Pilot Protective Relaying

 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 27. April 2018
  • |
  • 184 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-42428-8 (ISBN)
 
This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.
  • Englisch
  • Boca Raton
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • 16,16 MB
978-1-351-42428-8 (9781351424288)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contets
  • Preace
  • Biographical Sketches
  • 1: Communication Fundamentáis
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basic Equation
  • 3. On-Off Signaling
  • 4. Frequency Shift Keying
  • 5. Pulse-Period Modulation
  • 6. Phase Modulation
  • 6.1 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
  • 7. Quadrature-Amplitude Modulation
  • 7.1 General Comments
  • 2: Current Differential Relaying
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Pilot Wire Relaying
  • 2.1 HCB Filter
  • 2.2 HCB-1 Filter
  • 3. Pilot Wire Protection
  • 4. Current Differential Relaying
  • 4.1 FCB
  • 4.2 Microprocessor Implementation
  • 4.3 T1 Carrier
  • 5. Pilot Wire Supervision
  • 6. Three-Terminal Applications
  • 7. Summary
  • 3: Pilot Channels for Protective Relaying
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Types of Channels
  • 3. Choice of Channels
  • 4. Power Line Carrier
  • 4.1 Modal Considerations
  • 4.2 Typical Loss Profile
  • 4.3 Use of Hybrids
  • 4.4 Coaxial Cable
  • 4.5 Tuners
  • 4.6 Noise
  • 5. Audio Tones
  • 6. Microwave
  • 6.1 Basic Microwave Configuration
  • 6.2 Microwave Reflection
  • 6.3 Multiplexing
  • 7. Fiber-Optics
  • 8. Pilot Wires
  • 9. Additional Information
  • References
  • 4: Transmission Line Pilot Relaying
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basic Pilot-Relaying Systems in Use
  • 3. Phase-Comparison Relaying
  • 3.1 On-Off Channel
  • 3.2 Frequency-Shift Channel
  • 3.3 Segregated-Phase Comparison
  • 3.4 Evaluation of Phase-Comparison Systems
  • 4. Current Differential Relaying
  • 5. Directional-Comparison Relaying
  • 5.1 Blocking Scheme
  • 5.2 Transfer-Trip-Relaying
  • 5.3 Other Systems
  • 6. Problem Areas
  • 6.1 Zero-Sequence Mutual
  • 6.2 Current Transformer Saturation
  • 6.3 Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformer Transients
  • 6.4 Channel Problems
  • 6.5 Power System Swings
  • 6.6 Three Terminal Lines
  • 6.7 Evolving Faults
  • 6.8 Stub Bus Faults
  • 6.9 Large Load and Limited Fault Current
  • 7. Table 4-1
  • 5: Three-Terminal Line Protection
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Types of Terminals
  • 2.1 The Transformer Connection
  • 2.2 Transformer Grounding
  • 2.3 Generation at the Tap
  • 2.4 Load at the Tap
  • 2.5 Outfeed
  • 3. Criteria for Relaying
  • 4. Influence of the Load at the Tap
  • 5. Three-Terminal Relaying
  • 5.1 Nonpilot Schemes
  • 5.2 Pilot Schemes
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 6: Program Design for Microprocessor Reiays
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Orthogonal Signals
  • 2.1 Orthogonal Signals in Distance Relays
  • 2.2 Orthogonal Filter Pairs
  • 3. Implicit (Torque-Like) Relay Algorithms
  • 3.1 Phase Comparator, Magnitude Comparator, and Torque
  • 3.2 Torque in Distance Units
  • 3.3 Torque Computations
  • 3.4 Post-filters
  • 4. Explicit (Impedance) Relay Algorithms
  • 5. Symmetrical Component Filters
  • 5.1 Phase Shift by Time-Delaying
  • 5.2 Phase Shift by Orthogonal Signals
  • 5.3 Two-Sample Phase Shifter
  • 6. Summary
  • 7: Series-Compensated Line Protection Phiiosophies
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Background
  • 3. Relaying Quantities Under Fault Conditions
  • 3.1 Series Compensation
  • 3.2 Negative Reactance Effect
  • 3.3 Voltage Reversal
  • 3.4 Zero Voltage Point
  • 3.5 Current Direction
  • 3.6 Speed of Transition
  • 4. Distance Protection
  • 5. Directional Comparison Protection
  • 6. Directional Wave Protection
  • 7. Phasor Differential
  • 8. Phase-Comparison
  • 9. Offset Keying
  • 10. Importance of Combinations
  • 11. Importance of Model Power System and EMTP Testing
  • 12. Conclusions
  • 8: Single-Pole Tripping
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Single-Pole Tripping Concept
  • 3. Difficult Problems
  • 4. Equivalent Diagram
  • 5. Stability
  • 6. Selective Pole Relaying
  • 7. Phase Selection
  • 8. During Single Phasing
  • 9. Trend
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • 9: Substation Automation and Relay Communications
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Substation Automation and Ehiving Forces
  • 3. Benefits of Intelligent Electronic Devices and Implementation Considerations
  • 4. Protocols and Data
  • 5. Substation Interface and Substation Automation Systems
  • 6. Candidates for Automation
  • 7. The Substation Automation System as a Corporate Data Source
  • 8. Unanticipated Consequences of Substation Automation
  • 9. Conununications Within the Substation
  • 10. Background of the Traditional Protective Relay
  • 10.1 Peer-to-Peer and Multiple Master Communications
  • 10.2 Token Ring Network
  • 10.3 Collision-Sensing Multiple Access Networks
  • 10.4 Unsolicited and Global Data Exchange
  • 10.5 Implementation of the lED Network Interface
  • 10.6 Application-A Fully Automated Power Restoration System
  • 10.7 Application-Data Collection Performance on a High-Speed Network
  • 11. Other Communications Issues
  • 12. Communications Between Substations and Information Management Systems (IMS)
  • 12.1 Leased Four-Wu'e Telephone Circuit
  • 12.2 Dial-Up Telephone Circuit
  • 12.3 Multiple Address System Radio (FCC Licensed)
  • 12.4 Unlicensed Radio, Spread-Spectrum
  • 12.5 Cellular or PCS Systems
  • 12.6 Trunked Radio-Data on Voice
  • 12.7 Satellite Techniques
  • 12.8 Fiber-Optics
  • 13. Small Substation Issues
  • 14. Equipment and Installation Considerations
  • 14.1 Traditional RTU Equipment and Installation
  • 14.2 Use of Intelligent Electronic Devices
  • 14.3 Substation Controllers
  • 15. Substation Automation and the SCADA/EMS/DMS/IMS
  • 16. Substation Automation and Data Volume
  • 16.1 Near-Term Effect of Data Volume
  • 16.2 Long-Term Effect of Data Volume
  • 16.3 It Is Not All Bad News
  • Acknowledgments
  • 10: Protective Relay Digital Fault Recording and Analysis
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Digital Fault Record
  • 2.1 Analog and Digital (On-Off) Signals
  • 2.2 The Relay Fault Record
  • 2.3 Recording the Fault Record
  • 3. Fault Analysis Tools
  • 3.1 Graphical Display of Analog and Digital Data
  • 3.2 Multiple Record Analysis
  • 3.3 Calculation of Fault Quantities
  • 3.4 Calculation of Fault Impedance and Location
  • 3.5 Phasor Plots
  • 3.6 Plot of Fault Impedance Locus
  • 3.7 Frequency Analysis
  • 3.8 COMTRADE Files
  • 4. COMTRADE
  • 4.1 Files Used in a COMTRADE Record
  • 4.2 Application of the COMTRADE Format
  • 5. Fault Analysis Examples
  • 5.1 Example 1. Potential Circuit Grounding
  • 5.2 Example 2. Incorrect Directional Unit Operation on a Resistance-Grounded System
  • 5.3 Example 3. Misoperation Caused by Isolated Ground Source
  • 5.4 Example 4. Dual Polarization and Unbalanced Phase Voltages
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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