Robida, a nineteenth-century conception of life in the twentieth century

After reading this book, you will see how PrD eliminates the third assumption. (You'll look forward to learning from your errors and experience the surprise and joy of your discoveries.) The process helps you accept the second assumption. (Face it, we can't eliminate our denial-it really is baked into our brains-but we can at least recognize our denial.) And with respect to the first assumption, it's irrelevant. PrD works whether you believe you are wrong (about the future) or not. The process asks only one small thing of you: that you at least pretend to believe you are wrong (about the future).

Why We're Excited About Presumptive Design

Let's just put it out there: PrD is the fastest way to converge on a future state your stakeholders really "want." The approach isn't all that novel, and it's not really all that different from a bunch of other techniques user experience researchers and designers already use. Parts of it have been around for well over 30 years while other parts have been around for thousands. As you'll learn, we're not positioning PrD as the magic solution to every problem. It has its place in the toolbox of research techniques. It is a research technique, in spite of its name. It is peculiar because it leads with design and with the crafting of artifacts. It depends on individuals who have mastered facilitation with a modest talent in improvisation. It requires designers as well as other disciplines in your organization. Although it is easy to describe (in spite of the length of this book, the steps are fairly simple), PrD isn't necessarily easy to apply. It is filled with risks (one of the reasons this book is so long) and is just as likely to generate garbage results as any other research technique if it isn't applied with care. With all that said, PrD's many proven advantages over other research methods (in the contexts of innovation, agile software development, and business strategy, to name a few) far outstrip the risks and challenges of the process.

Who Is This Book For?

In the early decades of the twenty-first century, businesses are recognizing the competitive advantage of designing user and customer experiences. This book has a distinctly business tone to it: The business value of PrD will be discussed throughout, because it is fundamentally about improving time to market and customer satisfaction and reducing risk. With that said, we offer case studies and stories of applying PrD in a variety of contexts, not just business. Specifically, with its relationship to Participatory Design, PrD is an equally effective tool for social innovation, for at-risk populations and situations in which you design with, not for. Its primary audience is the practitioner "on the ground" trying to build better experiences for her organizations' stakeholders. Properly designed experiences drive better business, so at its heart, this book is written to help practitioners improve the competitive value of experiences they are designing and building. And by "practitioner" we mean any member of the team: business leader, manager, analyst, engineer, designer, and researcher. If you are a business leader who is trying to position your company for top-line growth, this book offers insights into expanding your current market research efforts. As you'll see in Chapter 3, PrD is about improving the competitiveness of the end-user experiences you are bringing to market, specifically by identifying market whitespaces where users are currently underserved. To get a deeper understanding of how to apply PrD, you'll likely want to read Chapters 1-3, as well as skimming Chapters 4-13. Similarly, if you are team, program, project, or product manager, trying to increase your share of market through relevant features and rapid adoption, PrD is an effective risk reduction tool. It raises confidence in your offering at the very start of the program. Further, if you are trying to maximize the productivity of your staff and/or reduce the cost of development, you will see how PrD reduces development risk by removing waste, increasing opportunities for alignment, and establishing a shared vision. For you, Chapters 1-13 will be paramount. You will also benefit from skimming Chapters 14-16 so that you have a deeper understanding of the skills required of your team. If you are a designer, interested in expanding your research insights with users, the entire book will be of immediate use to you. And, of course, we expect researchers of all stripes will benefit from reading the entire book. Most of PrD's principles will be very familiar to designers, because it is based on the way designers approach problem solving. With that said, if you are an experienced designer, aspects of PrD may be challenging to you. PrD uses principles from Participatory Design and rapid prototyping, but it isn't either. If you are a user experience researcher, market researcher, or social scientist, many of PrD's principles will be familiar to you because it identifies underlying needs. It is both a "generative" research tool (in which informants cocreate ideas with you) and an evaluative research tool (e.g., usability testing). The approach requires subtle facilitation with quick wits and a design partner working with you. PrD is a powerful way to tie research results into actionable designs in a matter of minutes and hours, rather than weeks, months, or not at all. One final note of caution to designers: If you are an experienced designer, you will both recognize pieces of the process and possibly be flummoxed by them. Over...

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