Local Anesthesia and Extractions for Dental Students: Simple Notes and Guidelines

 
 
PublishDrive
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. April 2018
  • |
  • 360 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-68108-633-0 (ISBN)
 

This textbook presents basic principles of local anesthesia and exodontia for undergraduate dental program students and dental surgeons in training. Readers will understand key concepts and points that prepare them for daily oral and maxillofacial surgery

  • Englisch
  • Sharjah
  • |
  • Vereinigte Arabische Emirate
  • 7,47 MB
978-1-68108-633-0 (9781681086330)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • CONTENTS
  • FOREWORD
  • PREFACE
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • CONFLICT ON INTEREST
  • Part I: The local Anesthesia in Dentistry
  • The Outline of the Trigeminal Nerve Anatomy
  • [Deep Petrosal Nerve]
  • Deep Petrosal Nerve
  • Vidian Nerve
  • Lesser Petrosal Nerve (Fig. 1.4)
  • Chorda Tympani Nerve
  • Chorda Tympani Nerve Function
  • The Frontal Nerve
  • Maxillary Nerve
  • The Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Fig. 1.8) (nasal ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion)
  • The Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Fig. 1.9)
  • The Anterior Division
  • The Posterior Division
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Physiology of Pain
  • PART 1 - ACTION POTENTIAL
  • Action Potential
  • The Resting Membrane Potential
  • Graded Potentials
  • Definitions
  • Action Potentials
  • Depolarization
  • Repolarization
  • After-Hyperpolarization
  • Summary of Action Potential
  • Conduction of the Action Potential (Impulse Transmission)
  • PART 2 - PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN
  • Nociceptors
  • Chemical Activating or Sensitizing Nociceptors
  • Hyperalgesia
  • Mechanisms of These Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters
  • Endogenous Analgesic System
  • PART 3 - OUTLINE OF PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF PAIN
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • The Outline of the Local Anesthesia - Pharmacology and Techniques
  • PART 1 - PHARMACOLOGY OF LOCAL ANESTHESIA
  • Definition
  • Factors Affecting the Local Anesthetic Action
  • The Effect of PH on Local Anesthetic Nerve Blocking Action (for more explanation read page: 35)
  • Summary
  • Classification of Local Anesthetic Agents Based on Chemical Structure
  • Relationship of Physical-Chemical Properties to Local Anesthetic Activity
  • Vascular Effect of Local Anesthetics
  • Central Nervous System Effects of Local Anesthetics
  • Cardiovascular Effect of Local Anesthetics
  • Biotransformation and Excretion:
  • Pharmacology of Commonly Used Local Anesthetic Agents
  • Lidocaine
  • Prilocaine
  • Mepivacaine
  • Bupivacaine
  • Procaine
  • Tetracaine
  • Topical Local Anesthesia
  • Pharmacology of Vasoconstrictors
  • Adrenergic Receptors
  • The Armamentarium
  • The Needle
  • Component
  • Gauge
  • Aspiration
  • Length
  • Care and Handling
  • The Cartridge
  • Component
  • Contents
  • Handling
  • The Syringe
  • Types
  • Components of Conventional Syringes
  • Breech Loading, Plastic Cartridge Type Aspirating
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Breech Loading, Metallic Cartridge Type Aspirating Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Disposable Syringe
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Safety Syringe
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Jet Injector
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Pressure Syringe
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Care and Handling of the Syringes
  • Additional Armamentarium
  • PART - 2: BASIC INJECTION TECHNIQUES (FIG. 3.2 - 3.23)
  • PART - 3: OUTLINE OF LOCAL ANESTHESIA COMPLICATIONS
  • Part - 1: The Systemic Complications of Local Anaesthesia
  • Systemic Complications can be Calcified as the Following:
  • Evidence From Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
  • Over Dosage and Toxicity
  • Prevention
  • In old patient:
  • Failure of Local Anesthesia (Lack of Effect)
  • Psychological Factors
  • Poor Technique
  • Precausion
  • Angina Pectoris and Post-Myocardial Infarction:
  • Cardiac Dysrhythmia
  • Cerebrovascular Accident
  • Pulmonary Disease
  • Part 2: Local Complications
  • Prolonged Anesthesia or Paresthesia
  • What Causes These Complications?
  • Trismus
  • Management of Trismus
  • Hematoma
  • Needle Breakage
  • Injury of the Soft Tissue
  • Paralysis of Facial Nerves
  • Infection
  • Mucosal Lesions
  • Summary
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Part II: Non-Surgical Dental Extractions
  • Simple Extraction
  • PART 1: INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATIONS
  • Exdontias (Dental Extraction)
  • Patient Position (Fig. 4.16)
  • Basic Steps in Dental Extraction
  • Classification of Exodontias
  • Indications for Dental Extractions
  • Contraindications for Dental Extractions
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • PART 2: THE SIMPLE EXODONTIAS IN SIMPLE STEPS
  • Extraction of Upper Central Incisor: Fig. (4.19)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Upper Leteral Incisor: Fig. (4.20)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Upper Canine: Fig. (4.21)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Upper First Premolar: Fig. (4.22)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Upper Second Premolar: Fig. (4.23)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Upper First Molar: Fig. (4.24)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Upper Second Molar: Fig. (4.25)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower Central Incisor: Fig. (4.26)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower Lateral Incisor: Fig. (4.27)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower Canine: Fig. (4.28)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower First Premolar: Fig. (4.29)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower Second Premolar: Fig. (4.30)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower First Molar: Fig. (4.31)
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • Extraction of Lower Second Molar
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Steps of Extraction
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Complex Exodontia and Guidelines in Management of Medically Compromised Patients in Dental Chair
  • PART 1: SYSTEMIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTE TO COMPLEXITY OF DENTAL EXTRACTIONS
  • Precautions
  • Management
  • Clinical Features
  • Precipitating Factors
  • Management
  • Diabetes
  • Pathophysiology
  • Hormones
  • Causes of Diabetes
  • Insulin dependence diabetes (type 1 diabetes)
  • Symptoms and Signs
  • Random Plasma Glucose Test
  • Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
  • HbA1c Test for Diabetes Diagnosis
  • Dental Approach for Diabetic Patients
  • Special Precautions
  • Clinical Features
  • Precipitating Factors
  • Management
  • Coronary Artery Diseases
  • Causes of Angina
  • Physiology
  • Signs and Symptoms of Unstable Angina
  • Clinical Features of Angina
  • Predisposing Factors
  • Precautions
  • Emergency Management of Angina in the Dental Chair
  • Myocardial Infarction (MI)
  • Pathophysiology
  • Biomarkers
  • Challenges
  • Clinical Features
  • Management of Myocardial Infarction in the Dental Chair
  • Hypertension
  • Definition and Physiology
  • Intrinsic Factors
  • Extrinsic Factors
  • Functions of angiotensin II
  • Hypertension
  • Diuretics
  • Potassium-sparing Diuretics
  • Loop Diuretic
  • Thiazide Diuretics
  • Beta-Blockers
  • Alpha-Blockers
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE)
  • Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Hypertensive Crisis Management
  • Hypotension (Card 5.7)
  • Predisposing Factors
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Management of Hypotension
  • Hypertension and Local Anesthesia
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Causes
  • Predisposing Factors in Dental Clinic
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Dental Management
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Hemophilia
  • Clotting Mechanism
  • Coagulation Factors
  • Oral Anticoagulants
  • INR
  • Interpretation of PT and PTT
  • Dental Management
  • Dental Care
  • Patients on Long-Term Steroids
  • Symptoms of Adrenal Crisis
  • Management of Adrenal Crisis
  • Asthema
  • Precautions
  • Management of an Acute Asthmatic Attack
  • Local Anesthesia and Asthmatic Patient
  • Epilepsy
  • Management
  • Anaphylaxis (Card 5.8)
  • Pathophysiology
  • PART 2: LOCAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTE TO COMPLEXITY OF DENTAL EXTRACTIONS
  • Causes of Trismus
  • (Extra-Capsular) Causes
  • (Intra-Capsular) Causes
  • Clinical Evaluation
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • (List: 5.1): Causes of Hypercementosis
  • Systematic Factors
  • Local Factors
  • (List: 5.2): Causes of Ankylosis
  • The Bone Sclerosis
  • Systemic Causes (List: 5.3)
  • PART 3: PRINCIPLES OF ELEVATORS IN DENTAL EXTRACTIONS
  • Definition
  • Introduction
  • Design of the Elevators
  • Indications for Elevators
  • Dangers in the use of Elevators
  • Rules in the use of the Elevators
  • Parts of the Elevators
  • Work principles in the use of Elevators
  • Classification of the Elevators
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • PART 4: THE OUTLINE OF COMPLICATIONS OF EXODONTIAS
  • Hemorrhage (Bleeding)
  • Causes of Hemorrhage
  • Root or Root Tip at the Maxillary Antrum
  • Oro-antral Communication
  • Fracture Mandible
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to Dental Procedures
  • Prevention of Prosthetic Joint Infection
  • Patient Selection
  • Dental Procedures
  • Osteonecrosis
  • Osteoradionecrosis
  • New concept for pathology of ORN
  • Management
  • Vitamin E
  • Osteochemonecrosis - OCN
  • Antiresorptive Medications
  • Pathophysiology
  • A. Inhibition of Osteoclastic Bone Resorption and Remodeling
  • B. Inflammation/Infection
  • C. Inhibition of Angiogenesis
  • Risk Factors for MRONJ
  • Dental Risks
  • Diagnosis
  • For Further Reading
  • REFERENCES
  • Part III: Surgical Dental Extractions
  • Wisdom Teeth & Maxillary Canine Impaction
  • DEFINITION OF IMPACTION
  • ETIOLOGY OF THIRD MANDIBULAR MOLAR IMPACTION
  • INCIDENCE OF THIRD MANDIBULAR MOLAR
  • Classification
  • (I). Relation of the Tooth to the Ramus of the Mandible (Fig. 6.1)
  • (II). Mandibular Third Molars Relative Depth in Bone (Fig. 6.2)
  • (III). Position of the Tooth in Relation to the Long Axis of the Second Molar
  • (IV). Complications
  • RADIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
  • INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM STANDARD RADIOGRAPHS
  • Access
  • Position and Depth
  • Relationship to the Inferior Dental Canal (Fig. 6.3)
  • Intraoral Periapical Radiographs
  • Occlusal Radiography
  • Lateral Oblique Mandibular Radiography
  • Indications for Extraction/Removal of Wisdom Teeth
  • CHOICE OF ANAESTHESIA
  • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
  • Types of Incision
  • Removal of an Adequate Amount of Bone
  • Tooth Sectioning
  • Elevation of the Tooth From its Socket
  • Preparation of the Wound for Closure
  • Max­illary Third Molar
  • Third Molar and Second Molar Relationships
  • Classification of Impacted Maxillary Third Molars (Fonseca et al. 2000)
  • Third Molar Skeletal Relationships
  • Tuberosity
  • Radiographs
  • INDICATIONS OF REMOVAL/EXTRACTION OF MAXILLARY THIRD MOLAR
  • Complications of Maxillary Third Molar Removal
  • Incision Posterior to the Second Molar
  • Oblique Extension Arms
  • Incisions for Palatally Positioned Third Molars
  • Operations on Osseous Tissues
  • Preparation for Removal
  • Preparation to Permit Eruption
  • Operations on Tooth Structures
  • Third Molar and Second Molar Relationships
  • Third Molar Skeletal Relationships
  • Infratemporal Fossa
  • Pterygopalatine Fossa
  • Buccal Fat Pad
  • Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery
  • Descending Palatine Artery and Nerve
  • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
  • Exposure
  • Transplantation
  • Incision Designs
  • Incision Posterior to the Second Molar
  • Oblique Extension Arms
  • Incisions for Palatally Positioned Third Molars
  • Operations on Osseous Tissues
  • Preparation for Removal
  • Preparation to Permit Eruption
  • Preparation to Permit Transplantation
  • Operations on Tooth Structures
  • Abnormal Eruption Phenomenon
  • Displacement by a Tumor or Cyst
  • SIDE EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS
  • Tooth displacement or Segment into the Maxillary Sinus
  • Displacement to the Infratemporal or Pterygopalatine Fossa
  • Maxillary Canine Impaction
  • Incidence of Canine Impaction
  • Etiological Factors Affecting the Impaction of the Maxillary Cuspids
  • CAUSES OF CANINE IMPACTIONS
  • Radiographs
  • Principle
  • Complications of the Removal of Impacted Maxillary Cuspids
  • Impaction on the Labial or Buccal Side
  • Removal of Vertically Impacted Cuspid on the Buccal Aspect
  • Postoperative Management
  • Complications Arising from Retained Impacted Teeth
  • Complications Arising During and After Removal of Impacted Third Molar
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • SUBJECT INDEX

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