Crucibles of Change
Princeton University Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. Oktober 2021
  • |
  • 336 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-691-23821-0 (ISBN)
Whenever a volcano threatens to erupt, scientists and adventurers from around the world flock to the site in response to the irresistible allure of one of nature's most dangerous and unpredictable phenomena. In a unique book probing the science and mystery of these fiery features, the authors chronicle not only their geologic behavior but also their profound effect on human life. From Mount Vesuvius to Mount St. Helens, the book covers the surprisingly large variety of volcanoes, the subtle to conspicuous signs preceding their eruptions, and their far-reaching atmospheric consequences. Here scientific facts take on a very human dimension, as the authors draw upon actual encounters with volcanoes, often through firsthand accounts of those who have witnessed eruptions and miraculously survived the aftermath. The book begins with a description of the lethal May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens--complete with an explanation of how safety officials and scientists tried to predict events, and how unsuspecting campers and loggers miles away struggled against terrifying blasts of ash, stone, and heat. The story moves quickly to the ways volcanoes have enhanced our lives, creating mineral-rich land, clean thermal energy, and haunting landscapes that in turn benefit agriculture, recreation, mining, and commerce. Religion and psychology embroider the account, as the authors explore the impact of volcanoes on the human psyche through tales of the capricious volcano gods and attempts to appease them, ranging from simple homage to horrific ritual sacrifice. Volcanoes concludes by assisting readers in experiencing these geological phenomena for themselves. An unprecedented "tourist guide to volcanoes" outlines over forty sites throughout the world. Not only will travelers find information on where to go and how to get there, they will also learn what precautions to take at each volcano. Tourists, amateur naturalists, and armchair travelers alike will find their scientific curiosity whetted by this informative and entertaining book.
  • Englisch
  • Princeton
  • |
  • USA
  • Digitale Ausgabe
  • Reflowable
  • 85 halftones 46 line illus. 13 tables
  • |
  • 85 halftones 46 line illus. 13 tables
978-0-691-23821-0 (9780691238210)

weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Richard V. Fisher is Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Grant Heiken, a volcanologist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, teaches courses in volcanology at the University of New Mexico. Jeffrey B. Hulen is a research geologist at the Energy and Geoscience Institute of the University of Utah.
  • Cover Page
  • Half-title Page
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I. Volcanoes and Eruptions
  • Chapter 1. Politicians and Volcanoes
  • A Modern Tragedy: Mount St. Helens
  • An Eruption Carnival Turned Tragic
  • Far from the Volcano
  • The Costs of the Eruption
  • The Eruption Setting
  • Tracking the Eruption
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Why Do Volcanoes Erupt?
  • From the Tiny Molecule, Giants Grow
  • Volcano Country
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Volcanoes and Eruptions
  • Types of Volcanoes
  • Composite Volcanoes
  • Domes
  • Calderas
  • Cinder Cones (Scoria Cones)
  • Maars
  • Volcanic Eruptions
  • Gas Eruptions
  • Hawaiian Eruptions
  • Strombolian Eruptions
  • Plinian Eruptions
  • Two Eruption Types
  • Mount Pinatubo 's Big Surprise
  • Hawaiian Eruptions
  • References
  • Chapter 4. Poseidon and Pluto: Water and Volcanoes
  • Bikini and the Base Surge
  • Taal Volcano
  • Maar Volcanoes and Cinder Cones
  • A Little-Known Frontier: Volcanic Eruptions under the Sea
  • Deep-Sea Eruptions
  • Black Pillows on the Seafloor
  • References
  • Part II. The Hazards of Volcanoes
  • Chapter 5. Volcanic Hurricanes
  • What Happens inside a Pyroclastic Flow?
  • What Goes Up Must Come Down
  • Mount Unzen and Merapi
  • Firecloud Rock: A Detective Story
  • Calderas and Pyroclastic Flows
  • Volcanism after a Caldera Collapse
  • World War II and the Battle for a Caldera
  • References
  • Chapter 6. Falling Volcanoes and Floods of Mud
  • A Mountain Fell
  • Debris Avalanches and Slides beneath the Sea
  • Volcanic Debris Flows (Lahars)
  • Potential Destruction from Mount Rainier
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Lava Flows
  • Stopping a Lava Flow
  • Ditches, Walls, and Dams
  • Cooling Lava with Water
  • Interrupting a Lava Flow
  • The 1991 -1992 Eruption of Mount Etna
  • Lava Put to Use
  • A Ride on a Lava Flow
  • References
  • Chapter 8. Never Sail through an Eruption Cloud
  • A Sailing Ship and a Jet
  • Other Encounters with Ash Clouds
  • Jetliners
  • Ash and Aircraft Safety
  • References
  • Chapter 9. The Breath of Volcanoes
  • Effects of Volcanic Gases
  • The Year without a Summer
  • References
  • Part III. Myths and Benefits of Volcanoes
  • Chapter 10. Sometimes the Gods Are Angry
  • Volcanoes Assault the Senses
  • Changing Ideas from Old to New
  • Thera (Santorini): Its Influence on the Modern World
  • Volcanoes and the Underworld
  • Divine Intervention
  • The Making of a Myth
  • The Emergence of Volcanology as a Science
  • Science and Modern Ritual
  • References
  • Chapter 11. Volcanoes for Consumers
  • Skiing and Hot Baths
  • Construction Materials and Kitty Litter
  • The Grand Tour
  • Modern Volcano Tourism
  • References
  • Chapter 12. Volcanic Treasures: Steam, Gold, and Diamonds
  • Steam
  • Oil and Volcanoes Don't Mix . . . or Do They?
  • Volcanoes and Prospectors' Dreams
  • Volcanic Gemstones
  • References
  • Chapter 13. From Ashes Grow the Vines
  • The Allure of Volcanoes
  • Farms
  • Coffee Plantations
  • Fertility and Rebirth
  • Recovery from Vulcan's Devastation
  • References
  • Chapter 14. Volcanic Rocks: Guardians of History
  • Volcanic Ash: The Nearly Perfect Preservative
  • Human Origins in the Ethiopian Rift
  • Preserving Historic Cultures
  • References
  • Part IV. Living near Volcanoes
  • Chapter 15. Mitigation and Survival
  • Assessing the Hazards: The Pulse of Volcanoes
  • What Is a Disaster?
  • The Lesson of Armero
  • Mount Pinatubo: A Success Story
  • Volcanologists on the Front Lines
  • The Tragedy at Galeras Volcano
  • Dante and the Volcano
  • References
  • Appendix 1. The Volcano Traveler
  • Canada and United States
  • Mexico and Central America
  • Composite Volcanoes of Costa Rica
  • South America
  • New Zealand
  • Indonesia
  • Philippines
  • Japan
  • Italy
  • Greece
  • Appendix 2. Metric Conversion Table
  • Index

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