Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction

Dedicated to the International Union of Crystallography on the Occasion of the Commemoration Meeting in Munich July 1962
Springer (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 6. Dezember 2012
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  • IX, 733 Seiten
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978-1-4615-9961-6 (ISBN)
Origin, Scope, and Plan of this Book In July 1962 the fiftieth anniversary of Max von Laue's discovery of the Diffraction of X-rays by crystals is going to be celebrated in Munich by a large international group of crystallographers, physi cists, chemists, spectroscopists, biologists, industrialists, and many others who are employing the methods based on Laue's discovery for their own research. The invitation for this celebration will be issued jointly by the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where the discovery was made, by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, where it was first made public, and by the International Union of Crystallo graphy, which is the international organization of the National Committees of Crystallography formed in some 30 countries to repre sent and advance the interests of the 3500 research workers in this field. The year 1912 also is the birth year of two branches of the physical sciences which developed promptly from Laue's discovery, namely X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis which is most closely linked to the names ofW. H. (Sir William) Bragg and W. L. (Sir Lawrence) Bragg, and X-ray Spectroscopy which is associated with the names of W. H. Bragg, H. G. J. Moseley, M. de Broglie and Manne Siegbahn. Crystal Structure Analysis began in November 1912 with the first papers ofW. L. Bragg, then still a student in Cambridge, in which, by analysis of the Laue diagrams _of zinc blende, he determined the correct lattice upon which the structure of this crystal is built.
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978-1-4615-9961-6 (9781461599616)
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I. Introduction.- 1. Origin, Scope, and Plan of this Book.- II. The Beginnings.- 2. X-rays.- 2.1. Physics at the Time of Röntgen's Discovery of X-rays.- 2.2. Röntgen's Discovery.- 2.3. Progress in the Knowledge of X-rays up to 1912.- 3. Crystallography.- 3.1. Descriptive Crystallography.- 3.2. Symmetry.- 3.3. Theories of Crystal Structure.- 4. Laue's Discovery of X-ray Diffraction by Crystals.- 4.1. Physics and Crystallography at the University of Munich in 1912.- 4.2. Ewald's Thesis.- 4.3. Laue's Intuition.- 4.4. The Experimental Verification.- 4.5. The Publication of the Work.- 5. The Immediate Sequels to Laue's Discovery.- 5.1. W. H. Bragg and, his Studies of Ionization by Gamma and X-rays.- 5.2. W. L. Bragg and the Origin of Crystal Structure Analysis; X-ray Spectroscopy.- 5.3. C. G. Darwin's Work.- 5.4. Early Work in Other Countries.- III. The Tools.- 6. The Principles of X-ray Diffraction.- 6.1. X-ray Reflection according to W. L. Bragg.- 6.2. X-ray Diffraction according to Laue.- 6.3. Fourier Space.- 7. Methods and Problems of Crystal Structure Analysis.- 7.1. Various Forms of the Problem.- 7.2. The Algebraic Structure Determination.- 7.3. The Analytical Structure Determination.- 7.4. Methods of Phase Determination.- 7.5. The Patterson Method.- 7.6. The Mathematical and Instrumental Approach to Structure Determination.- IV. The Growing Field.- 8. The Growing Power of X-ray Analysis.- 9. Problems of Inorganic Structures.- 9.1. Simple Inorganic Structures.- 9.2. Inorganic Complexes.- 9.3. Inorganic Molecular Crystals.- 9.4. Metals and Other Crystals involving Metal-metal Bonds.- 9.5. Other Problems.- 10. Problems of Organic Structures.- 11. The Growing Field of Mineral Structures.- 11.1. General Remarks.- 11.2. Highlights of Structure Determination.- 11.3. Point Defect.- 11.4. Feldspars.- 11.5. One-dimensional Disorder (Stacking Faults) and Polytypism.- 11.6. What is a Mineral? What is a Crystal?.- 11.7. Concluding Remarks.- 12. Applications of X-ray Diffraction to Metallurgical Science.- 13. Problems of Biochemical Structures.- 14. X-ray Diffraction and its Impact on Physics.- 14.1. Introduction.- 14.2. Early Ideas.- 14.3. Importance of the Ionization Spectrometer.- 14.4. Structure of the Atom.- 14.5. Structure of the Nucleus.- 14.6. The Nature of Radiation.- 14.7. X-ray Absorption and Related Phenomena.- 14.8. Crystal Dynamics.- 14.9. Crystal Texture.- 14.10. Ferroelectricity.- 14.11. Fluorescence; Electrical and Thermal Conductivity.- 14.12. Atomic and Ionic Radii.- 14.13. Magnetic Properties of Crystals.- 14.14. Electrical Properties of Crystals.- 14.15. Optical Properties of Crystals; Absolute Configuration.- 14.16. Thermo-optical Properties.- 15. Dynamical X-ray Optics; Electron and Neutron Diffraction.- 15.1. Inadequacy of the Kinematical Theory.- 15.2. Darwin's Theory.- 15.3. Ewald's Dynamical Theory (1917).- 15.4. Laue's Form of the Dynamical Theory.- 15.5. One and Two Rays in the Dynamical Theory.- 15.6. Some Applications of the Dynamical Theory.- 15.7. Electron and Neutron Diffraction.- 16. X-ray Spectroscopy.- 16.1. Early History.- 16.2. The Advent of the Diffraction X-ray Spectroscopy.- 16.3. X-ray Spectra and Atomic Structure.- 16.4. Development of X-ray Spectroscopy.- 16.5. Emission and Absorption Processes.- 16.6. The Electronic Shells of the Atom.- 16.7. X-ray Spectroscopy as an Analytical Tool.- 16.8. General Conclusions.- V. In Memoriam.- Autobiography.- William Henry Bragg.- Shoji Nishikawa.- Charles Mauguin.- E. S. Fedorov.- Artur Schoenflies.- William Thomas Astbury.- Carl H. Hermann.- Gösta Phragmén.- Victor Moritz Goldschmidt.- Christen Johannes Finbak.- Paul Knipping.- Memorial Tablets.- VI. Schools and Regional Development.- 17. British and Commonwealth Schools of Crystallography.- 17.1. General Survey.- 17.2. Crystallography in Britain during and after World War II.- 17.3. Post-war Commonwealth Development.- 17.4. Research in Non-industrial Laboratories outside the Universities and the Royal Institution.- 17.5. Crystallography in British Industrial Laboratories.- 17.6. Early Work at University College, London, 1915-1923.- 17.7. Crystallography at the Royal Institution.- 17.8. Early Work on Crystal Structure at Manchester.- 18. The Development of X-ray Diffraction in U.S.A..- 18.1. The Years before 1940.- 18.2. From the Beginning of World War II to 1961.- 19. The New Crystallography in France.- 19.1. The Period before August 1914.- 19.2. The Period 1918-1950.- 20. Germany.- 21. The Netherlands.- 22. Scandinavia.- 23. Japan.- 24. Schools of X-ray Structural Analysis in the Soviet Union.- 25. The World-wide Spread of X-ray Diffraction Methods.- VII. Personal Reminiscences.- Some Personal Reminiscences.- Development of X-ray Crystallography Research in India.- Personal Reminiscences.- My Time at the Royal Institution 1923-27.- Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- The Genesis and Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography at Caltech.- Moseley's Determination of Atomic Numbers.- For auld lang syne.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Autobiography.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Reminiscences.- Recollections of Dahlem and Ludwigshafen.- Personal Reminiscences.- Experiences in Crystallography-1924 to Date.- Early Work on X-ray Diffraction in the California Institute of Technology.- My Time with X-rays and Crystals.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Autobiographical Data and Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Some Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Reminiscences.- Personal Recollections.- My Part in X-ray Statistics.- Personal Experiences of a Crystallographer.- Personal Reminiscences.- Reminiscences.- VIII. The Consolidation of the New Crystallography.- Appendix: Biographical Notes on Authors.

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