Onco-Nephrology E-Book

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 2. Juli 2019
  • |
  • 608 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-54961-5 (ISBN)
 

Kidney disease and cancer are frequent comorbidities that require specialized knowledge and expertise from both the nephrologist and the oncologist. Written by three pioneers in this growing subspecialty, Onco-Nephrology provides authoritative, definitive coverage of the mechanism and management of these two life-threatening diseases. This unique, single-volume resource covers current protocols and recommends management therapies to arrest kidney failure and allow oncologic treatments to continue and succeed.

  • Addresses acute and chronic kidney diseases that develop from a variety of cancers. This includes direct kidney injury from the malignancy, paraneoplastic effects of the cancer, and various cancer agents used to treat the malignancy.

  • Discusses key issues regarding kidney disease in patients with cancer, including conventional chemotherapeutic regimens and new novel therapies (targeted agents and immunotherapies) or the malignancies themselves that may promote kidney injury; patients with chronic kidney disease who acquire cancer unrelated to renal failure; and kidney transplantation, which has been shown to carry an increased risk of cancer.

  • Contains dedicated chapters for each class of the conventional chemotherapeutic agents, targeted cancer agents, and cancer immunotherapies including the basic science, pathogenic mechanisms of injury, clinical manifestations, and treatment.

  • Includes special chapters devoted to the individual classes of chemotherapies that relate to kidney disease for quick reference. Discusses increasingly complex problems due to more numerous and specialized anti-cancer drugs, as well as increased survival rates for both cancer and renal failure requiring long-term patient care.

  • Covers anti-VEGF (antivascular endothelial growth factor) agents and cancer immunotherapies - treatments that are being recognized for adverse kidney effects.
  • Utilizes a clear, logical format based on the ASN Core Curriculum for Onco-Nephrology, making this reference an excellent tool for board review, as well as a practical resource in daily practice.


Professor of Medicine (Nephrology); Director, Acute Dialysis Unit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
  • Englisch
  • Philadelphia
  • |
  • USA
  • 51,56 MB
978-0-323-54961-5 (9780323549615)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Front matter
  • Onco-Nephrology
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • Section 1 Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders in Cancer Patients
  • 1 Kidney function
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Serum creatinine
  • The creatinine-based equations in oncology
  • The choice of the equation in oncology for drug dosage adaptation
  • Other biomarkers and measured glomerular filtration rate
  • Conclusions
  • Key points
  • References
  • 2 Dysnatremias in cancer
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Hyponatremia
  • Hyponatremia and cancer relationship
  • Symptoms
  • Pathophysiology
  • Approach to etiology of hyponatremia
  • Hyper-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Iso-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Hypovolemic hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Euvolemic hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Hypervolemic hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Treatment of hyponatremia
  • Treatment of hypovolemic hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Treatment of euvolemic hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Fluid restriction
  • Intake of osmotic solutes
  • Antagonizing antidiuretic hormone effect in the kidneys
  • Treatment of hypervolemic hypo-osmolar hyponatremia
  • Management of overcorrection of serum sodium concentration
  • Hypernatremia
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 3 Potassium disorders
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Risk of potassium disturbances in cancer
  • Hypokalemia
  • Etiologies
  • Hypokalemia associated with specific cancers
  • Hypokalemia association with therapeutic agents
  • Management
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Artefactual hyperkalemia
  • Cellular shifts/tumor lysis syndrome
  • Low aldosterone and low aldosterone-like states
  • Direct medication effects
  • Treatment
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 4 Calcium and phosphorus disorders
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Disorders of calcium homeostasis
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Etiology
  • Parathyroid hormone related peptide-mediated
  • Local osteolytic metastases and multiple myeloma
  • 1,25 (oh)2 vitamin d3-mediated
  • Ectopic parathyroid hormone production
  • Treatment
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Etiology
  • Osteoblastic metastases
  • Tumor lysis syndrome
  • Drugs
  • Hypomagnesemia-epidermal growth factor receptor blockers.
  • Cisplatin.
  • Axitinib.
  • 5-fluorouracil and low dose leucovorin.
  • Estramustine.
  • Nab-paclitaxel.
  • High dose interleukin 2.
  • Drugs used to treat hypercalcemia.
  • Treatment
  • Disorders of phosphorus homeostasis
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Etiology
  • Tumor lysis syndrome
  • Treatment
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Pseudohypophosphatemia
  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia
  • Fanconi syndrome
  • Drugs
  • Ifosfamide.
  • Chloroethylnitrosoureas.
  • Azacitidine.
  • Suramin.
  • Lymphoma.
  • Multiple myeloma.
  • Drugs
  • Imatinib.
  • Ceritinib.
  • Eribulin-halichondrin b analog.
  • Acute leukemias
  • High dose estrogens
  • Temsirolimus, everolimus, ridaforolimus
  • Treatment
  • Key points
  • References
  • 5 Volume disorders and fluid resuscitation
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Volume homeostasis
  • Volume regulation
  • Integrated responses to volume changes
  • Volume disorders in the cancer patient
  • Volume depletion
  • Volume overload
  • Fluid resuscitation
  • Assessing volume status and volume responsiveness
  • Resuscitation fluids
  • Blood transfusions
  • Crystalloid and colloid solutions
  • Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions
  • Conclusion
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 2 Paraprotein-Related Kidney Diseases
  • 6 Paraproteins
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Paraprotein basics
  • Historical background
  • Proximal tubule disorders
  • Other paraprotein-associated kidney lesions
  • Key points
  • References
  • 7 Cast nephropathy
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Polyclonal free light chains and bence-jones proteins
  • Mechanisms of injury
  • Proximal tubule cell injury
  • Cast nephropathy
  • Identifying nephrotoxic light chains
  • Diagnostic approach to myeloma kidney
  • Identifying monoclonal free light chains by immunoassays
  • Diagnostic assessment for multiple myeloma
  • The role of a renal biopsy
  • Technical considerations for processing the biopsy
  • Timing of later or repeat biopsies
  • Treatment options in myeloma kidney
  • Supportive therapy in patients with myeloma kidney
  • Treatment of the plasma cell clone in patients with myeloma kidney
  • Autologous stem cell transplantation in patients following a presentation with myeloma kidney
  • Direct removal of free light chains in myeloma kidney
  • Long-term surveillance and follow-up of patients in remission
  • Myeloma kidney outcome
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 8 Systemic light chain amyloidosis
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical presentation
  • Kidneys
  • Heart
  • Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy
  • Gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement
  • Hemostatic abnormalities
  • Other organ systems
  • Diagnosis
  • Histology
  • Immunohistochemistry and DNA analysis
  • Protein sequencing and mass spectrometry
  • Imaging and other tests
  • Treatment and prognosis
  • Markers of prognosis and treatment response
  • Treatment
  • Therapy targeting plasma cells
  • Future directions-therapy interfering with amyloidogenesis and targeting amyloid deposits
  • Supportive therapy
  • Key points
  • References
  • 9 Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease
  • Clinical manifestations of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease
  • Histopathologic features of renal involvement
  • Pathogenesis of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease
  • Treatment and outcomes
  • Conclusions
  • Key points
  • References
  • 10 Fibrillary and immunotactoid glomerulonephritis
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Fibrillary glomerulonephritis
  • Overview and epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Etiology
  • Treatment
  • Transplantation
  • Immunotactoid glomerulonephritis
  • Overview and epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Etiology
  • Treatment
  • Transplantation
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 3 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Associated Kidney Disease
  • 11 Hematopoietic cell transplant associated kidney injury
  • Abstract
  • Key words
  • Kidney injury in graft versus host disease
  • Introduction
  • Graft-versus-host disease pathophysiology
  • Graft-versus-host disease risk factors
  • Kidney manifestations of graft-versus-host disease
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Transplant associated-thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk factors
  • Pathophysiology
  • Neutrophil extracellular traps
  • Complement dysregulation
  • Clinical presentation
  • Kidney
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Lung
  • Central nervous system
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Conclusion
  • Key points
  • References
  • 12 Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Adults
  • Pediatrics
  • Risk factors (table 12.1)
  • Patient related
  • Pretransplant treatment related
  • Transplantation related
  • Clinical presentation
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Laboratory tests
  • Biomarkers
  • Liver biopsy
  • Transient elastography
  • Ultrasound
  • Disease severity grading
  • Prognosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Prevention
  • Ursodiol
  • Heparin
  • Other agents
  • Treatment
  • Defibrotide
  • Alternative therapies
  • Supportive care
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 13 Thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Thrombotic microangiopathy-general background
  • Pathogenesis of post bone marrow transplant thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Risk factors
  • Pathologic and clinical features
  • Kidneys
  • Lungs
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Central nervous system
  • Polyserositis
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • Outcome and prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive care
  • Therapeutic plasma exchange
  • Defibrotide
  • Rituximab
  • Complement blockade therapy
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 14 Graft-versus-host disease
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Acute kidney injury after homologous stem cell transplantation
  • Graft-versus-host disease-associated kidney disease
  • The pathophysiology of graft-versus-host disease
  • Clinical features of graft-versus-host disease
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 15 Chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, and bone marrow transplant
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Albuminuria and chronic kidney disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Relationship between graft-versus-host disease and chronic kidney disease
  • Ta-tma category
  • Clinical presentation and diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Treatment
  • Viral infections
  • Adenovirus
  • Bk nephritis and hemorrhagic cystitis (fig. 15.7)
  • Idiopathic chronic kidney disease
  • End-stage renal disease post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 4 Chemotherapy and Radiation Related Kidney Diseases
  • 16 Conventional chemotherapy
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Estimation of kidney function
  • Platinum-based chemotherapeutics
  • Carboplatin
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Cisplatin
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of action
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Alkylating agents
  • Busulfan
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Diaziquone
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Ifosfamide
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Melphalan
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Procarbazine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Temozolomide
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Trabectedin
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Antimetabolites
  • Azacitidine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Capecitabine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Cladribine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Clofarabine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Cytarabine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Deoxycofomycin
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Fludarabine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • 5-fluorouracil
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Gemcitabine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Mercaptopurine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Methotrexate
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Pemetrexed
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Thioguanine
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Antitumor antibiotics
  • Anthracyclines
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Bleomycin
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Mitomycin c
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Chloroethylnitrosourea compounds carmustine, semustine, streptozocin, bendamustine, estramustine, lomustine
  • Microtubule inhibitors
  • Taxanes
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Vinca alkaloids
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Topoisomerase inhibitors
  • Etoposide
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Irinotecan
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Topotecan
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Others
  • Arsenic trioxide
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Tamoxifen
  • Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action
  • Toxicity
  • Kidney toxicity
  • Key points
  • References
  • 17 Targeted cancer therapies (biologics)
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • B cell lymphoma 2 inhibitors
  • Bcr-abl and kit inhibitors
  • V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog b inhibitors
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases inhibitors
  • Anaplastic lymphoma kinase target inhibitors
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor 1 target inhibitors
  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 target inhibitors
  • Burton kinase inhibitor
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors
  • Proteasome inhibitors
  • Drug dosing in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • Key points
  • References
  • 18 Adverse kidney effects of immunotherapies
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Acute interstitial nephritis
  • Other kidney lesions
  • Chimeric antigen receptor t-cells
  • Interferon
  • Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis
  • Minimal change disease
  • Thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Interleukin-2
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 19 Chemotherapy in chronic kidney disease and dialysis
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Conventional chemotherapy
  • Alkylating agents
  • Nitrogen mustards
  • Mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard)
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Ifosfamide
  • Melphalan
  • Chlorambucil
  • Ethylenimines and methylmelamines
  • Altretamine (hexamethylmelamine)
  • Thiotepa
  • Alkyl sulfonates
  • Busulfan
  • Nitrosoureas
  • Carmustine, lomustine, and semustine
  • Streptozocin
  • Triazenes
  • Dacarbazine
  • Temozolomide
  • Antimetabolites
  • Folic acid analogs
  • Methotrexate
  • Pemetrexed
  • Pyrimidine analogs
  • 5-fluorouracil
  • Capecitabine
  • Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside)
  • 5-azacitidine
  • Gemcitabine
  • Purine analogs and related inhibitors
  • Pentostatin
  • Fludarabine
  • Cladribine
  • Natural compounds
  • Epipodophyllotoxins
  • Etoposide
  • Vinca alkaloids
  • Vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine
  • Taxanes
  • Paclitaxel
  • Docetaxel
  • Camptothecins
  • Topotecan
  • Irinotecan
  • Antibiotics
  • Anthracyclins
  • Daunorubicin
  • Doxorubicin
  • Epirubicin and idarubicin
  • Bleomycin
  • Mitomycin c
  • Platimum coordination complex
  • Novel and biological therapies
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor pathway
  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog b (braf) inhibitors
  • Proteasome inhibitors
  • Anaphylactic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 20 Radiation nephropathy
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Definition
  • Historical recognition
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical features
  • Dose considerations
  • External beam
  • Radioisotope
  • Histology
  • Testing
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Evolution
  • Pathophysiology: Experimental models
  • Time course and histology
  • The role of fibrosis
  • The renin angiotensin system
  • Oxidative stress
  • Endothelial injury
  • Treatment, prevention, and mitigation
  • Clinical prevention
  • Mitigation
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 5 Paraneoplastic Glomerulopathies
  • 21 Paraneoplastic glomerular diseases
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Paraneoplastic kidney diseases in patients with hematologic malignancies
  • Myeloma cast nephropathy
  • Light chain (al) amyloidosis
  • The monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition diseases
  • Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/waldenström macroglobulinemia
  • Type I cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis
  • Monoclonal gammopathies of renal significance
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Podocytopathies
  • Immunoglobulin a nephropathy
  • Pauci-immune, crescentic glomerulonephritis
  • Thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Key points
  • References
  • 22 Paraneoplastic glomerulonephritis
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy in solid tumors
  • Pathophysiology
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Histopathology
  • Pathogenetic mechanism
  • Immunoglobulin a nephropathy
  • Histopathology
  • Pathogenetic mechanism
  • Minimal change disease
  • Histopathology
  • Pathogenetic mechanism
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Histopathology
  • Pathogenetic mechanism
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
  • Histopathology
  • Key points
  • References
  • 23 Hematologic malignancies
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Paraneoplastic glomerulopathy in hematologic malignancies
  • Lymphoid malignancies
  • Lymphoid malignancies: Minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerular sclerosis
  • Lymphoid malignancies: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Lymphoid malignancies: Membranous nephropathy
  • Less common reports of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy with lymphoid neoplasia
  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia
  • Amyloid and lymphoid malignancies
  • Other lymphoid malignancies
  • Myeloid neoplasia
  • Myeloid neoplasia: Mesangioproliferative glomerulopathy
  • Myeloid neoplasia: Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis
  • Myeloid neoplasia: Membranous nephropathy and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Key points
  • References
  • 24 Cancer screening recommendations
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 6 Renal Tumors
  • 25 Renal cell cancer
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Basic science considerations
  • Basic biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma
  • Renal cell carcinoma is a metabolic disease
  • The biology and rationale of current therapeutics
  • Clinical presentation
  • Screening
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical issues with renal cell carcinoma subtypes
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma
  • Cystic diseases and renal cell carcinoma
  • Acquired cystic kidney disease and renal cell carcinoma
  • Polycystic kidney disease and renal cell carcinoma
  • Prognosis of renal cell carcinoma in end-stage renal disease
  • Acquired cystic kidney disease, renal cell carcinoma, and renal transplantation
  • Tumor node metastasis staging
  • Treatment
  • General principles for renal cell carcinoma management (fig. 25.5)
  • Surgical management
  • Partial nephrectomy
  • Radical nephrectomy
  • Cytoreductive nephrectomy
  • Active surveillance and ablative therapies
  • Adjuvant therapy
  • Systemic therapy
  • Immunotherapy: Interleukin 2, interferon-alpha
  • Targeted therapy
  • Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy
  • Mechanism of renal injury
  • Management of checkpoint inhibitors-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis
  • Hyponatremia
  • First-line systemic therapy
  • Second-line therapy
  • Key points
  • References
  • 26 Wilms tumor and von hippel lindau disease
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis and histology
  • Histopathology
  • Genetics of wilms
  • Epidemiology
  • Syndromic wilms tumors
  • Denys-drash and frasier
  • Beckwith-wiedemann syndrome
  • Wagr syndrome
  • Diagnosis and staging of wilms tumors
  • Treatment
  • History
  • Modern surgical management
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Bilateral wilms tumors
  • Adult wilms tumors
  • Long-term survivors
  • Summary
  • Von hippel lindau
  • Clinical characteristics
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 27 Tuberous sclerosis complex and the kidney
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Genetics of tuberous sclerosis complex renal disease
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex and renal function
  • Biology of tuberous sclerosis complex renal disease
  • Angiomyolipomata
  • Cystic disease: Intersection of cilial cystogenic and oncogenic signaling pathways
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Clinical aspects and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex renal disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Hypertension
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Angiomyolipomata
  • Recognizable patterns of tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal cystic disease
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex polycystic kidney disease
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex cortical cystic kidney disease
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex multicystic kidney disease
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex cortical microcystic kidney disease
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex focal cystic kidney disease
  • Key points
  • References
  • 28 Evaluation of a renal cyst/mass
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology and risk factors
  • Chronic kidney disease and renal cell carcinoma risk
  • Cystic disease
  • Screening for renal cell carcinoma
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Physical examination
  • Laboratory evaluation
  • Imaging techniques
  • Clinical diagnosis and risk stratification of renal masses
  • Renal mass biopsy
  • Pathologic considerations
  • Renal cell carcinoma treatment
  • Preoperative management
  • Treatment of small renal masses
  • American urological association guidelines and principles of management
  • Partial nephrectomy
  • Radical nephrectomy
  • Thermal ablation
  • Active surveillance
  • Chronic kidney disease risk factors in renal cell carcinoma
  • Baseline chronic kidney disease risk in renal cell carcinoma population
  • Postoperative chronic kidney disease risk
  • Renal cell carcinoma treatment modality and chronic kidney disease risk
  • Cancer follow-up and survivorship
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 7 Acute Kidney Injury
  • 29 Acute kidney injury incidence, pathogenesis, and outcomes
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis
  • Incidence
  • Critically ill patients with cancer
  • Leukemia and lymphoma
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • Outcomes
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 30 Tumor lysis syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Definition and classification
  • Pathogenesis/pathophysiology
  • Acute uric acid nephropathy
  • Hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia
  • Epidemiology and risk factors
  • Incidence of tumor lysis syndrome across hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies
  • Risk assessment and stratification
  • Clinical manifestations
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hyperphosphatemia and secondary hypocalcemia
  • Hyperuricemia
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Prevention
  • Intravenous fluids
  • Hypouricemic agents
  • Allopurinol
  • Rasburicase
  • Febuxostat
  • Treatment
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 31 Obstructive nephropathy in cancer
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Case vignette
  • Definitions
  • Tumors causing urinary tract obstruction
  • Pathophysiology of urinary obstruction
  • Clinical presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Imaging
  • Management
  • Surgical management
  • Retrograde ureteric stenting
  • Percutaneous nephrostomy
  • Comparison of retrograde and antegrade stenting
  • Prognostic model
  • Bilateral obstruction
  • Palliation
  • Key points
  • References
  • 32 Renal replacement therapies
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Initiation of renal replacement therapy (timing)
  • Discontinuation of renal replacement therapy
  • Modalities
  • Dialysis
  • Hemofiltration
  • Isolated ultrafiltration
  • Methods
  • Intensity of dialysis
  • Anticoagulation
  • Special considerations
  • Myeloma cast nephropathy
  • Drug clearance
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 8 Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer
  • 33 Chronic kidney disease as a complication of cancer, with special focus on kidney and urothelial tumors
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in cancer patients
  • Assessment of kidney function in patient with chronic kidney disease
  • The balance between toxicity and efficacy in chronic kidney disease cancer patients treated with anticancer agents
  • Chronic kidney disease in renal cell carcinoma patients
  • Chronic kidney disease in urothelial cancer patients
  • Chronic kidney disease directly induced by the tumor
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 34 Incidence of cancer and screening recommendations
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Cancer risk in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease
  • Cancer risk in kidney transplant recipients
  • Efficacy of cancer screening tests
  • Cost-effectiveness of cancer screening in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease
  • Recommendations for cancer screening in patients with chronic kidney disease and potential transplant candidates on dialysis
  • Recommendations for cancer screening in patients on dialysis who are not listed for transplantation
  • Future research recommendations
  • Key points
  • References
  • 35 Cancer in renal transplant patients
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Incidence of postrenal transplant cancer
  • Specific cancer types
  • Skin cancer
  • Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (lymphoma)
  • Renal cancer
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Risk factors for postrenal transplant cancer
  • Recipient age, gender, ethnicity, and posttransplant lifespan
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Chronic renal disease and dialysis duration
  • Presence of cystic kidney disease
  • Absence of diabetes
  • History of prior malignancy
  • Viral infections
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Sun exposure and geographical location
  • Type of donor
  • Donor transmitted cancer
  • Immunosuppressive drug therapy
  • Induction therapy
  • Maintenance therapy
  • Prednisone
  • Calcineurin inhibitors
  • Azathioprine
  • Mycophenolate mofetil
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors
  • Belatacept
  • Treatment of rejection
  • Potential origin of postrenal transplant cancer
  • Potential renal transplant recipient with history of a cancer
  • Potential living donor with history of cancer
  • Potential deceased donor with history of cancer or incidental cancer found at the time of donation
  • Living or deceased donor with undetected cancer at the time of donation or discovery of cancer in a donor after donation
  • De novo cancer in renal transplant recipient
  • Outcomes of renal transplant recipients with cancer after transplant
  • Role of prevention and surveillance in improving outcomes and prolonging survival in patients with postrenal transplant cancer
  • Recommendations for skin cancer screening
  • Recommendations for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder screening
  • Recommendations for cervical cancer screening
  • Recommendations for colon cancer screening
  • Recommendations for breast cancer screening
  • Recommendations for renal cancer screening
  • Recommendations for urothelial cancer screening
  • Treatment of postrenal transplant cancer
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 9 Kidney Infections
  • 36 Renal infections in cancer patients
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk factors for infections in cancer patients
  • Immune dysfunction caused by cancer
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy
  • Glucocorticoids and other medication-induced immune dysfunction
  • Mucositis
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced mucositis
  • Mechanical factors, devices
  • Bacterial infections
  • Cystitis
  • Upper urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis
  • Catheter-associated urinary tract infections
  • Prostatitis
  • Mechanical aspects - infections caused by obstruction, reconstruction
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria in cancer patients
  • Prophylaxis
  • Mycobacterial infections
  • Bacillus calmette-guérin
  • Tuberculosis
  • Fungal infections
  • Candida
  • Aspergillus
  • Cryptococcus
  • Mucor
  • Viral infections
  • Hepatitis
  • Bk virus
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein-barr virus
  • Adenovirus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Parasitic infections
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key points
  • References
  • Section 10 Infiltrative Diseases
  • 37 Kidney disease in leukemia
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Acute kidney injury in leukemia
  • Prerenal acute kidney injury
  • Postrenal acute kidney injury
  • Intrarenal acute kidney injury
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Acute kidney injury from kidney infiltration
  • Acute kidney injury from renovascular disorders
  • Glomerular disease with hematologic malignancies
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Electrolyte and acid-base disorders
  • Potassium disorders
  • Magnesium disorders
  • Phosphate disorders
  • Sodium disorders
  • Calcium disorders
  • Acid-base disorders
  • Summary
  • Key points
  • References
  • 38 Kidney disease in lymphoma
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Acute kidney injury in lymphoma
  • Prerenal acute kidney injury
  • Postrenal acute kidney injury
  • Intrarenal acute kidney injury
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Acute kidney injury from kidney infiltration
  • Acute kidney injury from renovascular disorders
  • Glomerular disease with hematologic malignancies
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Non-hodgkin lymphoma
  • Electrolyte and acid-base disorders
  • Potassium disorders
  • Magnesium disorders
  • Phosphate disorders
  • Sodium disorders
  • Calcium disorders
  • Acid-base disorders
  • Conclusion
  • Key points
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W

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