Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines

 
 
Gulf Professional Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 266 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-809423-5 (ISBN)
 

Guide to Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines delivers a well-rounded collection of content, references, and patents to show all the practical chemical choices available for refinery and pipeline usage, along with their purposes, benefits, and general characteristics.

Covering the full spectrum of downstream operations, this reference solves the many problems that engineers and managers currently face, including corrosion, leakage in pipelines, and pretreatment of heavy oil feedstocks, something that is of growing interest with today's unconventional activity.

Additional coverage on special refinery additives and justification on why they react the way they do with other chemicals and feedstocks is included, along with a reference list of acronyms and an index of chemicals that will give engineers and managers the opportunity to recognize new chemical solutions that can be used in the downstream industry.

  • Presents tactics practitioners can use to effectively locate and utilize the right chemical application specific to their refinery or pipeline operation
  • Includes information on how to safely perform operations with coverage on environmental issues and safety, including waste stream treatment and sulfur removal
  • Helps readers understand the composition and applications of chemicals used in oil and gas refineries and pipelines, along with where they should be applied, and how their structure interacts when mixed at the refinery


Dr. Fink is a Professor of Macromolecular Chemistry at Montanuniversit Leoben, Austria.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 16,26 MB
978-0-12-809423-5 (9780128094235)
0128094230 (0128094230)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Guide to the Practical use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • How to use this Book
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Pipeline Chemicals
  • Chapter 1: General Aspects of Pipelines
  • 1.1 History
  • 1.2 Media to Be Transported
  • 1.2.1 Natural Gas
  • Properties of Natural Gas
  • Transportation Methods for Natural Gas
  • 1.2.2 Blending of Hydrogen into Natural Gas
  • 1.2.3 Crude Oil Blends
  • 1.2.4 Heavy Crude Oils
  • 1.2.5 Emulsions
  • Freezing Point Depressants
  • 1.2.6 Slurry Transport
  • 1.3 Testing and Design of Pipelines
  • 1.3.1 Blockage Detection in Natural Gas Pipelines
  • 1.3.2 Maintenance Models for Petroleum Pipelines
  • 1.3.3 Interfacial Rheological Properties
  • 1.3.4 Optimal Design for Gas Transmission Pipelines
  • 1.3.5 Selection of Pipeline Routes
  • 1.4 Standards
  • 1.4.1 Density
  • 1.4.2 Viscosity
  • 1.4.3 Pour Point
  • 1.4.4 Sulfur Content
  • 1.4.5 Boiling Range Distribution
  • 1.4.6 Carbon Number Distribution
  • 1.4.7 Corrosion
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Leakage in Pipelines
  • 2.1 Simulation Methods
  • 2.2 Leakage of Polymer Supports
  • 2.2.1 Failure of Elastomers
  • 2.3 Leakage of Steel Systems
  • 2.4 Leak Detection Technology
  • 2.5 Formation of Coatings
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Pretreatment Methods
  • 3.1 Gases
  • 3.1.1 Water Content
  • 3.1.2 Demulsifiers
  • 3.2 Heavy Crude Oils
  • 3.2.1 Emulsions for Heavy Crude Oils
  • 3.2.2 Activation of Natural Surfactants
  • 3.2.3 Low-Temperature Transportation
  • 3.3 General Aspects of Pretreatment
  • 3.3.1 Sulfur Contamination of Refined Products
  • 3.3.2 Corrosion Prevention
  • 3.3.3 Pour Point Depressants
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Gas Hydrate Inhibition
  • 4.1 Characterization Methods
  • 4.2 Gas Hydrate Formation
  • 4.2.1 Simulation of Formation
  • 4.2.2 Risks of Gas Hydrates
  • 4.2.3 Synergism with Corrosion Inhibitors
  • 4.3 Hydrate Control
  • 4.3.1 Thermodynamic Inhibitors
  • 4.3.2 Kinetic Inhibitors
  • 4.3.3 Antiagglomerate Hydrate Inhibitors
  • 4.3.4 Inhibitors with Improved Biodegradability
  • 4.3.5 Polyesters
  • 4.3.6 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • 4.4 Transporting Hydrates in Suspension
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Corrosion in Pipelines
  • 5.1 History
  • 5.2 Test Methods
  • 5.3 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects
  • 5.4 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion
  • 5.4.1 Bacteria
  • DNA Sequencing
  • 5.5 Corrosion Inhibition Methods
  • 5.6 Corrosion Control
  • 5.6.1 Crude Oil Treatment
  • Synergism With Drag Reducers
  • 5.6.2 Coatings
  • Alternative Plastic Materials
  • 5.6.3 Acid Gas Removal
  • Cyanide Control
  • Mercury Control
  • 5.7 Classification of Corrosion Inhibitors
  • 5.7.1 Organic Chemicals
  • 5.7.2 Oligomeric Amines
  • 5.7.3 Foams
  • 5.7.4 Oxygen Scavenger
  • 5.7.5 Hydrogen Sulfide Removal
  • 5.8 Inhibitors for Special Tasks
  • 5.8.1 Inhibitors for Aqueous Media
  • 5.8.2 Iron Sulfide
  • 5.9 Erosion
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Drag Reduction and Flow Improvement
  • 6.1 History
  • 6.2 Operating Costs
  • 6.3 General Theoretical Aspects
  • 6.4 Classes of Drag Reducers
  • 6.5 Mechanism of Drag Reducers
  • 6.5.1 Alternatives to Polymer Additives
  • 6.5.2 Damping of Transmission of Eddies
  • 6.5.3 Viscoelastic Fluid Thread
  • 6.5.4 Polymer Degradation in Turbulent Flow
  • 6.5.5 Drag Reduction in Two-Phase Flow
  • 6.5.6 Drag Reduction in Gas Flow
  • Coating
  • Ammonia
  • 6.5.7 Microfibrils
  • 6.5.8 Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solutions
  • 6.5.9 Soapy Industrial Cleaner
  • 6.5.10 Lyophobic Performance of the Lining Material
  • 6.5.11 Emulsions
  • Herschel-Bulkley Model
  • Core Annular Flow
  • 6.5.12 Interpolymer Complexes
  • 6.6 Drag-Reducer Chemicals
  • 6.6.1 Chelating Agents
  • 6.6.2 Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
  • 6.6.3 Copolymers of a-Olefins
  • 6.6.4 Maleic Anhydride Copolymers
  • 6.6.5 Vinyl Acetate and Acrylic Acid Copolymers
  • 6.6.6 Oleic Acid-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer
  • 6.6.7 Phthalimide and Succinimide Copolymers
  • 6.6.8 Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
  • 6.6.9 Polyether Compounds for Oil-Based Well Drilling Fluids
  • 6.6.10 Poly(vinyl alcohol)
  • 6.6.11 Latex Drag Reducers
  • 6.6.12 Biopolymers
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose
  • Tylose
  • 6.6.13 Microencapsulated Polymers
  • 6.6.14 Aluminum Carboxylate
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Pipeline Cleaning
  • 7.1 Pigs
  • 7.2 Deposition of Paraffins
  • 7.2.1 Assessment of Deposited Wax
  • 7.2.2 Control Methods
  • Aerogel
  • Synergism With Paraffin Deposition
  • 7.3 Pipeline Cleaning Chemicals
  • 7.3.1 Carbon Disulfide
  • 7.3.2 Polyacrylamide
  • 7.3.3 Surfactants for Pigging
  • 7.3.4 Strong Acid
  • 7.3.5 Chelating Agents
  • 7.3.6 Enzymes
  • 7.3.7 Gelled Pigs
  • 7.4 Scale Inhibition
  • 7.5 Dewatering
  • 7.5.1 Alcohols
  • 7.5.2 Potassium Formate
  • 7.5.3 Azeotropic Mixtures
  • 7.6 Debris Removal in Subsea Pipelines
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Safety Aspects for Pipelines
  • 8.1 Odorization
  • 8.1.1 General Aspects
  • Explosive Limits
  • Desirable Properties of Odorants
  • 8.1.2 Measurement and Odor Monitoring
  • Olfactory Response
  • Perceptual Threshold and Olfactory Intensity
  • Odor Index
  • Olfactory Power
  • Physiological Methods
  • Triangle Odor Bag Method
  • Standardized Methods
  • Chemical and Physical Methods
  • Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods
  • Colorimetric Methods
  • Electronic Nose
  • 8.1.3 Additives for Odorization
  • Sulfur Compounds
  • Thermodynamic Properties of Odorants
  • Structure-Property Relationships
  • Other Compounds
  • 8.1.4 Industrial Synthesis of Odorants
  • 8.1.5 Uses and Properties
  • Odorant Injection Techniques
  • Leak Detection
  • Fuel Cells
  • Odor Fading
  • Environmental Problems
  • 8.1.6 Removal of Odorants
  • References
  • Part II: Refinery Chemicals
  • Chapter 9: Refinery and Feedstocks
  • 9.1 Processes in a Refinery
  • 9.2 Classification of Petroleum
  • 9.3 Quality of Refinery Feedstocks
  • 9.3.1 Bitumen
  • 9.3.2 Coke
  • 9.4 Protection Against Ignition
  • 9.5 Compatibility of Additives
  • 9.6 Aromatic Compounds
  • 9.7 Sulfur Content
  • 9.8 Fouling Deposits
  • 9.8.1 Modeling Fouling
  • 9.9 Monitoring Catalyst Requirements
  • 9.10 Heavy Hydrocarbon Contamination
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Special Refinery Additives
  • 10.1 Acetylenic Surfactants
  • 10.2 Gelling Agents
  • 10.3 Conductivity Additives
  • 10.3.1 Hydrotreating
  • 10.3.2 Fuel Lubricity
  • 10.3.3 Conductivity Improvers
  • 10.4 Environmental Catalysis
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Processes
  • 11.1 Typical Processes in a Refinery
  • 11.2 Desalting of Crude Oil
  • 11.2.1 Desalting Process
  • 11.2.2 Membrane Separation
  • 11.2.3 Electrostatic Desalting Dehydration Test Method
  • 11.2.4 Membranes
  • 11.2.5 Chemicals
  • 11.3 Fouling Mitigation
  • 11.3.1 Corrosion-Resistant Materials for Reduced Fouling
  • 11.3.2 Analysis of Foulants
  • 11.3.3 Analysis of Solid Foulant Samples
  • 11.3.4 Inorganic Fouling
  • 11.3.5 Organic Fouling
  • 11.4 Polar Molecule Contaminants
  • 11.5 Soaps From Chemical Pulping
  • 11.6 Catalytic Reforming
  • 11.6.1 Upgrading Light Hydrocarbons
  • 11.6.2 Reducing Benzene Content
  • 11.6.3 Continuous Catalytic Regeneration
  • 11.6.4 Coupling With Water Purification
  • 11.7 Methanol Refinery
  • 11.8 Hybrid Refinery
  • 11.8.1 Pyrolysis of Biomass
  • 11.9 Pretreatment of Heavy Oils
  • 11.10 Recovery of Aromatics
  • 11.10.1 Azeotropic Distillation
  • 11.10.2 Liquid-Liquid Extraction
  • 11.10.3 Extractive Distillation
  • 11.11 Recovery of Hydrogen
  • 11.11.1 Olefin Recovery and Hydrogen Production
  • 11.11.2 Pressure Swing System
  • 11.11.3 Membrane Separation Unit
  • 11.12 Cracking
  • 11.12.1 High Boiling Point Hydrocarbons
  • 11.12.2 Secondary Cracking
  • 11.13 Coking
  • 11.14 Olefin and Reformate Production
  • 11.14.1 Paraffin Separation
  • 11.14.2 Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Bypass
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Safety Aspects for Refineries
  • 12.1 Estimates of Emissions
  • 12.2 Waste Stream Treatment
  • 12.2.1 Nitrogen Oxides
  • 12.2.2 Flocculation and Ceramic Membrane Filtration
  • 12.2.3 Activated Carbon
  • 12.2.4 Demulsifiers in Oily Wastewaters
  • 12.2.5 Wastewater Treatment
  • Membrane Technology
  • Phenol
  • 12.3 Sulfur Removal
  • 12.3.1 Refractory Sulfur Compounds
  • 12.3.2 Refinery Off-Gas
  • 12.4 Selenium Removal
  • 12.5 Nickel Removal
  • 12.5.1 Phosphorus Gelling Agents
  • 12.6 Spent Refinery Catalysts
  • 12.7 Water Networks
  • 12.8 Special Aspects
  • 12.8.1 Risks for Workers
  • 12.8.2 Toxicities
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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