Complications in Anesthesia E-Book

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. September 2017
  • |
  • 1088 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-48211-0 (ISBN)
 

Using a unique, problem-solving approach, Complications in Anesthesia, 3rd Edition, walks you through effective solutions to common complications in anesthesia and critical care. This practical reference uses a highly structured, clearly illustrated format to bring you up to date with what's new in the field, help you anticipate potential challenges, and guide you through life-saving solutions.

  • Presents content in an updated, logical organization covering various types of complications (drugs, testing, intubation, line insertion, surgical procedures, etc.) followed by differential diagnosis and treatment of signs of complications (intraoperative, such as hypoxia or hypotension; and postoperative, such as MI).

  • Follows a problem-based, practice-oriented approach throughout; case synopses are followed by concise coverage of recognition, risk assessment, implications, management, and prevention.

  • Allows you to review the case reports, contemplate the implications, then check your response against what the experts have to say.

  • Includes numerous photographs, diagrams, flow charts, and tables that illustrate key concepts.
  • Ideal as a clinical reference and as a study tool when preparing for oral boards.
  • Brings you up to date with new safety standards and the latest ASA guidelines.
  • Englisch
  • Philadelphia
  • |
  • USA
  • Höhe: 281 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 222 mm
  • |
  • Dicke: 0 mm
  • 17,29 MB
978-0-323-48211-0 (9780323482110)
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  • Front Cover
  • COMPLICATIONS IN ANESTHESIA
  • COMPLICATIONS IN ANESTHESIA
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Contents
  • COMPLICATIONS IN ANESTHESIA
  • 1 - Preoperative Conditions
  • 1 - Adrenal Insufficiency
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 2 - Alzheimer's Disease
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Preoperative
  • Intraoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Effect of the Perioperative Period on the Trajectory of Neurodegeneration
  • 3 - Chemical Dependency: Nonopioids
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition and Risk Assessment
  • Diagnosis
  • Alcohol and Tobacco
  • Cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • Implications
  • Alcohol and Tobacco
  • Cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Alcohol and Tobacco
  • Cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • PREVENTION
  • 4 - Chemical Dependency: Opioids
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definitions
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 5 - Chronic Opioid Use
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Determine Current Opioid Dose and Calculate MED
  • Determine Risk for Respiratory Compromise Caused by Other Concurrent Sedatives
  • Determine Risk for Respiratory Compromise Caused by Concurrent OSA or Central Sleep Apnea (CSA)
  • Create a Pain Treatment Plan as Part of the Anesthetic Plan That Includes Multimodal Analgesia Whenever Possible (Table 5.2)
  • Establish Reasonable Expectations With the Patient, Family, Surgery, and Nursing
  • Intraoperative Care
  • Postoperative Care
  • PREVENTION
  • 6 - Dialysis-Dependent Patients
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Vascular Access in Dialysis-Dependent Patients
  • Treatment of Hyperkalemia
  • Treatment of Bleeding in Uremic Patients
  • PREVENTION
  • 7 - Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in the Operating Room
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Legal Considerations
  • Recognition
  • Resolution
  • PREVENTION
  • 8 - Drugs Affecting the Renin-Angiotensin System
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Recognition
  • Recognition
  • Hypotension
  • Angioedema
  • Risk Assessment
  • Hypotension
  • Angioedema
  • Implications
  • Management
  • Hypotension
  • Angioedema
  • PREVENTION
  • 9 - HIV Infection and AIDS
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Universal Precautions
  • Postexposure Prophylaxis
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Antiretroviral Drug Therapy
  • Side Effects of HAART Regimens
  • HAART Drug Interactions
  • Consequences of HIV
  • Respiratory Complications
  • Central Nervous System Complications
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Surgery and Anesthesia
  • Obstetric Patients
  • Intensive Care Unit Complications
  • PREVENTION
  • 10 - Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Obstetric Management
  • Anesthetic Management
  • Labor and Vaginal Delivery
  • Cesarean Delivery
  • PREVENTION
  • 11 - Hyperthyroidism: Thyroid Storm
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition, Risk Assessment, and Implications
  • History
  • Physical Examination Findings
  • Pathophysiology
  • Cause
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • MANAGEMENT
  • General Supportive Measures
  • Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Synthesis
  • Iodide Therapy
  • Inhibition of Peripheral ?-Adrenergic Activity
  • Inhibition of Peripheral Conversion of T4 to T3
  • Intracellular Calcium Regulation
  • Removal of Circulating Thyroid Hormone
  • PREVENTION
  • 12 - Hypothyroidism: Myxedema Coma
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Physiology
  • Recognition
  • Clinical Signs and Diagnosis
  • Etiology and Prevalence
  • Hypothyroidism and Anesthesia Complications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 13 - Mechanical Assist Devices
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Intraaortic Balloon Pump
  • Ventricular Assist Device
  • Short-Term Devices
  • Long-Term Devices
  • Risk Assessment
  • Intraaortic Balloon Pump
  • Ventricular Assist Device
  • Short-Term VADs
  • Long-Term VADs
  • Implications
  • Intraaortic Balloon Pump
  • Ventricular Assist Device
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Intraaortic Balloon Pump
  • Ventricular Assist Device
  • 14 - Myasthenic Disorders
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition, Risk Assessment, and Implications
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes
  • Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • 15 - Patient Confidentiality
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Duty to Warn
  • Public Health and Benefit
  • Recognition
  • Case Analysis
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • SUMMARY
  • 16 - Patients With a Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Undergoing Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Electromagnetic Interference
  • Electrosurgery Dispersive Electrode Positioning
  • Magnet Use
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Preoperative Recommendations
  • Intraoperative Recommendations
  • Postoperative Recommendations
  • PREVENTION
  • 17 - Patients With Seizure Disorder
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • 18 - Perioperative Management of Patients With Muscular Dystrophy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Plasma Membrane-Associated Proteins
  • Dystrophinopathies
  • Sarcoglycanopathies
  • Caveolin Deficiency
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Proteins With Enzymatic Activity
  • Mutations in Genes Encoding Glycosyltransferases
  • Protein Kinases
  • Other Muscle Proteins
  • Sarcomeric Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cardiomyopathy in Muscular Dystrophies
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 19 - Porphyrias
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Classification of Porphyria
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 20 - Preanesthetic Evaluation: False-Positive Tests
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Accuracy
  • Predictive Value
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 21 - Preanesthetic Evaluation: Inadequate or Missing Test Result
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Value-Based Medical Care
  • Evidence-Based Medical Care
  • Focused Preoperative Testing
  • Nonselective Versus Selective Testing
  • Practice Guidelines
  • 22 - Preoperative Cardiac Intervention
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Evidence
  • Guidelines for Perioperative Management
  • Management of a Stent Thrombosis
  • PREVENTION
  • 23 - Sarcoidosis
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Clinical Features
  • Pulmonary Presentation
  • Cardiac Presentation
  • Pulmonary Hypertension Presentation
  • Multisystem Presentation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Pulmonary Function Testing
  • Cardiac Assessment
  • Pulmonary Hypertension and Right-Sided Heart Dysfunction
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Pharmacologic Treatment
  • Corticosteroids
  • Antimetabolites-Corticosteroid Sparing
  • Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Biologicals
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Chronic Hypoxemia, Respiratory Failure, and Cor Pulmonale
  • Lung and Cardiac Transplantation
  • Anesthesia
  • Preoperative
  • Operative
  • Monitored Anesthesia Care
  • General Anesthesia
  • Regional Anesthesia
  • Postoperative Care
  • 24 - Sepsis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Recognition
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Source Control
  • Supportive Care
  • 1. Fluid and Blood Product Administration
  • 2. Vasopressors and Inotropic Support
  • 3. Mechanical Ventilation
  • 4. Antibiotics
  • 5. Endocrine Support
  • 6. Renal Replacement and Acid-Base Support
  • 7. Glucose Control
  • Prevention of Further Complications
  • 25 - Steroids
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 26 - The Jehovah's Witness Patient
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Ethical Implications
  • Legal Considerations
  • Recognition
  • Adult Competent Patients
  • Adult Incompetent Patients
  • Pregnant Patients
  • Minor Patients
  • Emergency Situations
  • Informed Consent and the Jehovah's Witness Patient
  • Coercion
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 27 - Unstable Cervical Spine: Atlantoaxial Subluxation
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Traumatic Cervical Spine Instability
  • Congenital Cervical Spine Instability
  • Inflammatory Cervical Spine Instability
  • Epidemiology
  • Recognition
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Management
  • Intraoperative Concerns
  • Postoperative Concerns
  • PREVENTION
  • 28 - Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 2 - Procedure-Related Complications
  • 29 - Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • 30 - Adenotonsillectomy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Bleeding
  • Young Age
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Postoperative Pain
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Risk Analysis
  • Bleeding
  • Young Age
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Postoperative Pain and Vomiting
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Implications
  • Bleeding
  • Young Age
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Postoperative Pain and Vomiting
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Bleeding
  • Young Age
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Postoperative Pain
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • PREVENTION
  • Bleeding
  • Young Age
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Postoperative Pain and Vomiting
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • 31 - Anesthesia for Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Patient Selection
  • Conduct of Anesthesia
  • Recovery Room Issues
  • Cardiovascular Challenges
  • Hypoxic Events
  • Emergence Agitation
  • PREVENTION
  • Preexisting Hypertension
  • Medication Management
  • Muscle Relaxation
  • Prevention of Hemodynamic Changes
  • 32 - Anesthetic Complications of Fetal Surgery: EXIT Procedures
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Fetal Risk
  • Maternal Risk
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Preinduction
  • Induction
  • Start of Surgery
  • Post-Exit Care
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 33 - Antepartum Hemorrhage
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Placental Abruption
  • Placenta Previa
  • Placenta Accreta
  • Vasa Previa
  • Uterine Rupture
  • Miscarriage
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Unclassified Bleeding
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Hemodynamic Management
  • Anesthetic Management
  • PREVENTION
  • 34 - Anterior Mediastinal Mass
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 35 - Anticoagulants and Peripheral Nerve Block
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 36 - Anticoagulation Initiation and Reversal for Cardiac Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition, Risk Assessment, and Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 37 - Arteriovenous Malformation: Normal Perfusion Pressure Breakthrough
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 38 - Bleeding After Cardiac Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Mechanical Stress and Contact Activation
  • Hemodilution
  • Hypothermia
  • Cell Salvage Systems
  • Heparin and Protamine
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Platelets
  • Coagulation Factor Deficiencies
  • Antifibrinolytic Prophylaxis and Therapy
  • 39 - Cardiomyopathies
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 40 - Cardioversion
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Emergent Cardioversion for Unstable Tachyarrhythmias
  • Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 41 - Carotid Endarterectomy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • 42 - Chronic Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Use
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Gastrointestinal Effects
  • Thrombogenic Effects
  • Renal Effects
  • Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • Gastrointestinal Injury
  • Thrombogenicity
  • Renal Injury
  • Allergic Reactions
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Gastrointestinal Toxicity
  • PREVENTION
  • Peptic Ulcers
  • Thrombogenicity
  • Renal Toxicity
  • 43 - Complications After Pneumonectomy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Mortality
  • Postoperative Pulmonary and Cardiac Function
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Pulmonary Complications
  • Postoperative Respiratory Failure
  • Chronic Pulmonary Insufficiency
  • Postpneumonectomy Pulmonary Edema
  • Postpneumonectomy Syndrome
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchopleural Fistula
  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Other Pulmonary Complications
  • Cardiac Complications
  • Arrhythmia
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Intracardiac Shunting
  • Cardiac Herniation
  • Complications Unrelated to the Cardiopulmonary System
  • Postpneumonectomy Spinal Cord Ischemia and Paralysis
  • Postpneumonectomy Scoliosis
  • Difficulty Interpreting Pulmonary Artery Catheter Data
  • Other Complications
  • 44 - Complications of Adrenal Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Cushing Syndrome
  • Conn Syndrome
  • Adrenal Cancer
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • Pheochromocytoma: Perioperative Implications
  • Preoperative Problems and Preparation
  • Intraoperative Hypertension
  • Consequences of Severe Intraoperative Hypertension
  • Management of Intraoperative Hypertension
  • Arrhythmias
  • Hypotension
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Conn Syndrome: Perioperative Implications
  • Cushing Syndrome: Perioperative Implications
  • Surgical Complications Associated With Adrenal Surgery
  • Pneumoperitoneum and Hemodynamic Changes
  • Vascular Injury and Hemorrhage
  • Bowel Injury
  • Liver, Splenic, and Pancreatic Injuries
  • Pleural and Diaphragmatic Injuries
  • Major Surgical Complications Resulting From Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
  • Postoperative Steroid Replacement
  • Postoperative Pulmonary Complications After Adrenalectomy
  • Venous Thromboembolism in Cushing Syndrome
  • 45 - Complications of Carcinoid Tumors
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • 46 - Complications of Laparoscopic Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • 47 - Complications of Lithotripsy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 48 - Complications of Massive Transfusion
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Dilutional Coagulopathy
  • Consumptive Coagulopathy
  • Metabolic Derangement
  • Hypothermia
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypocalcemia/Hypomagnesemia
  • Pulmonary Dysfunction, Multiple Organ Failure, and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
  • Infection
  • Hemolysis
  • Thrombosis
  • Other Therapies and Interventions to Limit the Need for Transfusion
  • Autotransfusion and Cell-Saver Devices
  • Fresh Whole Blood
  • Recombinant Factor VIIa
  • Tranexamic Acid
  • Prothrombin Complex Concentrate
  • Aprotinin
  • PREVENTION
  • 49 - Complications of Radical Urologic Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Radical Cystectomy
  • Radical Nephrectomy
  • Radical Prostatectomy
  • Laparoscopic Radical Urologic Surgery
  • Recognition
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • Hemorrhage
  • Air Embolus
  • Urosepsis
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Risk Assessment
  • General Considerations
  • Hemorrhage
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • Hemorrhage
  • Air Embolism
  • Urosepsis
  • PREVENTION
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Urosepsis
  • Hemorrhage
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 50 - Complications of Spinal Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Hemorrhage
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Perioperative Visual Loss
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Airway Compromise
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Nerve Injury
  • Hemorrhage
  • Perioperative Visual Loss
  • Airway Compromise
  • PREVENTION
  • Nerve Injury
  • Hemorrhage
  • Perioperative Visual Loss
  • Airway Compromise
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 51 - Complications of Thyroid Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS: CASE SYNOPSIS 1
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Recognition and Preparation of the Hyperthyroid Patient
  • Risk Assessment
  • Airway
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Airway
  • PREVENTION
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Perioperative Thyroid Crisis
  • Emergence and Extubation
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS: CASE SYNOPSIS 2
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Hematoma
  • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Other Complications
  • 52 - Complications of Transurethral Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • TURP Syndrome
  • Severe Hemorrhage
  • Bladder Perforation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • TURP Syndrome
  • Bladder Perforation
  • Septicemia
  • PREVENTION
  • TURP Syndrome
  • Bladder Perforation
  • Bacteremia and Septicemia
  • Monopolar TURP, Bipolar TURP, and Laser Prostatectomy
  • 53 - Complications of Trauma Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Airway
  • Breathing
  • Circulation
  • Hypothermia
  • Coagulopathy
  • PREVENTION
  • Primary Prevention
  • Secondary Prevention
  • 54 - Continuous Nerve Blocks: Perineural Local Anesthetic Infusion
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • History and Physical
  • Further Management
  • PREVENTION
  • Neurologic Complications
  • Patient Complications
  • Anesthetic and Surgical Complications
  • Infectious Complications
  • Fall Risk Complications
  • SUMMARY
  • 55 - Extremity Tourniquets
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Local Injury
  • Skin
  • Muscle
  • Peripheral Nerves
  • Vasculature
  • Systemic Effects
  • Autotransfusion
  • Hypertension
  • Hypotension
  • Hypercapnia
  • Metabolic Acidosis
  • Blood Oxygen Saturation
  • Impaired Antibiotic Penetration
  • Core Body Temperature
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis, Pulmonary or Systemic Thromboembolism
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 56 - Fetal Distress
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 57 - Foreign Body Aspiration
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 58 - Head Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Incidence
  • Recognition
  • Primary Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Computed Tomography Findings
  • Secondary Brain Injury
  • Cerebral Perfusion and Oxygenation Monitors
  • Intracranial Pressure Monitor
  • Jugular Venous Oximetry
  • Brain Tissue Oxygen Tension
  • Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography
  • Microdialysis
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • Hypoxemia and Hypercapnia
  • Elevated Intracranial Pressure
  • Systemic Hypotension and Hypovolemia
  • Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation
  • Coagulopathy
  • Pyrexia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Abnormalities
  • Associated Extracranial Injuries
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Airway and Ventilation
  • Anesthetic Agents
  • Maintaining Adequate Cerebral Perfusion Pressure
  • Reducing Intracranial Pressure
  • Correcting Coagulopathies and Managing Anemia
  • Treating Hyperglycemia
  • Restoring Normothermia
  • Delaying Nonemergent Medical Procedures and Systemic Effects of TBI
  • MANAGEMENT OF THE CASE SYNOPSIS
  • 59 - Hemodilution and Blood Conservation
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition, Recognition, and Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Autologous Predonation
  • Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution
  • Postoperative Blood Salvage
  • Intraoperative Blood Salvage
  • PREVENTION
  • Autologous Predonation
  • Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution
  • Intraoperative Blood Salvage
  • Postoperative Blood Salvage
  • Alternative Blood Conservation Techniques
  • 60 - Intracranial Aneurysms: Rebleeding
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Epidemiology
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • PREVENTION
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Intraoperative or Intraprocedural Aneurysmal Rupture
  • Rupture Before Dural Opening
  • Intraprocedural Rupture of Cerebral Aneurysm During Embolization
  • Rupture After Dural Opening
  • Postoperative Management
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 61 - Intracranial Aneurysms: Vasospasm and Other Issues
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms
  • Cerebral Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia
  • Angiographic Vasospasm
  • Pathophysiology of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia
  • Genetic Factors
  • Microthrombi
  • Subarachnoid Blood and Inflammation
  • Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption
  • Cortical Spreading Ischemia
  • Predictors of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia
  • DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DELAYED CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA
  • Angiography
  • Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound
  • Electroencephalogram and Other Techniques
  • Invasive Brain-Tissue Monitoring
  • PREVENTION
  • Cilostazol
  • Clazosentan
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid
  • Erythropoietin
  • Fasudil
  • Heparin
  • Nimodipine
  • Magnesium
  • Statins
  • Albumin
  • Nicardipine Controlled Release Implants
  • Induced Hypertension
  • Subarachnoid Blood Clearance
  • Interventional Neuroradiologic Treatments
  • Novel Therapeutics
  • Seizures and Prophylactic Anticonvulsant Use
  • Cardiac Complications
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
  • Hyponatremia
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Pulmonary Complications
  • CONCLUSION
  • 62 - Laryngoscopy and Microlaryngoscopy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Operative Planning and Management
  • PREVENTION
  • Postoperative Considerations
  • 63 - Major Organ System Dysfunction After Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Preoperative Factors
  • Intraoperative Factors
  • Duration of CPB
  • Factors Associated With CPB
  • Anesthetic Drugs and Technique
  • Transfusion
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Avoidance of Cardiopulmonary Bypass/Aortic Cross-Clamping
  • Heparin-Coated Bypass Circuits
  • Selective Gastrointestinal Decontamination
  • Hemofiltration
  • Corticosteroids
  • Supportive Care
  • 64 - Mediastinal Masses
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Tracheobronchial Tree Compression or Obstruction
  • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
  • Compression of Heart and Pulmonary Artery
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Tracheobronchial Tree Compression
  • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
  • Compression of Heart and Pulmonary Artery
  • PREVENTION
  • 65 - Methylmethacrylate
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Diagnosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 66 - One-Lung Ventilation
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • PREVENTION
  • MANAGEMENT
  • 67 - Open Globe Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 68 - Perioperative Psychological Trauma
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Behavioral Modification
  • Pharmacologic Agents
  • PREVENTION
  • 69 - Peripheral Vascular Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Monitoring
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Sympathectomy
  • Stress Response
  • Regional Versus General Anesthesia
  • Maintaining Hemodynamic Goals
  • Fluid Management
  • Normothermia
  • Operative Treatment
  • PREVENTION
  • 70 - Pituitary Tumors: Diabetes Insipidus
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 71 - Posterior Fossa Surgery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 72 - Postpartum Hemorrhage
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Communication
  • Resuscitation
  • Definitive Management
  • Pharmacologic Management
  • Oxytocic Agents
  • Tocolytic Agents
  • Correction of Coagulation
  • Operative Management
  • Postresuscitation Care
  • PREVENTION
  • 73 - Preterm Labor
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition/Epidemiology
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Oxytocin Antagonists
  • Magnesium Sulfate
  • ß2-Adrenergic Agents
  • Prostaglandin Synthetase Inhibitors
  • Calcium-Channel Blockers
  • PREVENTION
  • 74 - Pulmonary Hypertension
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Right Ventricular Preload
  • Right Ventricular Contractility
  • Right Coronary Artery Perfusion
  • Reduction of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance
  • Mechanical Circulatory Support
  • PREVENTION
  • 75 - Retrobulbar Block
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Complications
  • Anatomic Considerations
  • Technique
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 76 - Sedation of Pediatric Patients
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Case Synopsis and Summary
  • 77 - Spinal Cord Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 78 - Thermally Injured Patients
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • Burn Injury Pathophysiology
  • Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
  • Inhalation Injury
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Airway Management
  • Fluid Requirements
  • Anesthetic Management
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Ventilation and Oxygenation
  • Blood Loss and Vascular Access
  • Monitoring
  • Hypothermia
  • Pharmacology
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 79 - Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Anesthetic Management
  • 80 - Toxic Ingestion
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 81 - Troubleshooting Common Problems During Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 3 - Intraoperative Agents and Potential Complications
  • 82 - Antibiotics
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Red Man Syndrome
  • Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Anaphylaxis
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 83 - Antiemetics
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Patient-Related Factors
  • Surgical Factors
  • Anesthesia-Related Factors
  • MANAGEMENT
  • General Measures to Decrease Baseline Risk of PONV
  • Interventional Measures
  • Serotonin (5-HT3) Receptor Antagonists
  • Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists
  • Corticosteroids
  • Butyrophenones
  • Antihistamines
  • Anticholinergics
  • Antidopaminergics
  • Metoclopramide
  • Acupuncture
  • 84 - Antihistamines: H1- and H2-Blockers
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 85 - Autonomic Hyperreflexia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Nonpharmacologic Management
  • Pharmacologic Management
  • PREVENTION
  • Emergence and Postoperative Management
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 86 - Barbiturates: Porphyrias
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Acute Attack of Porphyria in the Perioperative Period
  • Anesthetic Management of Patients With Acute Porphyria
  • PREVENTION
  • 87 - Disorders of Potassium Balance
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Whether to Proceed With Anesthesia and Surgery
  • Treatment of Hypokalemia (Box 87.3)
  • PREVENTION
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 88 - Intrathecal Opioids
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 89 - Ketamine
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Tachycardia and Increase in Arterial Pressure
  • Increase in Skeletal Muscle Tone
  • Respiratory Depression/Apnea
  • Laryngospasm
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Emergence Reactions
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 90 - Magnesium
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Magnesium Homeostasis
  • Role in Cellular Function
  • Role in Therapeutics
  • Recognition
  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Risk Assessment
  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 91 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 92 - Muscle Relaxants
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Depolarizing Muscle Relaxants
  • Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants
  • Risk Assessment
  • Succinylcholine
  • Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants
  • Implications
  • Succinylcholine
  • Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Succinylcholine
  • Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants
  • PREVENTION
  • Succinylcholine
  • Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants
  • 93 - Nitrous Oxide: Neurotoxicity
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Effect on the Cardiovascular System
  • Effect on the Respiratory System
  • Risk Assessment
  • Use in Pediatric Anesthesia
  • Neurotoxicity of Nitrous Oxide Use in Young Patients
  • Mechanism of Neurotoxicity Caused by Nitrous Oxide
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • 94 - Nonbarbiturate Anesthetics
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Risk Assessment
  • Midazolam
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Etomidate
  • Propofol
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Hypovolemia and Airway Management
  • Increased Intracranial or Intraocular Pressure
  • Adrenal Suppression
  • PREVENTION
  • 95 - Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Block
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 96 - Perioperative Fluid Management
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Historical Perspective
  • Recognition and Assessment
  • Individualized Goal-Directed Therapy
  • Different Monitoring Systems
  • Different Fluids
  • Glucose
  • Isotonic Sodium Chloride
  • Balanced Solutions
  • Plasma-Lyte
  • Colloids
  • Plasma
  • Albumin
  • Artificial Colloids
  • Dextran
  • Gelatine
  • Hydroxyethyl Starch
  • MANAGEMENT
  • 97 - Reversal Agents: Naloxone, Flumazenil, and Sugammadex
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 98 - Succinylcholine
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Potassium Release
  • Phase II Block
  • Pseudocholinesterase
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Prolonged Block
  • PREVENTION
  • 99 - Volatile Anesthetics: Organ Toxicity
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Hepatic Toxicity
  • Acute Renal Failure
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 100 - Blood and Blood Products: Infections
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Transfusion-Related Immunomodulation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Bacterial Infections
  • PREVENTION
  • Consent and Alternative Options
  • 101 - Blood and Blood Products: Transfusion Reactions and Complications
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Types of Reactions (Table 101.1)
  • Acute Reactions
  • Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions
  • Febrile Nonhemolytic Transfusion Reactions
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (Box 101.1)
  • Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload
  • Transfusion-Associated Sepsis
  • Coagulopathy
  • Delayed Reactions
  • Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions
  • Transfusion-Associated Graft-Versus-Host Disease
  • Posttransfusion Purpura
  • Transfusion-Transmitted Infections
  • Transfusion-Related Immunomodulation
  • Transfusional Iron Overload
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Preliminary Evaluation of Transfusion-Related Clinical History
  • Fever/Chills
  • Dyspnea
  • Urticaria
  • Hypotension
  • PREVENTION
  • 102 - Epidural Anesthesia: Unintended Intrathecal Injection
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment: Anatomic Considerations
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 103 - Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Central Nervous System Toxicity
  • Cardiovascular System Toxicity
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Methemoglobinemia
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 104 - Respiratory Depression After Spinal Anesthesia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Respiratory Depression
  • Sedation
  • Pruritus
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Urinary Retention
  • Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 4 - Equipment-Related Complications
  • 105 - Anesthesia Circuit
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 106 - Carbon Dioxide Absorbers
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 107 - Central Venous Pressure Monitoring
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 108 - Electrical Safety
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Line Isolation Monitor
  • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
  • PREVENTION
  • Grounding
  • Power Isolation
  • Line Isolation Monitor
  • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
  • Pacing Leads and Saline Monitoring Lines
  • Inspection
  • 109 - Fires in the Operating Room
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 110 - Flowmeters
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 111 - Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Construction
  • Zeroing
  • Transducer Location
  • Calibration
  • Drift
  • Transducer Types
  • Sources of Error
  • Ventricular Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
  • Continuous Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 112 - Intravenous Drug Delivery Systems
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 113 - Laser Complications
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Eye Protection
  • Perforation Risk
  • Skin Damage
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Airway Fire
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 114 - Mechanical Ventilators
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Turning the Ventilator On
  • Ventilator Rate and Tidal Volume
  • Pressure Limit
  • Inspiratory-Expiratory Ratio
  • Fresh Gas Flow
  • Ventilator Alarms
  • Ventilator Bellows
  • Ventilator Failure
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 115 - Patient Warming Systems
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 116 - Pipeline Source Failure
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 117 - Proportioning Systems
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 118 - Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Arrhythmias or Bundle Branch Block
  • Malposition of the Catheter Tip
  • Pulmonary Thromboembolism
  • Balloon Rupture
  • Pulmonary Artery Perforation or Rupture
  • Catheter Knotting or Entanglement
  • Catheter Colonization and Sepsis
  • Inappropriate Use and Data Misinterpretation
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 119 - Rapid Fluid and Blood Delivery Systems
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Venous Air Embolism
  • Hypervolemia
  • Hypothermia or Hyperthermia
  • Electrical Shock
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 120 - Scavenging Systems
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 121 - Surgical Electrocautery
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Safety Precautions
  • Other Electrosurgical Unit Risks
  • 122 - Transesophageal Echocardiography
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 123 - Vaporizers
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Vaporizer Malfunction
  • Agent-Specific Vaporizer Misfilling
  • Overfilling and Tipping
  • Freestanding Vaporizers and Reversal of Flow
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 5 - Perioperative Events
  • 124 - Adverse Neurologic Sequelae: Central Neurologic Impairment
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 125 - Adverse Neurologic Sequelae: Peripheral Nerve Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 126 - Adverse Events and Unanticipated Outcomes: Comprehensive Disclosure
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PREPARING FOR DISCLOSURE
  • DISCLOSURE
  • DISCUSSING POTENTIAL COMPENSATION
  • EXPRESSING REGRET OR AN APOLOGY
  • DOCUMENTATION
  • FOLLOW-UP
  • CASE SYNOPSIS ANALYSIS
  • Disclosure Prep Team
  • Disclosure Team
  • Information Disclosed
  • Anesthesia Documentation
  • Follow-Up Plan
  • DISCUSSION
  • 127 - Air Emboli
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Echocardiography
  • Doppler Ultrasonography
  • End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide
  • Exhaled Nitrogen
  • Pulmonary Artery Catheter
  • Central Venous Catheter
  • Arterial Blood Pressure
  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 128 - Alleged Malpractice
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Elements of a Malpractice Claim
  • Notice of a Potential Claim
  • Risk Assessment
  • Preparing a Defense
  • LITIGATION PROCESS
  • Discovery
  • Experts
  • Motions
  • Pretrial Conference
  • Trial Testimony
  • PREVENTION
  • PSYCHOLOGIC RESPONSE TO BEING SUED
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 129 - Anaphylaxis and Anaphylactoid Reactions
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Emerging Allergens in Anesthetic Practice
  • Clinical Manifestations of Anaphylaxis
  • Diagnosis
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 130 - Angioedema and Urticaria
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 131 - Autonomic Dysreflexia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 132 - Awareness Under Anesthesia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • RECOGNITION, MANAGEMENT, AND PREVENTION
  • Psychological Implications
  • Causality and Medicolegal Aspects
  • 133 - Bradyarrhythmias
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Subsidiary Atrial Pacemakers
  • Atrioventricular Junctional Pacemakers
  • Purkinje Fibers
  • Ventricular Muscle Fibers
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • General Anesthesia and Surgery
  • Neuraxial Blockade
  • Drug-Induced Bradycardia
  • Metabolic Causes
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Sinus Bradycardia
  • Atrioventricular Junctional Escape Rhythm
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
  • Failure of Impulse Propagation
  • First-Degree Atrioventricular Block
  • Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block
  • Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block
  • Treatment of Symptomatic Bradycardia
  • PREVENTION
  • 134 - Bronchospasm
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 135 - CELIAC PLEXUS BLOCK: SIDE EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Celiac Plexus Block: Side Effects and Complications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 136 - Corneal Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Chemical Injury
  • Corneal Abrasion
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 137 - Delayed Emergence
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Assessment and Investigation
  • Treatment
  • Pharmacologic Causes and Mechanisms
  • Metabolic Causes and Mechanisms
  • Uncommon Causes
  • PREVENTION
  • Anesthesia Plan
  • Discussion About the Case Synopses
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Case 3
  • 138 - Dental Injuries
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Analysis of Quality Assurance Data and Closed Claims
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 139 - Difficult Airway and Failed Extubation
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Failed Extubation
  • Difficult Airway
  • Difficult Facemask Ventilation
  • Difficult Laryngoscopy and Intubation
  • Recognition and Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Emergency Noninvasive Airway Ventilation
  • Emergency Invasive Airway Access
  • PREVENTION
  • 140 - Disorders of Water Homeostasis: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 141 - Embolic Events of Pregnancy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism
  • Venous Air Embolism
  • Risk Assessment
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism
  • Venous Air Embolism
  • Implications
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism
  • Venous Air Embolism
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism
  • Venous Air Embolism
  • PREVENTION
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism
  • Venous Air Embolism
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 142 - Fat Embolism Syndrome
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Mechanical Fat Embolism Theory
  • Biochemical Free Fatty Acid Theory
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 143 - Hypercoagulable States: Thrombosis and Embolism
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Recognition
  • Inherited Hypercoagulable Disorders
  • Acquired Hypercoagulable Disorders
  • Thromboembolism
  • Risk Assessment
  • Inherited Hypercoagulable States
  • Acquired Hypercoagulable States
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 144 - Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Intraoperative Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  • PREVENTION
  • 145 - Hyperthermia (Perioperative)
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Iatrogenic/Passive Hyperthermia
  • Fever/Sepsis
  • Malignant Hyperthermia
  • Neurologic Injury
  • Epidural Analgesia
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
  • Serotonin Syndrome
  • Endocrine Abnormalities
  • Transfusion Reaction
  • Malaria
  • Surgical Conditions
  • Drug Hypersensitivity
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Iatrogenic/Passive Hyperthermia
  • Fever/Sepsis
  • Malignant Hyperthermia
  • Neurologic Injury
  • Epidural Analgesia
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
  • Serotonin Syndrome
  • Endocrine Abnormalities
  • Transfusion Reaction
  • Drug Hypersensitivity
  • Cooling Techniques
  • PREVENTION
  • 146 - Hypothermia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment and Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • 147 - Inadequate Pain Relief
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Peripheral Nerve Block
  • Multimodal Analgesia Regimen
  • PREVENTION
  • Peripheral Nerve Block as the Initial Choice
  • Preventive Measures for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Nosocomial Wound Infection
  • Persistent Postoperative Pain
  • 148 - Infectious Complications of Central Neuraxial Block
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 149 - Interscalene Nerve Block: Potential Severe Complications
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 150 - Intracranial Hypertension
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 151 - Intractable Nausea and Vomiting
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 152 - Laryngeal and Tracheal Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Injury During Endotracheal Intubation
  • Injury During Short-Term (24 Hours) Intubation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 153 - Latex Reactions in Health Care Personnel
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Irritant Dermatitis
  • Type I IgE-Mediated Reaction
  • Type IV Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 154 - Local Anesthetic Neurotoxicity: Cauda Equina Syndrome
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Continuous Spinal Anesthesia
  • Repeat Injection After Failed Spinal Anesthesia
  • Epidural Anesthesia
  • Lidocaine Spinal Anesthesia
  • Dose
  • Concentration
  • Glucose
  • Vasoconstrictors
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 155 - Long QT Syndromes and Torsades de Pointes
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition and Causes
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • c-LQTS
  • a-LQTS
  • Drugs
  • Patient Factors
  • Electrolytes
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • c-LQTS
  • a-LQTS
  • Torsades De Pointes
  • Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
  • PREVENTION
  • 156 - Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • The Clinical Scenario
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Lactic Acidosis
  • Ketoacidosis
  • Renal Acidosis
  • Hypochloremic Alkalosis/Hyperchloremic Acidosis
  • PREVENTION
  • 157 - Misidentification of a Patient
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 158 - Perioperative Hypertension
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Vasodilators
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Other Agents
  • ß-Adrenergic Blockers
  • Deepening Anesthesia
  • PREVENTION
  • 159 - Perioperative Hypoxia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Hypoxemia/Hypoxic Hypoxia
  • Anemic Hypoxia
  • Circulatory Hypoxia
  • Histiocytic Hypoxia
  • Recognition
  • Cyanosis
  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Specific Organs
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 160 - Perioperative Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 161 - Perioperative Tachyarrhythmias
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 162 - Peripartum Neurologic Complications
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Chemical Injury
  • Direct Neural Trauma
  • Infection
  • Spinal Hematoma
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 163 - Persistent Paresthesia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 164 - Postobstruction Pulmonary Edema
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 165 - Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • SUMMARY
  • 166 - Postoperative Delirium
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Identifying and Correcting the Underlying Cause
  • Pharmacologic Measures
  • Environmental Interventions
  • Psychiatric and Neurologic Care
  • PREVENTION
  • 167 - Postoperative Hemodynamic Instability
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Heart Rate
  • Heart Rhythm
  • Afterload
  • Preload
  • Left Ventricular Failure
  • Right Ventricular Failure
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 168 - Postoperative Hepatic Dysfunction
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Prehepatic Causes
  • Classification of Prehepatic Causes of Postoperative Jaundice
  • Intrahepatic Causes
  • Classification of Intrahepatic Causes of Postoperative Jaundice
  • Ischemic Injury
  • Drug Toxicity
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Chronic Hepatitis
  • Benign Postoperative Cholestasis
  • Posthepatic Causes
  • Risk Assessment
  • Hepatic Resection
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • 169 - Postoperative Peripheral Neuropathy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 170 - Postoperative Pulmonary Hypertension
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition and Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 171 - Postoperative Respiratory Failure
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Atelectasis
  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • PREVENTION
  • 172 - Postoperative Urinary Retention
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 173 - Perioperative Visual Loss
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • 174 - Postpartum Headache Other Than Post-Dural Puncture Headache
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Primary Headache (i.e., No Other Causative Disorder)
  • Migraine
  • Tension-Type Headache
  • Secondary Headache (i.e., New Headache Occurring in Close Temporal Relation to a Disorder Known to Cause Headache)
  • Headache Attributed to Cranial Vascular Disorders
  • Headache Attributed to Nonvascular Intracranial Disorders
  • Headache Attributed to a Substance or Its Withdrawal
  • Headache Attributed to Disorder of Homeostasis
  • Headache From Infectious Causes
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 175 - Psoas Compartment Block: Potential Complications
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 176 - Pulmonary Aspiration
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • PREVENTION
  • TREATMENT
  • 177 - Pulmonary Aspiration in the Parturient
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 178 - Spinal Anesthesia: Post-Dural Puncture Headache
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Systemic Therapy
  • Caffeine
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Sumatriptan
  • Posture and Fluids
  • Invasive Therapy
  • Epidural Blood Patch
  • Epidural Injection of Other Solutions
  • PREVENTION
  • 179 - Spinal Hematoma
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Patient-Related Factors
  • Technique-Related Factors
  • Drug-Related Factors
  • Standard (Unfractionated) Heparin
  • Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins
  • Oral Anticoagulants
  • Antiplatelet Medications
  • PREVENTION
  • ACTIVE MANAGEMENT
  • Unilateral Motor Block or Persistent Sensory Loss
  • 180 - Supraclavicular and Infraclavicular Block: Pneumothorax
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 181 - Syringe Swaps
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 182 - The Hostile-Combative Patient
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 183 - Thromboembolic Complications
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis
  • Pulmonary Embolus
  • Paradoxic Embolus
  • Arterial Thrombosis
  • Coronary Artery Thrombosis
  • 184 - Unanticipated Hospital Admission and Readmission
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Unanticipated Hospital Admission
  • Unanticipated Hospital Readmission
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Key Factors for Preoperative Consideration
  • Key Factors for Intraoperative Management
  • Key Factors for Postoperative Management
  • 185 - Uncontrolled Acute Postoperative Pain
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Systemic Opioids
  • Nonopioid Adjunctive Medication
  • Regional Techniques
  • PREVENTION
  • 186 - Venous Air Embolism
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • VAE in Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures
  • VAE During Vitreoretinal Procedures
  • 6 - Pediatric Perioperative Events
  • 187 - Delayed Emergence in Pediatric Patients
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Evaluation of Patients
  • Drug Effects
  • Physiologic Imbalance or Disorders of Metabolism
  • Central Nervous System Injury or Disease
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 188 - Difficult Pediatric Airway
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Upper Airway
  • Lymphoid Tissue
  • Epiglottis
  • Larynx
  • Airflow
  • Respiratory Mechanics
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Premedication
  • Induction
  • Airway Adjuncts
  • Supraglottic Devices
  • Bullard Laryngoscope
  • Videolaryngoscope (e.g., Glidescope)
  • Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 189 - Emergence Agitation and Emergence Delirium
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Developmental Factors
  • Preoperative Anxiety and Baseline Temperament
  • Preexisting Mental Disturbances
  • Inadequate Postoperative Analgesia
  • Underlying Medical Conditions
  • Anticholinergics
  • Anesthetic Agents
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 190 - Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 191 - Hypothermia in the Pediatric Patient
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Implications
  • Recognition
  • Mechanisms of Heat Loss
  • Radiation
  • Convection
  • Conduction
  • Evaporation
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Monitoring of Temperature During Anesthesia
  • Thermoregulatory Mechanisms
  • Anesthesia and Thermoregulatory Control
  • PREVENTION
  • 192 - Hypoxemia in the Pediatric Patient
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Implications
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 193 - Intraoperative Cardiac Arrest: Pediatric
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Prearrest
  • Intraarrest
  • Postarrest
  • PREVENTION
  • 194 - Latex Allergy
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Investigation
  • PREVENTION
  • 195 - Malignant Hyperthermia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 196 - Ophthalmic Problems and Complications
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 197 - Pediatric Hyperthermia
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Iatrogenic Hyperthermia
  • Drug-Induced Hyperthermia
  • Hyperthermia Secondary to Medical Conditions
  • Postoperative Fever
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 198 - Pediatric Laryngospasm
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Patient-Related Factors
  • Surgery-Related Factors
  • Anesthesia-Related Factors
  • Implications
  • PREVENTION
  • MANAGEMENT
  • 199 - Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonitis
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 200 - Postintubation Croup
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Pediatric Airway Anatomy
  • Risk Assessment
  • Recognition
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 201 - Postobstruction Pulmonary Edema in Pediatric Patients
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • 202 - Postoperative Apnea in Infants
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Definition
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Postconceptual Age
  • Gestational Age
  • Anemia
  • Prematurity-Associated Comorbidity
  • Surgical Procedure
  • Anesthetic Management
  • Implications
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Intraoperative Considerations
  • Postoperative Considerations
  • PREVENTION
  • 203 - Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Pediatric
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Recognition
  • Risk Assessment
  • Patient-Related Factors Not Associated With Increased POV
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Strategies to Reduce Baseline Risks of POV
  • Regional Versus General Anesthesia
  • Propofol Infusions
  • Avoidance of Nitrous Oxide
  • Minimization of Opioids
  • Hydration
  • Strategies That Have Not Been Shown to Work
  • Prophylactic Antiemetic Therapy in Children at Increased Risk for POV
  • Ondansetron and Other 5-HT3 Antagonists
  • Dexamethasone
  • Older Drugs
  • Nonpharmacologic Therapy
  • Combination Therapy
  • Scopolamine
  • Rescue Therapy for Those Who Have Received No Prophylaxis or When Prophylaxis Has Failed
  • Anesthetic Plan for Our Patient
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z

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