Radiographic Imaging and Exposure

 
 
Mosby (Verlag)
  • 5. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-44391-3 (ISBN)
 

Get a head start in producing quality images and fewer repeat radiographs with Fauber's Radiographic Imaging and Exposure, 5th Edition. Covering both digital radiography and film-screen radiography, this practical text is the key to mastering the fundamentals of imaging, passing the ARRT certification exam, and becoming a successful radiography professional. Along with the radiography protection alerts, mathematical applications, and concise writing style retained from the last edition, this new edition features updated content reflecting the latest ARRT and ASRT content, expanded coverage of digital fluoroscopy, and enhanced content on problem-solving in situations of poor-quality radiographs.

    • Extensive digital radiography coverage helps readers learn to acquire, process, and display digital images while discussing the advantages and limitations of digital vs. film processes.
    • Concentration on imaging and exposure lays the groundwork for becoming a competent radiographer.
    • Radiation Protection alerts highlight the variables that impact patient exposure and how radiographers can control them.
    • Important Relationships sections recap the relationships among concepts being discussed, calling attention to how they relate to one another.
    • Mathematical Applications sections show how mathematical concepts and formulas are applied in the clinical setting.
    • Straightforward and concise writing style makes the content understandable and accessible.
    • Review questions are provided for every chapter with answers in the back of book.
    • Bulleted summaries at the ends of chapters offer a quick review of the key concepts just covered in the chapter.
    • Appendices provide an easy-to-use format for quick reference and studying important concepts and formulas.
    • Glossary of key terms serves as a quick reference for key terms covered throughout the book.
      • NEW! Expanded coverage of digital fluoroscopy including up-to-date information on LCD and Plasma displays provide a better understanding of the latest professional equipment.
      • NEW! Revised content on image evaluation covers both film and digital along with problem-solving scenarios for poor quality and recommendations for improvement.
      • NEW! Updated content reflects the latest content outlined by the ARRT and ASRT.
      • Englisch
      • St Louis
      • |
      • USA
      Elsevier Health Sciences
      • 9,18 MB
      978-0-323-44391-3 (9780323443913)
      0323443915 (0323443915)
      weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
      • Front Cover
      • RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING AND EXPOSURE
      • Copyright
      • CONTRIBUTORS
      • REVIEWERS
      • PREFACE
      • WHO WILL BENEFIT FROM THIS BOOK?
      • ORGANIZATION
      • DISTINCTIVE FEATURES
      • NEW TO THIS EDITION
      • LEARNING AIDS
      • ANCILLARIES
      • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      • CONTENTS
      • 1 - Radiation and Its Discovery
      • DISCOVERY
      • X-RAYS AS ENERGY
      • Radiation Units of Measurement
      • Exposure
      • Absorbed Dose
      • Dose Equivalent
      • Radioactivity
      • PROPERTIES OF X-RAYS
      • THE FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIATION PROTECTION
      • 2 - The X-ray Beam
      • X-RAY PRODUCTION
      • Cathode
      • Anode
      • X-ray Tube Housing
      • TARGET INTERACTIONS
      • Bremsstrahlung Interactions
      • Characteristic Interactions
      • X-RAY EMISSION SPECTRUM
      • X-RAY EXPOSURE
      • X-RAY QUALITY AND QUANTITY
      • Kilovoltage
      • Milliamperage
      • Exposure Time
      • Milliamperage and Time
      • LINE-FOCUS PRINCIPLE
      • ANODE HEEL EFFECT
      • BEAM FILTRATION
      • COMPENSATING FILTERS
      • HEAT UNITS
      • EXTENDING X-RAY TUBE LIFE
      • 3 - Image Formation and Radiographic Quality
      • IMAGE FORMATION
      • Beam Attenuation
      • Factors Affecting Beam Attenuation
      • Exit Radiation
      • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY
      • Image Brightness
      • Image Contrast
      • Spatial Resolution
      • Distortion
      • Size Distortion (Magnification)
      • Shape Distortion
      • Scatter
      • Quantum Noise
      • Image Artifacts
      • Digital versus Film-Screen Imaging
      • 4 - Digital Imaging
      • DIGITAL IMAGE CHARACTERISTICS
      • Spatial Frequency and Spatial Resolution
      • Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)
      • DIGITAL IMAGE RECEPTORS
      • Computed Radiography
      • Direct Radiography
      • Flat-Panel Detectors
      • Indirect Conversion Detectors
      • Direct Conversion Detectors
      • Dynamic Range
      • Detective Quantum Efficiency
      • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
      • Contrast-to-Noise Ratio
      • DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
      • Histogram Analysis
      • Exposure Indicator
      • Lookup Tables
      • DIGITAL IMAGING ARTIFACTS
      • IMAGE DISPLAY
      • Display Monitors
      • Types of Monitors
      • Viewing Conditions
      • Performance Criteria
      • Postprocessing
      • Laser Printers
      • DIGITAL COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
      • 5 - Film-Screen Imaging
      • FILM-SCREEN IMAGING
      • Radiographic Film
      • Latent Image Formation
      • Film Speed
      • Film Contrast and Latitude
      • Spectral Sensitivity
      • Intensifying Screens
      • Screen Speed
      • RADIOGRAPHIC FILM PROCESSING
      • Automatic Film Processing
      • Processing Stages
      • Developing
      • Fixing
      • Washing
      • Drying
      • Processor Systems
      • Quality Control
      • Silver Recovery
      • SENSITOMETRY
      • EQUIPMENT
      • Penetrometer
      • Sensitometer
      • Densitometer
      • OPTICAL DENSITY
      • Diagnostic Range
      • SENSITOMETRIC CURVE
      • Log of Relative Exposure
      • Regions
      • Toe Region
      • Straight-Line Region
      • Shoulder Region
      • FILM CHARACTERISTICS
      • Speed
      • Speed Point
      • Speed Exposure Point
      • Contrast
      • Gradient Point
      • Average Gradient
      • Exposure Latitude
      • CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • Optimal Density
      • Maximum Film Contrast
      • Image Display
      • Illuminators
      • 6 - Exposure Technique Factors
      • PRIMARY FACTORS
      • Milliamperage and Exposure Time
      • Kilovoltage Peak
      • Kilovoltage Peak and Exposure to the Image Receptor
      • Kilovoltage Peak and Radiographic Contrast
      • SECONDARY FACTORS
      • Focal Spot Size
      • Source-to-Image-Receptor Distance
      • Object-to-Image-Receptor Distance
      • Calculating Magnification
      • Central Ray Alignment
      • Grids
      • Beam Restriction
      • Generator Output
      • Tube Filtration
      • Compensating Filters
      • PATIENT FACTORS
      • Part Thickness
      • 7 - Scatter Control
      • SCATTER RADIATION
      • BEAM RESTRICTION
      • BEAM RESTRICTION AND SCATTER RADIATION
      • Collimation and Contrast
      • Compensating for Collimation
      • TYPES OF BEAM-RESTRICTING DEVICES
      • Aperture Diaphragms
      • Cones and Cylinders
      • Collimators
      • Automatic Collimators
      • RADIOGRAPHIC GRIDS
      • Grid Construction
      • Grid Pattern
      • Grid Focus
      • Types of Grids
      • Stationary and Reciprocating Grids
      • Long-Dimension versus Short-Dimension Grids
      • Grid Performance
      • Grid Cutoff
      • Types of Grid Cutoff Errors
      • Moiré Effect
      • Grid Usage
      • Radiation Protection
      • AIR GAP TECHNIQUE
      • SCATTER CONTROL AND DIGITAL IMAGING
      • SHIELDING ACCESSORIES
      • 8 - Exposure Technique Selection
      • AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL
      • Radiation Detectors
      • Phototimers
      • Ionization Chamber Systems
      • mAs Readout
      • kVp and mA Selections
      • Minimum Response Time
      • Backup Time
      • Density Adjustment
      • Detector Selection
      • Patient Centering
      • Detector Size
      • Patient Considerations
      • Collimation
      • Image Receptor Variations
      • Calibration
      • ANATOMICALLY PROGRAMMED TECHNIQUE
      • EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE CHARTS
      • Conditions
      • Types of Technique Charts
      • Variable kVp/Fixed mAs Technique Chart
      • Fixed kVp/Variable mAs Technique Chart
      • Exposure Technique Chart Development
      • SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • Pediatric Patients
      • Geriatric Patients
      • Bariatric Patients
      • Projections and Positions
      • Casts and Splints
      • Casts
      • Splints
      • Pathologic Conditions
      • Soft Tissue
      • Contrast Media
      • 9 - Image Evaluation
      • CRITERIA FOR IMAGE EVALUATION
      • Brightness or Density
      • Contrast
      • Spatial Resolution or Recorded Detail
      • Distortion
      • Quantum Noise
      • Exposure Indicator
      • Image Artifacts
      • EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE FACTORS
      • Image Quality
      • Image Quality
      • Digital
      • Image Quality
      • Film-Screen
      • Image Quality Calculations
      • Mathematical Calculations
      • mAs
      • Image Evaluation
      • Image Evaluation
      • Image Evaluation
      • Image Evaluation
      • Matching
      • Image Evaluation
      • Multiple Choice
      • IMAGE ANALYSIS
      • Image Analysis
      • Radiograph 1
      • kVp = 75
      • Radiograph 2
      • Evaluation
      • The kVp increased by 15% in Radiograph 2 and requires a decrease in mAs by a factor of 2
      • Image Analysis
      • Radiograph 1
      • kVp = 70
      • Radiograph 2
      • kVp = 60
      • Evaluation
      • Image Analysis
      • Radiograph 1
      • kVp = 81
      • Radiograph 2
      • kVp = 59
      • Evaluation
      • 10 - Dynamic Imaging: Fluoroscopy
      • FLUOROSCOPY
      • Image Intensification
      • Brightness Gain
      • Automatic Brightness Control
      • Magnification Mode
      • Viewing Systems
      • Television Cameras
      • Coupling of Devices
      • Television Monitor
      • Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitors
      • Plasma Monitors
      • Recording Systems
      • MOBILE C-ARM UNITS
      • DIGITAL FLUOROSCOPY
      • CONTINUOUS VERSUS PULSED FLUROSCOPY
      • RADIATION SAFETY
      • QUALITY CONTROL
      • A - SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS
      • CHAPTER 1: RADIATION AND ITS DISCOVERY
      • The Dual Nature of X-ray Energy
      • Wavelength and Frequency
      • CHAPTER 2: THE X-RAY BEAM
      • Target
      • Tungsten
      • Dissipating Heat
      • Rotating Anodes
      • Production of X-rays
      • Interactions that Produce X-ray Photons
      • Bremsstrahlung Interactions
      • Characteristic Interactions
      • Thermionic Emission
      • Tube Current
      • Energy Conversion in the X-ray Tube
      • Kilovoltage and the Speed of Electrons
      • Speed of Electrons and Quality of X-rays
      • kVp and Beam Penetrability
      • Milliamperage, Tube Current, and X-ray Quantity
      • Exposure Time, Tube Current, and X-ray Quantity
      • Quantity of Electrons, X-rays, and mAs
      • Line-Focus Principle
      • Anode Angle and Effective Focal Spot Size
      • Anode Heel Effect
      • Low-Energy Photons, Patient Dose, and Image Formation
      • CHAPTER 3: IMAGE FORMATION AND RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY
      • X-ray Photon Absorption
      • X-ray Beam Scattering
      • Factors Affecting Beam Attenuation
      • X-ray Interaction with Matter
      • Image Brightness
      • Creating the Latent Image
      • Brightness and Radiographic Quality
      • Differentiating Among Anatomic Tissues
      • Sharpness of Anatomic Detail
      • Size Distortion
      • Shape Distortion
      • Number of Photons and Quantum Noise
      • Dynamic Range and Film-Screen Imaging
      • CHAPTER 4: DIGITAL IMAGING
      • Pixel Bit Depth and Contrast Resolution
      • Pixel Density and Pitch and Spatial Resolution
      • Spatial Frequency and Spatial Resolution
      • Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Anatomic Detail
      • Computed Radiography Digital Image Receptors
      • Sampling Frequency and Spatial Resolution
      • Imaging Plate Size and Matrix Size
      • Digital Detectors and Dynamic Range
      • Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and X-ray Exposure
      • Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Image Quality
      • Contrast-to-Noise Ratio and Image Quality
      • Histogram Analysis
      • Exposure Indicators
      • Lookup Tables
      • Window Level and Image Brightness
      • Window Width and Image Contrast
      • CHAPTER 5: FILM-SCREEN IMAGING
      • Sensitivity Specks and Latent Image Centers
      • Silver Halide and Film Sensitivity
      • Screen Speed and Recorded Detail
      • Screen Speed, Light Emission, and Patient Dose
      • Film-Screen System Speed and mAs
      • Developing or Reducing Agents
      • Clearing the Unexposed Crystals
      • Archival Quality of Radiographs
      • Archival Quality of Radiographs
      • Replenishment and Solution Performance
      • Developer Temperature and Radiographic Quality
      • Silver Recovery
      • CHAPTER 6: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE FACTORS
      • Milliamperage and Exposure Time
      • mAs and Digital Image Brightness
      • Exposure Indicator Value
      • mAs and Film-Screen Density
      • kVp and the Radiographic Image
      • Exposure Errors in Digital Imaging
      • Exposure Errors and Film-Screen Imaging
      • kVp and the 15% Rule
      • kVp and Radiographic Contrast
      • Kilovoltage and Digital Image Quality
      • Kilovoltage, Scatter Radiation, and Radiographic Contrast
      • Focal Spot Size and Spatial Resolution
      • SID and X-ray Beam Intensity
      • SID and mAs
      • SID, Size Distortion, and Spatial Resolution
      • OID, Size Distortion, and Spatial Resolution
      • Grids, Scatter, and Contrast
      • Grids and Image Receptor Exposure
      • Beam Restriction and Image Receptor Exposure
      • Tube Filtration, Radiation Quantity and Energy
      • CHAPTER 7: SCATTER CONTROL
      • X-ray-Beam Field Size, Thickness of the Part, and Scatter
      • Volume of Tissue Irradiated and Scatter
      • Beam Restriction and Patient Dose
      • Collimation and Scatter Radiation
      • Collimation and Radiographic Contrast
      • Collimation and Exposure to the Image Receptor
      • Scatter Radiation and Image Quality
      • Grid Ratio and Radiographic Contrast
      • Focused versus Parallel Grids
      • Grid Ratio and Exposure to Image Receptor
      • Grid Ratio and Patient Dose
      • Upside-Down Focused Grids and Grid Cutoff
      • Off-Level Error and Grid Cutoff
      • Off-Center Error and Grid Cutoff
      • Off-Focus Error and Grid Cutoff
      • Air Gap Technique and Scatter Control
      • CHAPTER 8: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE SELECTION
      • Radiation-Measuring Devices
      • Function of the Ionization Chamber
      • Automatic Exposure Control and mAs Readout
      • kVp and Automatic Exposure Control Response
      • mA and Automatic Exposure Control Response
      • Function of Backup Time
      • Setting Backup Time
      • Detector Selection
      • Patient Centering
      • Collimation and Automatic Exposure Control Response
      • Type of Image Receptor and Automatic Exposure Control Response
      • Digital Image Receptors and the Automatic Exposure Control Response
      • Exposure Technique Charts and Radiographic Quality
      • Variable kVp/Fixed mAs Technique Chart
      • Fixed kVp/Variable mAs Technique Charts
      • CHAPTER 10: DYNAMIC IMAGING: FLUOROSCOPY
      • Brightness Gain
      • Magnification Mode and Patient Dose
      • Coupling Systems and the Television Monitor
      • Cassette Spot Filming
      • Digital Fluoroscopic Systems
      • Continuous Fluoroscopy
      • Pulsed Fluoroscopy
      • B - SUMMARY OF MATHEMATICAL APPLICATIONS
      • CHAPTER 2: THE X-RAY BEAM
      • Calculating mAs
      • Calculating Heat Units
      • CHAPTER 4: DIGITAL IMAGING
      • Pixel Size and FOV
      • Pixel Size and Matrix Size
      • CHAPTER 5: FILM-SCREEN IMAGING
      • Adjusting mAs for Changes in Film-Screen System Speed
      • CHAPTER 6: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE FACTORS
      • Adjusting Milliamperage and Exposure Time to Maintain mAs
      • Using the 15% Rule
      • Inverse Square Law Formula
      • mAs-Distance Compensation Formula
      • Magnification Factor
      • Determining Object Size
      • Determining Object % of Magnification
      • Adjusting mAs for Changes in the Grid
      • CHAPTER 7: SCATTER CONTROL
      • Adding a Grid
      • Removing a Grid
      • Decreasing the Grid Ratio
      • Increasing the Grid Ratio
      • C - SUMMARY OF RADIATION PROTECTION ALERTS
      • CHAPTER 1: RADIATION AND ITS DISCOVERY
      • ALARA Principle
      • Cardinal Principles for Minimizing Radiation dose
      • Beam Restriction
      • Primary Exposure Factors
      • Avoid Duplicate Exams
      • Screening for Pregnancy
      • CHAPTER 2: THE X-RAY BEAM
      • Beam Filtration
      • CHAPTER 4: DIGITAL IMAGING
      • Digital Detectors and Dynamic Range
      • CHAPTER 6: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE FACTORS
      • Excessive Radiation Exposure and Digital Imaging
      • kVp/mAs
      • Grid Selection
      • Beam Restriction
      • CHAPTER 7: SCATTER CONTROL
      • Limit Field Size to Image Receptor Size
      • Grid Selection
      • Grid Errors
      • CHAPTER 8: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE SELECTION
      • Monitoring Backup Time
      • Patient Variability
      • Anatomically Programmed Technique and Patient Exposure
      • Exposure Technique Charts and Digital Imaging
      • D - Answer Key for Chapter 9: Image Evaluation
      • Image Quality
      • Digital
      • Film
      • mAs
      • WORD PROBLEMS
      • Calculations
      • Calculations
      • IMAGE EVALUATION
      • Image Evaluation
      • Matching
      • Image Evaluation
      • Multiple Choice
      • IMAGE ANALYSIS
      • IMAGE ANALYSIS
      • Radiograph 1
      • kVp = 70
      • Radiograph 2
      • kVp = 60
      • Evaluation
      • Calculate and Respond
      • Image Analysis
      • Radiograph 1
      • kVp = 81
      • Radiograph 2
      • kVp = 59
      • Evaluation
      • Calculate and Respond
      • CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS ANSWER KEY
      • CHAPTER 1: RADIATION AND ITS DISCOVERY
      • CHAPTER 2: THE X-RAY BEAM
      • CHAPTER 3: IMAGE FORMATION AND RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY
      • CHAPTER 4: DIGITAL IMAGING
      • CHAPTER 5: FILM-SCREEN IMAGING
      • CHAPTER 6: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE FACTORS
      • CHAPTER 7: SCATTER CONTROL
      • CHAPTER 8: EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE SELECTION
      • CHAPTER 9: IMAGE EVALUATION
      • CHAPTER 10: DYNAMIC IMAGING: FLUOROSCOPY
      • Illustration Credits
      • Chapter 1
      • Chapter 2
      • Chapter 3
      • Chapter 4
      • Chapter 5
      • Chapter 6
      • Chapter 7
      • Chapter 8
      • Chapter 9
      • Chapter 10
      • GLOSSARY
      • INDEX
      • A
      • B
      • C
      • D
      • E
      • F
      • G
      • H
      • I
      • K
      • L
      • M
      • N
      • O
      • P
      • Q
      • R
      • S
      • T
      • U
      • V
      • W
      • X
      • Z

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