Flavor

From Food to Behaviors, Wellbeing and Health
 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 27. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 444 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100300-8 (ISBN)
 

Flavor: From Food to Behaviors, Wellbeing and Health is the first single-volume resource focused on the different mechanisms of flavor perception from food ingestion, to sensory image integration and the physiological effects that may explain food behaviors.

The information contained is highly multidisciplinary, starting with chemistry and biochemistry, and then continuing with psychology, neurobiology, and sociology. The book gives coherence between results obtained in these fields to better explain how flavor compounds may modulate food intake and behavior.

When available, physiological mechanisms and mathematical models are explained. Since almost half a billion people suffer from obesity and food related chronic diseases in the world, and since recent research has investigated the possible roles of pleasure linked to the palatability of food and eating pleasure on food intake, food habits, and energy regulation, this book is a timely resource on the topic.

This book links these results in a logical story, starting in the food and the food bolus, and explaining how flavor compounds can reach different receptors, contribute to the emergence of a sensory image, and modulate other systems recognized as controlling food intake and food behavior. The influence of age, physiological disorders, or social environments are included in this approach since these parameters are known to influence the impact of food flavor on human behavior.


  • Uniquely brings together multidisciplinary fields to explain, in a narrative structure, how flavor compounds may modulate food intake and behavior
  • Includes discussions of chemistry and biochemistry, psychology, neurobiology, and sociology
  • Presents an extremely current view that offers a wide perspective on flavor, an area of rapidly expanding knowledge
  • Edited by renowned experts in the field of flavor perception
  • Englisch
  • London
Elsevier Science
  • 9,65 MB
978-0-08-100300-8 (9780081003008)
0081003005 (0081003005)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
  • Preface
  • Part One - Food flavor release in humans
  • 1 - Retention and release of taste and aroma compounds from the food matrix during mastication and ingestion
  • 1.1 - Introduction
  • 1.2 - Flavor compounds
  • 1.2.1 - Physicochemical and sensory properties of aroma compounds
  • 1.2.1.1 - Alcohols
  • 1.2.1.2 - Carbonyl compounds
  • 1.2.1.3 - Esters and lactones
  • 1.2.1.4 - Hydrocarbons
  • 1.2.1.5 - Sulfur and nitrogen compounds
  • 1.2.1.6 - Heterocyclic compounds
  • 1.2.2 - Physicochemical and sensory properties of taste compounds
  • 1.2.2.1 - Mineral salts
  • 1.2.2.2 - Organic acids
  • 1.2.2.3 - Amino acids
  • 1.2.2.4 - Nucleotides
  • 1.2.2.5 - Mono- and disaccharides
  • 1.2.2.6 - Terpenoids
  • 1.2.2.7 - Peptides
  • 1.2.2.8 - Proteins
  • 1.2.2.9 - Other compounds
  • 1.3 - Interactions between flavor compounds and food matrix
  • 1.3.1 - Simple model systems
  • 1.3.1.1 - Lipids
  • 1.3.1.2 - Proteins
  • 1.3.1.3 - Carbohydrates
  • 1.3.1.4 - Other effects
  • 1.3.2 - Real foods
  • 1.4 - Release of flavor compounds during the in-mouth process as a function of oral physiology
  • 1.4.1 - Dynamic aspects of in vivo aroma release and perception
  • 1.4.2 - Dynamic aspects of in vivo tastant release and perception
  • 1.5 - Modeling in vivo flavor release
  • 1.5.1 - Simulation of oral processing
  • 1.5.2 - Mechanistic modeling
  • 1.5.2.1 - Modeling aroma release
  • 1.5.2.2 - Modeling taste compounds release
  • 1.6 - Conclusions
  • References
  • 2 - How amniotic fluid shapes early odor-guided responses to colostrum and milk (and more)
  • 2.1 - Amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk are olfactorily attractive to newborns
  • 2.2 - Evidence for transnatal chemosensory continuity
  • 2.2.1 - Neonatal responses
  • 2.2.2 - Adult judgements
  • 2.2.3 - Summary
  • 2.3 - Physiological bases and chemical evidence for transnatal chemosensory continuity
  • 2.3.1 - Physiological bases
  • 2.3.2 - Chemical evidence
  • 2.3.3 - From chemical analyses to behavioral assays with newborns
  • 2.3.4 - Summary
  • 2.4 - Transnatal olfactory continuity-related predictions
  • 2.4.1 - Newborns should respond selectively to the odors of familiar amniotic fluid or milk
  • 2.4.2 - Transnatal chemosensory continuity should be maximal in the first postnatal days
  • 2.4.3 - Transnatal chemosensory continuity cannot happen between amniotic fluid and artificial formula milks
  • 2.4.4 - Newborns should prefer the odor of conspecific milk over other learned odorants
  • 2.4.5 - Odor exposure in utero should lead to preference for the same odor ex utero
  • 2.4.6 - Exposure to an odor in utero should induce selective response to the same odor in milk
  • 2.4.7 - Disruption of transnatal olfactory continuity affects neonatal behavior and physiology
  • 2.4.8 - Reverse transnatal chemosensory continuity: the fetus (and premature infant) should respond positively to mammary s...
  • 2.4.9 - Transnatal chemoreceptive continuity: influence on taste and oral somesthesis
  • 2.5 - Conclusion: more predictions, contradictions, and other inclusive adaptive options
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part Two - Perception of flavor compounds
  • 3 - Olfactory perception and integration
  • 3.1 - Introduction
  • 3.2 - Peripheral odorant processing: everything begins in the nose
  • 3.2.1 - Odorants binding
  • 3.2.2 - Odorant coding
  • 3.2.3 - Odorant signaling
  • 3.2.4 - Perireceptor events
  • 3.2.5 - Conclusion
  • 3.3 - OB odorant processing
  • 3.3.1 - Peripheral signal amplification: convergence
  • 3.3.2 - Peripheral input mapping: sorting
  • 3.4 - The piriform cortex: birth of the odorant percept
  • 3.4.1 - Spatial disorganization and sparse coding: elemental or synthetic coding mode?
  • 3.4.2 - Discrimination against generalization: pattern separation or pattern completion?
  • 3.4.3 - Piriform cortex: a pure associative cortex?
  • 3.5 - Plasticity mechanisms at the peripheral and OB levels
  • 3.5.1 - Peripheral olfactory experienced induction or imprinting
  • 3.5.2 - Plasticity in OB: tight interdependency between neurogenesis and centrifugal neuromodulator systems
  • 3.6 - Genetic, gender, and aging variations in the olfactory system performances
  • 3.6.1 - Genetic variations
  • 3.6.2 - Gender variations
  • 3.6.3 - Aging variations
  • 3.7 - Olfactory function under neurohormonal controls (other than these involved in metabolic status)
  • 3.7.1 - Stress
  • 3.7.2 - Circadian rhythms
  • 3.7.3 - Reproductive neuroendocrine status
  • 3.7.3.1 - Influence of menstrual phase cycle
  • 3.7.3.2 - Influence of pregnancy
  • 3.8 - Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • 4 - Taste perception and integration
  • 4.1 - Introduction
  • 4.2 - Tasting molecules
  • 4.2.1 - Bitter molecules
  • 4.2.1.1 - Salts
  • 4.2.1.2 - Amino acids, biogenic amines, and peptides
  • 4.2.1.3 - Flavonoids
  • 4.2.1.4 - Other bitter compounds
  • 4.2.2 - Sweet molecules
  • 4.2.3 - Umami and kokumi compounds
  • 4.2.4 - Salty compounds
  • 4.2.5 - Sour molecules
  • 4.2.6 - Trigeminal molecules
  • 4.3 - Physiology of taste
  • 4.4 - Integration of taste perception
  • 4.5 - Taste-taste interaction
  • 4.6 - Conclusions and future trends
  • References
  • 5 - Multimodal interactions
  • 5.1 - Introduction
  • 5.2 - Multimodal interactions within the chemical senses
  • 5.2.1 - Integration of aroma and taste at subthreshold level
  • 5.2.2 - Interaction of aroma and taste at suprathreshold level
  • 5.2.3 - Mechanisms underpinning aroma-taste interactions-perceptual integration versus physicochemical interactions
  • 5.2.4 - Neurophysiological bases of flavor integration
  • 5.2.5 - Influence of odor on taste perception
  • 5.2.6 - Influence of taste on aroma perception
  • 5.2.7 - Interactions between aroma, taste and trigeminal sensations
  • 5.3 - Interactions between aroma, taste and texture
  • 5.3.1 - Mechanisms underpinning aroma-taste-texture interactions-perceptual integration versus physicochemical interactions
  • 5.3.2 - Influence of texture on aroma and taste perception
  • 5.3.3 - Influence of aroma and taste on texture perception
  • 5.4 - Conclusion: multimodal interactions and food innovation
  • References
  • 6 - Flavor: Brain processing
  • 6.1 - Introduction
  • 6.2 - Flavor processing in the primate brain
  • 6.2.1 - Taste processing
  • 6.2.1.1 - Pathways
  • 6.2.1.2 - The primary taste cortex
  • 6.2.1.3 - The secondary taste cortex
  • 6.2.1.4 - The pleasantness of the taste of food, sensory-specific satiety, and the effects of variety on food intake
  • 6.2.2 - The representation of flavor: convergence of olfactory, taste, and visual inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex
  • 6.2.3 - The texture of food, including fat texture
  • 6.3 - Flavor processing in the human brain: functional neuroimaging
  • 6.3.1 - Taste
  • 6.3.2 - Odor
  • 6.3.3 - Olfactory-taste convergence to represent flavor, and the influence of satiety on flavor representations
  • 6.3.4 - Oral viscosity and fat texture
  • 6.3.5 - The sight of food
  • 6.3.6 - Top-down cognitive effects on taste, olfactory, and flavor processing
  • 6.3.7 - Effects of selective attention to affective value versus intensity on representations of taste, olfactory, and flav...
  • 6.4 - Beyond the reward value of flavor to decision-making
  • 6.5 - Synthesis
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 7 - Holistic perception and memorization of flavor
  • 7.1 - Introduction
  • 7.2 - Holistic flavor perception
  • 7.2.1 - Putative features of holistic processing
  • 7.2.1.1 - Modality content dissociation for retronasal olfaction
  • 7.2.1.2 - Psychological interactions between the flavor senses
  • 7.2.1.3 - Access to sensory parts
  • 7.2.1.4 - Perceived location of taste and smell
  • 7.2.1.5 - Perceived timecourse of the flavor senses
  • 7.2.1.6 - Discussion
  • 7.2.2 - How does holistic perception arise
  • 7.2.2.1 - Innate factors
  • 7.2.2.2 - Cognitive factors
  • 7.2.3 - Discussion
  • 7.3 - Memorization of flavor
  • 7.3.1 - Orthonasal smell and flavor-sensory aspects
  • 7.3.2 - Orthonasal smell and flavor-affective aspects
  • 7.3.3 - Flavor expectancies
  • 7.3.4 - Conclusion
  • 7.4 - General discussion
  • References
  • 8 - Prediction of perception using structure-activity models
  • 8.1 - Introduction
  • 8.2 - Approaches to predict activities and properties of organic molecules from their molecular structures
  • 8.2.1 - QSAR concept
  • 8.2.1.1 - Molecular descriptors
  • 8.2.1.2 - Good practices of QSAR studies
  • 8.2.1.3 - Importance of validation
  • 8.2.2 - Diversity of QSAR approaches
  • 8.2.2.1 - SAR and classification
  • 8.2.2.2 - Pharmacophore approach
  • 8.2.2.3 - 3D-QSAR modeling
  • 8.3 - Search of links between molecular structure and flavor perception
  • 8.3.1 - Odor release-retention of aroma compounds
  • 8.3.2 - Odor threshold
  • 8.3.3 - Odor quality-the notion of structure-odor relationships
  • 8.4 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Part Three - Role of flavor perception on food intake
  • 9 - Genetic basis of flavor sensitivity and food preferences
  • 9.1 - Introduction to individual food preferences
  • 9.2 - Bitter taste
  • 9.2.1 - Phenotype differences (PTC/PROP) and genetic variation (TAS2R38)
  • 9.2.2 - Bitter taste (PROP phenotype/TAS2R38 genotype) and food preferences and intake in adults and children
  • 9.2.2.1 - PROP/TAS2R38 and vegetables and berries
  • 9.2.2.2 - PROP/TAS2R38 and sweet foods
  • 9.2.2.3 - PROP/TAS2R38 and other aspects of diet and health
  • 9.2.3 - Other TAS2Rs
  • 9.3 - Genetic variation in other taste modalities
  • 9.3.1 - Sweet and umami taste
  • 9.3.2 - Sour and salty taste
  • 9.4 - Other orosensory properties
  • 9.4.1 - Fat perception
  • 9.4.2 - Astringency
  • 9.5 - Food-related odors and genetic variation
  • 9.6 - Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • 10 - Mechanisms involved in the control of feeding behavior in relation to food flavor
  • 10.1 - Introduction
  • 10.2 - Homeostatic factors
  • 10.2.1 - Effect of internal signals on perception and preferences
  • 10.3 - Hedonic factors
  • 10.3.1 - Hedonic factors reinforcing the flavor pleasantness of foods
  • 10.3.2 - Conditioned satiety
  • 10.3.3 - Food reward system
  • 10.3.4 - Sensory specific satiety
  • 10.3.5 - Alliesthesia, a phenomenon related to internal/external signals
  • 10.4 - Cognitive factors
  • 10.4.1 - Learning and memory
  • 10.4.2 - Context
  • 10.4.3 - Attitudes and habits
  • 10.4.4 - Culture
  • 10.5 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 11 - Flavor perception and satiation
  • 11.1 - Introduction
  • 11.2 - Impact of food odor on food intake and satiation
  • 11.2.1 - Impact of food odor on general appetite
  • 11.2.2 - Impact of odor on food choice and sensory specific appetites
  • 11.2.3 - Odor perception and satiation
  • 11.3 - Impact of taste on food intake and satiation
  • 11.3.1 - Bitter
  • 11.3.2 - Sour
  • 11.3.3 - Salt
  • 11.3.4 - Umami
  • 11.3.5 - Sweet
  • 11.3.6 - Potential influence of other taste properties on satiation
  • 11.4 - Impact of food texture on food intake
  • 11.4.1 - Eating rate, body weight and chronic disease
  • 11.4.2 - Food texture, eating rate, and energy intake
  • 11.4.3 - Sensory enhanced satiation: combining food texture and flavor to enhance fullness
  • 11.5 - Conclusions and future perspectives: using flavor to design reduced calorie foods
  • References
  • 12 - Familiarity, monotony, or variety: The role of flavor complexity in food intake
  • 12.1 - Introduction
  • 12.2 - Perceived complexity: definition and measurement
  • 12.3 - Familiarity and variety as concepts
  • 12.4 - Theories predicting the development of product appreciation over time
  • 12.5 - Learning experience, culture, and the formation and development of optimal complexity of the consumer with experienc...
  • 12.6 - Practical implications for product development and marketing
  • 12.7 - Conclusions
  • References
  • 13 - Relationships between early flavor exposure, and food acceptability and neophobia
  • 13.1 - Introduction
  • 13.2 - Early flavor exposure
  • 13.2.1 - Flavor exposure in utero
  • 13.2.2 - Flavor exposure in lacto
  • 13.2.3 - Flavor exposure in complementary foods
  • 13.3 - Influence of early flavor exposure on the development of food preferences
  • 13.3.1 - Influence of in utero flavor exposure
  • 13.3.2 - Influence of flavor exposure during the milk feeding period
  • 13.3.3 - Flavor exposure at the onset of complementary feeding
  • 13.3.3.1 - Flavor acceptance at the onset of complementary feeding
  • 13.3.3.2 - Role of repeated exposures
  • 13.3.3.3 - Role of the variety of foods offered
  • 13.4 - Relationships between flavor exposure, flavor preferences and neophobia
  • 13.5 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Part Four - Flavor perception and physiological status
  • 14 - Metabolic status and olfactory function
  • 14.1 - Olfactory function is under the influence of metabolic-related hormones and peptides, as well as of nutriments: neur...
  • 14.1.1 - Anatomical distribution of receptors to metabolic-related hormones and peptides along the olfactory pathways
  • 14.1.1.1 - Olfactory mucosa
  • 14.1.1.2 - Olfactory bulb
  • 14.1.2 - Local synthesis of metabolic-related hormones/peptides in olfactory tissues
  • 14.1.3 - Olfactory system, a target for circulating nutriments
  • 14.2 - Prandial state and olfactory function
  • 14.2.1 - In humans
  • 14.2.2 - In animals
  • 14.3 - Metabolic disorders linked, or not, to eating disorders and the olfactory function
  • 14.3.1 - Obesity
  • 14.3.1.1 - In humans
  • 14.3.1.2 - In animals
  • 14.3.2 - Diabetes
  • 14.3.3 - Anorexia
  • 14.4 - Conclusions
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • 15 - Taste disorders in disease
  • 15.1 - Introduction
  • 15.2 - Taste disorders
  • 15.2.1 - Abnormal taste sensation or taste perception?
  • 15.2.2 - Many diseases induce taste abnormalities
  • 15.2.3 - Many drugs can lead to taste disorders
  • 15.2.4 - Many mechanisms lead to taste disorders
  • 15.3 - Taste disorders in metabolic pathologies
  • 15.3.1 - Taste disorders in obesity
  • 15.3.1.1 - Taste sensitivity in obese patients
  • 15.3.1.2 - Taste sensitivity after bariatric surgery
  • 15.3.2 - Taste disorders in diabetes
  • 15.3.3 - Taste disorders in metabolic syndrome
  • 15.4 - Taste disorders in neurological diseases
  • 15.4.1 - Peripheral disorders
  • 15.4.2 - Central disorders
  • 15.5 - Taste disorders in cancer
  • 15.5.1 - Main mechanisms
  • 15.5.2 - Savor specific alterations
  • 15.5.3 - Changes in hedonic sensations and aversion
  • 15.5.4 - Consequences on quality of life
  • 15.5.5 - Care
  • 15.6 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 16 - Olfactory disorders and consequences
  • 16.1 - Introduction
  • 16.2 - Classification of olfactory loss
  • 16.3 - Causes of olfactory disorders
  • 16.4 - Patient examination
  • 16.5 - Treatment of smell disorders
  • 16.6 - Quality of life in patients with olfactory loss
  • 16.7 - Summary
  • References
  • Part Five - Environmental modulationof perception
  • 17 - Learning of human flavor preferences
  • 17.1 - Introduction
  • 17.2 - Tasting to preference
  • 17.3 - Pavlovian love of food
  • 17.3.1 - Flavor-nutrient learning
  • 17.3.2 - Flavor-flavor learning
  • 17.3.3 - Flavor-consequence learning
  • 17.4 - Pavlovian food cravings
  • 17.5 - Instrumental food preferences
  • 17.6 - Conclusions and future trends
  • References
  • 18 - Sensory and neuromarketing: about and beyond customer sensation
  • 18.1 - Sensory marketing-managing and enriching the customer experience
  • 18.2 - Understanding the customer experience
  • 18.2.1 - Observation, consumer self-report, and physiological measures
  • 18.2.2 - Neuromarketing
  • References
  • Index
  • Back cover

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