Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook

Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 20. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 416 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-85927-8 (ISBN)
Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic animals and plants, and other seafood businesses continue to grow rapidly around the world. However, many of these businesses fail due to the lack of sufficient attention to marketing. The Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook provides the reader with a comprehensive, yet user-friendly presentation of key concepts and tools necessary for aquaculture and seafood businesses to evaluate and adapt to changing market conditions.
Markets for aquaculture and seafood products are diverse, dynamic, and complex. The Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook presents fundamental principles of marketing, specific discussion of aquaculture and seafood market channels and supply chains from around the world, and builds towards a step-by-step approach to strategic market planning for successful aquaculture and seafood businesses.
This book is an essential reference for all aquaculture and seafood businesses as well as students of aquaculture. The volume contains a series of synopses of specific markets, an extensive annotated bibliography, and webliography for additional sources of information.
Written by authors with vast experience in international marketing of aquaculture and seafood products, this volume is a valuable source of guidance for those seeking to identify profitable markets for their aquaculture and seafood products.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Carole R. Engle, Engle-Stone Aquatic$ LLC, Strasburg, VA, USA
Kwamena Quagrainie, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, USA
Madan M. Dey, Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • About the authors
  • Chapter 1 Seafood and aquaculture markets
  • Global trends in seafood and aquaculture markets
  • Where are most aquaculture crops produced?
  • What are the major species cultured worldwide?
  • What are the major finfish species caught and supplied to world markets?
  • What countries are the major markets for seafood and aquaculture?
  • Trade in seafood and aquaculture
  • Are aquaculture products different from agriculture products?
  • Characteristics of aquaculture products
  • Market competition between wild-caught and farmed finfish
  • Consumption trends in seafood and aquaculture markets, expenditures, effects of income, and at-home versus away-from-home purchases
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: tilapia
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Demand and supply: basic economic premises
  • What is economics?
  • Demand
  • Population
  • Income
  • Consumer tastes and preferences
  • Consumer behavior
  • Supply
  • Costs of production
  • Technology
  • Price determination
  • Elasticity
  • Demand elasticity
  • Cross-price elasticity
  • Price elasticity and total revenue
  • Elasticity of supply
  • Market structures and implications for competition and pricing
  • Special demand and supply conditions
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: salmon
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Seafood and aquaculture marketing concepts
  • What is marketing?
  • Marketing plan
  • Market products
  • Supply chain and value chain
  • Processors
  • Market or distribution channels
  • Transportation
  • Wholesaling
  • Brokers
  • Retailing
  • Food grocers
  • Livehaulers
  • Restaurants
  • Direct sales
  • Profit margins
  • Economies of scale in marketing
  • Supply chain management
  • Pricing systems
  • Price determination
  • Marketing margins, marketing bill, and farm-retail price spreads
  • Pricing at different market levels
  • Price behavior, trends, and fluctuations
  • Geographic markets
  • Product storage
  • Market power
  • Advertising and promotion
  • Product grades, quality, and marketing implications
  • International trade
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: shrimp and prawns
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Market trends
  • The role of imports in U.S. seafood markets
  • U.S. seafood consumption
  • Food consumption away from home
  • Convenience in food preparation and consumption
  • Demand for healthy and wholesome foods
  • Sustainability and seafood
  • Certification of sustainability
  • The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)
  • The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP)
  • The Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC)
  • GLOBAL Good Agricultural Practice (GLOBALG.A.P.)
  • Traceability and labeling of seafood products
  • Country-Of-Origin Labeling (COOL)
  • Ecolabeling of seafood products
  • Seafood and the "local food" movement in the U.S.
  • Organic seafood
  • Wholesale-retailer integration in the food system
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • The Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)
  • The Efficient Food service Response (EFR)
  • E-commerce
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: Pangasius spp. (swai, basa, and tra)
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Seafood market channels
  • Market channels for primary seafood products
  • Seafood distribution in developing economies
  • Seafood distribution in developed economies
  • Seafood distribution in the U.S.
  • Price discovery for primary commodities
  • Contracting and vertical integration in U.S. seafood business
  • Other transaction types in U.S. seafood business
  • Participation in food market channels
  • Distributors
  • Wholesalers
  • Channel ownership and control for secondary products
  • Consolidation and channel control
  • Channel coordination and leadership for secondary products
  • Channel agreements
  • Tying agreements
  • Exclusive dealing
  • Value chain analysis
  • Channel conflict
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: trout
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Seafood and aquaculture product processing
  • Processing
  • Structure of the seafood and aquaculture product processing industry
  • Concentration
  • Vertical integration
  • Product characteristics
  • Entry into the industry
  • Plant location
  • Law of market areas
  • Capacity utilization
  • Innovation and branding
  • Challenges in aquaculture product processing
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: U.S. channel catfish
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 7 The international market for seafood and aquaculture products
  • The basis for trade
  • Dimensions of the international market
  • Trade policy tools
  • Trade policy in seafood and aquaculture
  • The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
  • The World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • U.S. Antidumping
  • Byrd Amendment, Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000
  • Salmon trade conflicts
  • United States and Norway
  • United States and Chile
  • European Union and Norway
  • Blue crab conflict
  • U.S. crawfish and China
  • U.S. catfish and Vietnamese basa
  • Mussel conflicts
  • Shrimp conflicts
  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: ornamental fish
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • Appendix 7A: The U.S. Antidumping Law
  • The U.S. Department of Commerce
  • The U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC)
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Marketing by aquaculture growers
  • Fish species and markets
  • Production systems and intensification
  • Sizes of producers
  • Supply response and biological lags
  • Commodities, markets, and niche markets for differentiated products
  • Farmers' marketing alternatives
  • Sales to processors
  • Sales to livehaulers
  • Selling directly to end consumers
  • Marketing by fisher/farmer groups
  • Marketing cooperatives
  • Local cooperatives
  • Centralized cooperatives
  • Federated cooperatives
  • Mixed cooperatives
  • Marketing cooperatives as marketing agents
  • Marketing cooperatives as processing groups
  • Farmers' bargaining groups
  • Marketing orders
  • Futures markets for aquaculture products?
  • Generic advertising of seafood and aquaculture products
  • Advertising of seafood - the National Fisheries Institute (NFI)
  • Salmon advertising - the Salmon Marketing Institute (SMI)
  • Catfish advertising - the Catfish Institute (TCI)
  • Tilapia advertising - the Tilapia Marketing Institute (TMI)
  • Trout advertising - the United States Trout Farmers Association (USTFA)
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: oysters
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • Appendix 8A: The Capper-Volstead Act
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Marketing strategies and planning for successful aquaculture businesses
  • Current market situation analysis
  • Market research
  • Competition
  • Consumer attitudes/preferences
  • Analysis of business strengths and weaknesses
  • Developing the marketing strategy
  • Developing a retail outlet
  • Market segmentation
  • Products and product lines
  • Commodity markets
  • Niche markets
  • Value-added products
  • Business organization and contracting
  • Sales
  • The marketing plan
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: mussels
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • Appendix 9A: A sample market plan (hypothetical)
  • Executive summary
  • Vision
  • Overall market situation analysis
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Marketing research methodologies
  • Types of research and design
  • Exploratory research
  • Qualitative research
  • Quantitative research
  • Data collection
  • Secondary data
  • Primary data
  • Sampling
  • Questionnaire design
  • Response rate
  • Research on attitudes and preferences
  • Theories of choice behavior
  • Product research
  • Product ideas
  • Product testing
  • Market share research
  • Advertising research
  • Sales control research
  • Value chain research
  • Data analysis
  • Statistical summaries
  • Relationships between variables or responses
  • Discrete choice analysis
  • Conjoint analysis
  • Traditional demand analysis
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: baitfish
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Seafood demand analysis
  • Demand theory
  • Theoretical properties of demand
  • Approaches to modeling fish and seafood demand
  • Commodity grouping and separability
  • Other issues pertaining to estimating demand for seafood
  • Data
  • Scanner data
  • Elasticities and flexibilities of seafood demand
  • Estimates of elasticities and flexibilities of seafood demand
  • Recent estimates of elasticities/flexibilities of seafood demand in developed countries
  • Recent estimates of elasticities/flexibilities of seafood demand in developing countries
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: crawfish
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Policies and regulations governing seafood and aquaculture marketing
  • Regulatory frameworks for seafood and aquaculture
  • Food safety
  • Industry-initiated programs
  • Regulation of food safety
  • Organic standards
  • Green labeling and standards
  • Marketing and transportation of live aquatic animals
  • Aquatic animal health and biosecurity
  • Aquaculture market synopsis: mariculture of grouper, snapper, tuna, and cobia
  • Summary
  • Study and discussion questions
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Annotated bibliography of aquaculture marketing information sources
  • Annotated webliography of sources of data and information for aquaculture marketing
  • Index
  • EULA

Chapter 1
Seafood and aquaculture markets

This introductory chapter will provide an overview of seafood and aquaculture markets worldwide, the global supply of major seafood and aquaculture species, the location of major markets, and international trade volumes and partners. The chapter continues with a discussion of characteristics of aquaculture products and the market competition between wild-caught and farmed fish. The chapter concludes by summarizing trends in consumption of seafood and aquaculture products. Practical examples from aquaculture are included throughout.

Global trends in seafood and aquaculture markets

Successful industries must be successful in marketing their products yet marketing is not well understood by many aquaculturists. This book both defines and explains many key marketing concepts and components of theory fundamental to a thorough understanding of marketing that is necessary for aquaculture businesses to successfully develop effective marketing plans and strategies. A market can be defined in a number of ways. It can be a location, such as the Fulton Fish Market in New York City or the Tsukiji Market in Tokyo, Japan, a product such as the jumbo shrimp market, a time such as the Lenten season market in the United States or the European Christmas market, or a level such as the retail or wholesale market.

This chapter will focus mostly on geographic markets but will touch on several other levels of markets. Chapter 3 presents more specific information on fundamental marketing terms and concepts.

A frieze in an Egyptian tomb dated to 2500 B.C. shows the harvest of cultured tilapia (Bardach et al. 1972). While this date places aquaculture as an ancient technology, it is still quite young when compared to terrestrial agriculture. Diamond (1999) shows that domesticated species of both crops and animals were being cultivated by 8500 B.C. (Table 1.1). Southwest Asia and China served as the birthplace for many types of terrestrial agriculture and aquatic crops. Diamond theorized that areas with sparse game would provide greater returns to the effort in developing farming technologies. For most species of fish, scarcities due to overfishing have become evident only in the latter part of the 1900s. Thus, strong incentives to explore and invest in widespread domesticated production of aquatic plants and animals have been of comparatively recent origin. The ensuing level of scientific and technological development of aquaculture in the 1900s has resulted in a dramatic blossoming of aquaculture industries.

Table 1.1 Dates of domestication of various plant and animal crops important in the cultural development of humans.

Source: Diamond (1999).

Area Domesticated Earliest attested date of domestication Plants Animals Independent origins of domestication Southwest Asia Wheat, pea, olive Sheep, goat 8500 B.C. China Rice, millet Pig, silkworm By 7500 B.C. Mesoamerica Corn, beans, squash Turkey By 3500 B.C. Andes and Amazonia Potato, manioc Llama, guinea pig By 3500 B.C. Eastern U.S. Sunflower, goosefoot None 2500 B.C. Sahel Sorghum, African rice Guinea fowl By 5000 B.C. Tropical West Africa African yams, oil palm None By 3000 B.C. Ethiopia Coffee, tea None Unknown New Guinea Sugar cane, banana None 7000 B.C. Local demonstration following arrival of founder crops from elsewhere Western Europe Poppy, oat None 6000-3500 B.C. Indus Valley Sesame, eggplant Humped cattle 7000 B.C. Egypt Sycamore fig, chufa Donkey, cat 6000 B.C.

Continued growth in the global economy and in the world's population has resulted in increasing demand for seafood. However, the volume of seafood supplied from capture fisheries across the world has leveled off since about 1994, while the quantity of aquaculture production supplied worldwide has continued to increase (Fig. 1.1). The global supply from capture fisheries increased most rapidly during the late 1950s through the end of the 1960s. From that point, capture fisheries continued to increase, but at a slower rate, reaching slightly more than 95 million metric tons in 1996. Since then, world capture fisheries have fluctuated from 86.8 million to 94.8 million metric tons, averaging about 92 million metric tons. It is clear that most of the increase in the world supply of fish and seafood has been due to the expansion of aquaculture production.

Fig. 1.1 Volume of wild-caught and farmed supply of seafood, 1950-2012.

Source: FAO (2014).

Global aquaculture production has increased more than 40-fold, from 2 million metric tons in 1960 to 90.4 million metric tons in 2012 (FAO 2014), while chicken meat production increased by a factor of 10 and beef production doubled (Thornton 2010). From 2008 to 2012, the annual growth rate of cultured finfish and shellfish production averaged 4%. Capture fisheries production has declined by 3% from 1996 to 2012.

All aquatic farming combined represented a 3% share of the world harvest of fish, shellfish, and seaweeds in 1950 (FAO 2014). By 2012, this share had increased to 49.4% and consisted of a record 90.4 million metric tons of total farmed aquatic production. Of this, the greatest increase was for freshwater diadromous fishes (41.97 million metric tons), aquatic plants (23.78 million metric tons), and mollusks (15.17 million metric tons). The total value of aquaculture production worldwide increased to $144.3 billion in 2012.

The relative costs of capture fisheries have increased over time while those of aquaculture production have decreased. In the United States, the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act established a 200 nautical mile (370?km) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) for commercial fisheries. The U.S. Magnuson Act, combined with declining abundance of many types of fish stocks, requires trawlers to travel greater distances to find supplies of fish. In other parts of the world, countries such as Chile, Ecuador, and Peru have also claimed rights to 200 nautical mile zones for fishing. However, a few countries, such as Papua New Guinea and Anguilla, still use a 5-km limit, while others have moved to a 12 nautical mile limit. Costs of capture fisheries are likely to continue to increase over time. At the same time, aquaculture costs have declined as new technologies have been developed and refined. According to a 2013 World Bank study (World Bank 2013; Kobayashi et al. 2015), global fish supply is projected to rise to 187 million metric tons by 2030. Capture production is expected to remain fairly stable over the 2000-2030 period, with a projected supply of about 93.2 million metric tons in 2030. In contrast, global aquaculture projection is likely to maintain its steady rise, reaching 93.6 million metric tons by 2030. In terms of food fish production, the World Bank study predicts that aquaculture will contribute 62% of the global supply by 2030.

Where are most aquaculture crops produced?

Asia is the birthplace of early aquaculture production technology and continues to be the world's leading aquaculture region. Production in Asia reached 46.7 million metric tons in 2012, accounting for 91% of the world's output (Fig. 1.2). Next to Asia, the Americas was the second leading aquaculture producing region, but with only 4% of total world production. Europe followed closely at 3% of total world production, and Africa at 2%.

Fig. 1.2 World aquaculture production by region, 2012.

Source: FAO (2014).

The nation that leads the world in aquaculture production is China (Fig. 1.3). Of the top 10 countries in aquaculture production, eight are located in Asia (China, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, The Philippines, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, and Thailand). Norway and Chile are the only non-Asian countries in the top 10 (ranking eighth and tenth, respectively, in terms of quantity produced). While aquaculture's contribution to world aquatic production averaged 35% in 2002, it reached 66% to 77% in some of the top aquaculture producing countries (China, India).

Fig. 1.3 Volume of global aquaculture production by country, 2012.

Source: FAO (2014).

Much of the aquaculture production in the world occurs in lesser-developed nations (FAO 2014). Of the top 20 aquaculture producing nations, only three, Japan, Norway, and the U.S., are considered developed nations by the FAO. Moreover, much of the increase in aquaculture production has been from low-income food deficit countries, such as China.

Global aquaculture production has grown at an annual rate of...

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