Wireless Computing in Medicine

From Nano to Cloud with Ethical and Legal Implications
 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 664 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-99361-3 (ISBN)
 

Provides a comprehensive overview of wireless computing in medicine, with technological, medical, and legal advances

This book brings together the latest work of leading scientists in the disciplines of Computing, Medicine, and Law, in the field of Wireless Health. The book is organized into three main sections. The first section discusses the use of distributed computing in medicine. It concentrates on methods for treating chronic diseases and cognitive disabilities like Alzheimer's, Autism, etc. It also discusses how to improve portability and accuracy of monitoring instruments and reduce the redundancy of data. It emphasizes the privacy and security of using such devices. The role of mobile sensing, wireless power and Markov decision process in distributed computing is also examined. The second section covers nanomedicine and discusses how the drug delivery strategies for chronic diseases can be efficiently improved by Nanotechnology enabled materials and devices such as MENs and Nanorobots. The authors will also explain how to use DNA computation in medicine, model brain disorders and detect bio-markers using nanotechnology. The third section will focus on the legal and privacy issues, and how to implement these technologies in a way that is a safe and ethical.

  • Defines the technologies of distributed wireless health, from software that runs cloud computing data centers, to the technologies that allow new sensors to work
  • Explains the applications of nanotechnologies to prevent, diagnose and cure disease
  • Includes case studies on how the technologies covered in the book are being implemented in the medical field, through both the creation of new medical applications and their integration into current systems
  • Discusses pervasive computing's organizational benefits to hospitals and health care organizations, and their ethical and legal challenges
Wireless Computing in Medicine: From Nano to Cloud with Its Ethical and Legal Implications is written as a reference for computer engineers working in wireless computing, as well as medical and legal professionals. The book will also serve students in the fields of advanced computing, nanomedicine, health informatics, and technology law.
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • USA
  • 23,64 MB
978-1-118-99361-3 (9781118993613)
1118993616 (1118993616)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • TITLE PAGE
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • CONTRIBUTORS
  • FOREWORD
  • PREFACE
  • PART I: INTRODUCTION
  • 1 INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS COMPUTING IN MEDICINE
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • 1.3 BRIEF HISTORY OF WIRELESS HEALTHCARE
  • 1.4 WHAT IS WIRELESS COMPUTING?
  • 1.5 DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
  • 1.6 NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE
  • 1.7 ETHICS OF MEDICAL WIRELESS COMPUTING
  • 1.8 PRIVACY IN WIRELESS COMPUTING
  • 1.9 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 NANOCOMPUTING AND CLOUD COMPUTING
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 NANOCOMPUTING
  • 2.3 CLOUD COMPUTING
  • 2.4 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • PART II: PERVASIVE WIRELESS COMPUTING IN MEDICINE
  • 3 PERVASIVE COMPUTING IN HOSPITALS
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 ARCHITECTURE OF PERVASIVE COMPUTING IN HOSPITALS
  • 3.3 SENSORS, DEVICES, INSTRUMENTS, AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
  • 3.4 DATA ACQUISITION IN PERVASIVE COMPUTING
  • 3.5 SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR CONTEXT-AWARE AND ACTIVITY SHARING SERVICES
  • 3.6 DATA AND INFORMATION SECURITY
  • 3.7 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 DIAGNOSTIC IMPROVEMENTS
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 SYSTEM DESIGN
  • 4.3 BODY SENSOR NETWORK
  • 4.4 PORTABLE SENSORS
  • 4.5 WEARABLE SENSORS
  • 4.6 IMPLANTABLE SENSORS
  • 4.7 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
  • 4.8 MOBILE BASE UNIT
  • 4.9 CONCLUSION AND CHALLENGES
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 COLLABORATIVE OPPORTUNISTIC SENSING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR WITH MOBILE PHONES
  • 5.1 HEALTH AND MOBILE SENSING
  • 5.2 THE InCense SENSING TOOLKIT
  • 5.3 SENSING CAMPAIGN 1: DETECTING BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE FRAILTY SYNDROME AMONG OLDER ADULTS
  • 5.4 SENSING CAMPAIGN 2: DETECTING PROBLEMATIC BEHAVIORS AMONG ELDERS WITH DEMENTIA
  • 5.5 DISCUSSION
  • 5.6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 PERVASIVE COMPUTING TO SUPPORT INDIVIDUALS WITH COGNITIVE DISABILITIES
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 WEARABLE AND MOBILE SENSING PLATFORMS TO EASE THE RECORDING OF DATA RELEVANT TO CLINICAL CASE ASSESSMENT
  • 6.3 AUGMENTED REALITY AND MOBILE AND TANGIBLE COMPUTING TO SUPPORT COGNITION
  • 6.4 SERIOUS GAMES AND EXERGAMES TO SUPPORT MOTOR IMPAIRMENTS
  • 6.5 CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 WIRELESS POWER FOR IMPLANTABLE DEVICES
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 HISTORY OF WIRELESS POWER
  • 7.3 APPROACH OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION
  • 7.4 A DETAILED EXAMPLE OF MAGNETIC COUPLING RESONANCE
  • 7.5 POPULAR STANDARDS
  • 7.6 WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION IN MEDICAL USE
  • 7.7 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 ENERGY-EFFICIENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DETECTION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.2 KNOWME PLATFORM
  • 8.3 ENERGY IMPACT OF DESIGN CHOICES
  • 8.4 PROBLEM FORMULATION
  • 8.5 SENSOR SELECTION STRATEGIES
  • 8.6 ALTERNATIVE PROBLEM FORMULATION
  • 8.7 SENSOR SELECTION STRATEGIES FOR THE ALTERNATIVE FORMULATION
  • 8.8 EXPERIMENTS
  • 8.9 RELATED WORK
  • 8.10 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 MARKOV DECISION PROCESS FOR ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED BODY SENSOR NETWORKS
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 RATIONALE FOR MDP FORMULATION
  • 9.3 RELATED WORK
  • 9.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT, ASSUMPTIONS, AND APPROACH
  • 9.5 MDP MODEL FOR MULTIPLE SENSOR NODES
  • 9.6 COMMUNICATION
  • 9.7 SIMULATION RESULTS
  • 9.8 CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • PART III: NANOSCALE WIRELESS COMPUTING IN MEDICINE
  • 10 AN INTRODUCTION TO NANOMEDICINE
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 NANOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
  • 10.3 DETECTION
  • 10.4 TREATMENT
  • 10.5 BIOCOMPATIBILITY
  • 10.6 POWER
  • 10.7 COMPUTER MODELING
  • 10.8 RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS
  • 10.9 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 NANOMEDICINE USING MAGNETO-ELECTRIC NANOPARTICLES
  • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2 OVERVIEW OF MENs
  • 11.3 EXPERIMENT 1: EXTERNALLY CONTROLLED ON-DEMAND RELEASE OF ANTI-HIV DRUG AZTTP USING MENS AS CARRIERS
  • 11.4 EXPERIMENT 2: MENS TO ENABLE FIELD-CONTROLLED HIGH-SPECIFICITY DRUG DELIVERY TO ERADICATE OVARIAN CANCER CELLS
  • 11.5 EXPERIMENT 3: MAGNETOELECTRIC "SPIN" ON STIMULATING THE BRAIN
  • 11.6 BIOCERAMICS: BONE REGENERATION AND MNS
  • 11.7 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 12 DNA COMPUTATION IN MEDICINE
  • 12.1 BACKGROUND FOR THE NON-BIOLOGIST
  • 12.2 INTRODUCTION
  • 12.3 IN VITRO COMPUTING
  • 12.4 COMPUTATION IN VIVO
  • 12.5 CHALLENGES
  • 12.6 GLIMPSE INTO THE FUTURE
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 GRAPHENE-BASED NANOSYSTEMS FOR the DETECTION OF PROTEINIC BIOMARKERS OF DISEASE
  • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13.2 STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE AND MAIN DERIVATIVES
  • 13.3 GRAPHENE AND DERIVATIVES-BASED BIOSENSING NANOSYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS
  • 13.4 CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
  • CONFLICT OF INTEREST
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 MODELING BRAIN DISORDERS IN SILICON NANOTECHNOLOGIES
  • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 14.2 THE BioRC PROJECT
  • 14.3 BACKGROUND: BioRC NEURAL CIRCUITS
  • 14.4 MODELING SYNAPSES WITH CNT TRANSISTORS
  • 14.5 MODELING OCD WITH HYBRID CMOS/NANO CIRCUITS
  • 14.6 THE BIOLOGICAL CORTICAL NEURON AND HYBRID ELECTRONIC CORTICAL NEURON
  • 14.7 BIOLOGICAL OCD CIRCUIT AND BIOMIMETIC MODEL
  • 14.8 INDIRECT PATHWAY: THE BRAKING MECHANISM
  • 14.9 DIRECT PATHWAY: THE ACCELERATOR
  • 14.10 TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL RESPONSES
  • 14.11 MODELING SCHIZOPHRENIC HALLUCINATIONS WITH HYBRID CMOS/NANO CIRCUITS
  • 14.12 EXPLANATION FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOMS
  • 14.13 DISINHIBITION DUE TO MISWIRING
  • 14.14 OUR HYBRID NEUROMORPHIC PREDICTION NETWORK
  • 14.15 SIMULATION RESULTS
  • 14.16 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FALSE FIRING
  • 14.17 MODELING PD WITH CMOS CIRCUITS
  • 14.18 MODELING MS WITH CMOS CIRCUITS
  • 14.19 DEMYELINATION CIRCUIT
  • 14.20 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
  • REFERENCES
  • 15 LINKING MEDICAL NANOROBOTS TO PERVASIVE COMPUTING
  • 15.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 15.2 COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTIONALITIES
  • 15.3 MAIN SPECIFICATIONS FOR SUCH NANOROBOTIC AGENTS (NANOROBOTS)
  • 15.4 MEDICAL NANOROBOTIC AGENTS-AN EXAMPLE
  • 15.5 NANOROBOTIC COMMUNICATION LINKS ALLOWING PERVASIVE COMPUTING
  • 15.6 TYPES OF INFORMATION
  • 15.7 MEDICAL NANOROBOTIC AGENTS FOR MONITORING AND EARLY DETECTION
  • 15.8 MEDICAL NANOROBOTICS AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING-MAIN CONDITIONS THAT MUST BE MET FOR ITS FEASIBILITY
  • 15.9 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 16 NANOMEDICINE'S TRANSVERSALITY
  • 16.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 16.2 NANOMEDICINE'S PROMISES
  • 16.3 ANALYSING IMPLICATIONS OF THE NANOMEDICINE PARADIGM
  • 16.4 THE MOLECULAR UNDERPINNINGS OF NANOMEDICINE'S TRANSVERSALITY
  • 16.5 NANOMEDICINE AS PREDICTIVE MEDICINE
  • 16.6 NANOMEDICINE AS PERSONALIZED MEDICINE
  • 16.7 NANOMEDICINE AS REGENERATIVE MEDICINE
  • 16.8 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • PART IV: ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF WIRELESS COMPUTING IN MEDICINE
  • 17 ETHICAL CHALLENGES OF UBIQUITOUS HEALTH CARE*
  • 17.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 17.2 A PHILOSOPHICAL FRAMEWORK
  • 17.3 INFORMATION DEVIANCE
  • 17.4 THE CURRENT FRENZY
  • 17.5 GENETIC INFORMATICS
  • 17.6 UBIQUITOUS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  • 17.7 STASIS VERSUS PROGRESS
  • 17.8 PROBLEMATIC ETHICS
  • 17.9 LEADERSHIP IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ETHICS
  • 17.10 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 18 THE ETHICS OF UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING IN HEALTH CARE
  • 18.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 18.2 UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF HEALTH CARE: THREE VISIONS
  • 18.3 CASE STUDY: CARDIAC IMPLANTED ELECTRICAL DEVICES
  • 18.4 ETHICAL REFLECTIONS
  • 18.5 CONCLUSIONS: THE NEED FOR SOCIO-TECHNICAL DESIGN
  • REFERENCES
  • 19 PRIVACY PROTECTION OF ELECTRONIC HEALTHCARE RECORDS IN e-HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS
  • 19.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 19.2 SECURITY AND PRIVACY CONCERNS OF EHR IN e-HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS
  • 19.3 PRIVACY LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF EHRs
  • 19.4 PRIVACY OF EHRs IN e-HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS
  • 19.5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  • 19.6 CONTRIBUTIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
  • REFERENCES
  • 20 ETHICAL, PRIVACY, AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ISSUES IN NANOMEDICINE
  • 20.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 20.2 ETHICAL ISSUES
  • 20.3 PRIVACY ISSUES
  • 20.4 IP ISSUES
  • 20.5 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • PART V: CONCLUSION
  • 21 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • 21.1 WIRELESS COMPUTING IN HEALTH CARE
  • 21.2 NANOMEDICINE
  • 21.3 ETHICAL, PRIVACY, AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ISSUES OF NANOMEDICINE AND WIRELESS COMPUTING
  • 21.4 CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • INDEX
  • END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT

PREFACE


I recently celebrated my 50th birthday 26 productive years after I received my Ph.D. On this important milestone, I reflected back on my life, as I could not help but find myself in total agreement with what both Aristotle and Einstein said: the more one learns or knows, the more one realizes how much he/she does not know. I always wanted to learn more, so over the years I have expanded my parallel processing expertise from heterogeneous computing (topic of my first book) to bio-inspired and nanoscale integrated computing (topic of my second book). Expanding the application of both of these technologies further to medicine with an emphasis on their legal and ethical aspects is the main aim of this third book. This book is a product of the progression of my research, from undergraduate study until now.

In the early part of my research career and as a research student at the University of Southern California (USC), I concentrated on the design of efficient very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architectures and parallel algorithms, especially for image and signal processing. Such research focused on my development of fast algorithms for solving geometric problems on the Mesh-of-Trees architecture. These techniques have been applied to several other architectures, including bus-based architectures and later on architectures such as the systolic reconfigurable mesh. Thirty years since their inception, these results are still showing their utility in the design of graphics processing unit (GPU) architectures.

Later, as part of my Ph.D., I focused my attention on applying my Mesh-of-Trees results to the area of optical computing. I produced the Optical Model of Computation (OMC) model, through which I was able to show the computational limits and the space-time tradeoffs for replacing electrical wires with free-space optical beams in VLSI chips. Based on the model, I designed several generic electrooptical architectures, including the electrooptical crossbar design that includes a switching speed in the order of nanoseconds. This design was later extended to an architecture called "optical reconfigurable mesh" (ORM). Algorithms designed on ORM have a very fast running time because ORM comprises a reconfigurable mesh in addition to having both a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and electrooptical interconnectivity. OMC is a well-referenced model that has been shown to have superior performance compared to many other parallel and/or optical models. Based on OMC, the well-known local memory parallel random access memory (PRAM) model was developed. Furthermore, variations of OMC were adopted by the industry in designing MEMS chips.

Soon after I graduated, I took a leading role in starting the heterogeneous computing field. I am the editor of the field's first book, Heterogeneous Computing, and the cofounder of the IEEE Heterogeneous Computing Workshop. The book in conjunction with the workshop shaped the field and paved the path to today's "cloud computing." As one of the first paradigms for executing heterogeneous tasks on heterogeneous systems, I developed the Cluster-M model. Prior models such as PRAM and LogP each had their limitations because they could not handle arbitrary systems or structures with heterogeneous computing nodes and interconnectivity. Cluster-M mapping is still the fastest known algorithm for mapping arbitrary task graphs onto arbitrary system graphs.

For over a decade now, I have been focusing on the bio- and nanoapplications of my work. I am a founding series coeditor of "Nature-Inspired Computing" for John Wiley & Sons and have edited the first book of this series, Bio-inspired and Nanoscale Integrated Computing. This is truly a multidisciplinary topic that required a significant amount of training from several fields. Toward this multidisciplinary field, I have studied various techniques for designing nanoscale computing architectures where computations are subject to quantum effects. One of the most notable works I have produced in this area is a joint work with my colleagues at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The work was announced as a breakthrough result by numerous media outlets and was explained in many review articles worldwide. It involved the design of a set of highly interconnected multiprocessor chips with spin waves. These designs possess an unprecedented degree of interconnectivity that was not possible previously with electrical VLSI interconnects, because they can use frequency modulation to intercommunicate among nodes via atomic waves. Furthermore, the information is encoded into the phase of spin waves and is transferred through ferromagnetic buses without any charge transmission. The spins rotate as propagating waves, and as such, there is no particle (electron/hole) transport. This feature results in significantly lower power consumption as compared to other nanoscale architectures.

Extending nanoscale computing to cellular biology, I have studied applications of spin-wave architectures for DNA sequence matching. I have shown that these designs have a superior algorithmic performance for such applications. Also, because they can operate at room temperature, they have a great potential to be used as part of miniature implantable devices for biomedical and bio-imaging applications. I have been investigating efficient methods for designing injectable nanorobots that can be used for the detection and treatment of various diseases, especially cancer.

My most recent area of research has been in technology law. I am investigating how various forms of emerging technologies may be impacted by, and come into conflict with US and international policies and laws. For example, while pervasive (heterogeneous/ubiquitous) computing and nanotechnology are two technologies that are entirely different from each other, they both are seemingly invisible: one in terms of interconnectivity and the other in terms of size. Their overwhelming potential coupled with their peculiar nature can continuously magnify challenges to policies and laws that protect rights and property. Such challenges and related legal and ethical issues are discussed further as a chapter in this book, especially as applied to their applications in wireless computing for medicine.

This book contains 21 chapters presented in five parts. In Part 1, my students and I have presented an introduction to the book in the first chapter, and in the second chapter, we have given an introduction to the two wireless technologies used in the book: pervasive computing and nanocomputing.

In Part 2-Pervasive Wireless Computing in Medicine, there are seven chapters detailing pervasive computing for medicine. Authored by the leading scientist in the field, these chapters cover a wide range of topics such as pervasive computing in hospitals, diagnostic improvements: treatment and care, collaborative opportunistic sensing of human behavior with mobile phone, pervasive computing to support individuals with cognitive disabilities, wireless power for implantable devices, energy-efficient physical activity detection in wireless body area networks, and Markov decision process for adaptive control of distributed body sensor networks.

Similarly, in Part 3-Nanoscale Wireless Computing in Medicine, there are seven chapters authored by leading scientists. These chapters all focus on the application of nanocomputing in medicine. The topics include an introduction to nanomedicine, nanomedicine using magneto-electric nanoparticles, DNA computation in medicine, graphene-based nanosystem for the detection of proteomic biomarkers of disease: implication in translational medicine, modeling brain disorders in silicon nanotechnologies, linking medical nanorobots to pervasive computing, and nanomedicine's transversality: some implications of the nanomedical paradigm.

Finally, in Part 4-Ethical and Legal Aspects of Wireless Computing in Medicine, the ethical and legal aspects of wireless computing in medicine are presented in four chapters by leading scholars in this area. The topics include ethical challenges of ubiquitous health care, ethics of ubiquitous computing in health care, privacy protection of electronic healthcare records in e-healthcare systems, and ethical, privacy, and intellectual property issues in nanomedicine. After this third section, we provide a brief conclusion in Part 5.

In addition to the two introductory chapters and the conclusion chapter, I have coauthored one of the chapters in Part 1 ("Wireless Power for Implantable Devices"), two of the chapters in Part 2 ("An Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanomedicine Using Magneto-electric Nanoparticles"), and one chapter in part 3 ("Ethical, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Issues in Nanomedicine"). Evidently, most of these chapters deal specifically with nanomedicine. I believe nanomedicine is one of this century's most promising scientific fields in which we can soon expect to see many life-altering advancements. Targeted delivery of drugs to cancer cells is already in animal-testing stages with very impressive preliminary results. Furthermore, various techniques are currently being studied to develop nanorobots that can aid in both detection and treatment of cells.

I invite you to learn more about this exciting field by reading this book. You will see that the more you learn, the more you will realize how much there is yet to be learned and...

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