Soil Fertility

 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 4. Mai 2018
  • |
  • 304 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-41594-1 (ISBN)
 
Soils are one of the world's most important resources, and their protection, maintenance, and improvement is critical to the continuance of life on earth. Soil Fertility, Second Edition, offers thorough coverage of the fertility, composition, properties, and management of soils. This book carries on the tradition of excellence established by authors Henry Foth and Boyd Ellis, leading soil scientists whose previous books in this field have become multi-edition classics.
The Second Edition of Soil Fertility has been significantly expanded to include more information on mineralogy, while keeping the thorough coverage of essential topics. The book presents soils as dynamic, constantly changing bodies, and relates soil fertility and management to the mineralogy of their origin. Four new chapters offer updated information on soil charge properties, ion adsorption, exchange and fixation, and soil reaction. There is also a far greater emphasis on environmental issues, reflecting the increasing importance of environmental concerns to agronomists and soil scientists today.
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Boca Raton
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Neue Ausgabe
112 equations, 43 schwarz-weiße Fotos, 66 schwarz-weiße Tabellen
978-1-351-41594-1 (9781351415941)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Chapter 1 Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition
  • 1.1 Definition and Nature of Soil Fertility
  • 1.1.1 Soil Fertility versus Plant Type
  • 1.1.2 The Role of Soil Fertility and Fertilizers in Soil Productivity
  • 1.2 Historical Development
  • 1.2.1 Search for the Nourishment of Plants
  • 1.2.2 Some Early Developments in America
  • 1.2.3 Discovery of Essential and Toxic Elements
  • 1.2.4 Fertilizer Development
  • 1.2.5 Recent and Current Developments
  • 1.2.6 Genetic Improvements to Cope with Mineral Stress
  • 1.3 Soil as a Nutrient Reservoir
  • 1.3.1 Soil Nutrients versus Plant Needs
  • 1.3.2 The Soil Solution and Available Nutrients
  • 1.3.3 Nutrient Supplying Power
  • 1.4 Root Interception and Movement of Nutrients to Roots
  • 1.4.1 Root Interception
  • 1.4.2 Mass Flow
  • 1.4.3 Diffusion
  • 1.4.4 Relative Importance of Root Interception, Mass Flow, and Diffusion
  • 1.5 Nutrient Uptake From Soils
  • 1.5.1 Root Morphology and Nutrient Uptake
  • 1.5.2 Carrier Theory of Ion Uptake
  • 1.5.3 Nutrient Uptake and Plant Growth
  • 1.5.4 Root and Soil Interaction
  • 1.6 Importance of Fertilizers
  • 1.6.1 Role of Fertilizers in Food Production
  • 1.6.2 Future Needs
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Charge Properties
  • 2.1 Constant Charge
  • 2.1.1 The 2: 1 Layer Structure
  • 2.1.2 Isomorphous Substitution
  • 2.2 Variable Charge
  • 2.2.1 Variable Charge Minerals
  • 2.2.2 Zero Point of Charge
  • 2.2.3 Variable Charge of Soil Organic Matter
  • 2.3 Determination of Charge
  • 2.3.1 Cation Exchange Capacity
  • 2.3.2 Anion Exchange Capacity
  • 2.4 The Charge of Soil Organic Matter
  • 2.4.1 Nature of Humus
  • 2.4.2 Effect of Decomposition on Negative Charge
  • 2.5 The Mineral Weathering Sequence and Charge Development
  • 2.6 Constant Charge 2:1 Layer Phyllosilicates
  • 2.6.1 Mica, Weathered Mica, and Vermiculite
  • 2.6.2 Smectites
  • 2.6.3 Hydroxy-Aluminum Interlayered Vermiculite and Smectite
  • 2.6.4 Chlorites
  • 2.6.5 Illite
  • 2.7 Variable Charge 1:1 Layer Phyllosilicates
  • 2.7.1 The 1:1 Layer Structure
  • 2.7.2 Kaolinite
  • 2. 7.3 Halloysite
  • 2.8 Variable Charge Short-Range Order Aluminosilicates
  • 2.9 Variable Charge Oxide Minerals
  • 2.9.1 Gibbsite
  • 2.9.2 Iron Oxides
  • 2.10 Charge Characteristics of Soils
  • 2.11 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Ion Adsorption, Exchange, and Fixation
  • 3.1 Exchangeable Ion Distribution Near Charged Surfaces
  • 3.1.1 Ion Distribution Near a Negatively Charged Surface
  • 3.1.2 Ions in the Bulk Solution
  • 3.2 Factors Affecting the Cation Exchange Capacity
  • 3.2.1 Role of Clay and Organic Matter
  • 3.2.2 Role of Silt
  • 3.3 Cation Exchange Capacity of Soils
  • 3.3.1 Mineral Soil Orders
  • 3.3.2 Organic Soils
  • 3.4 The Effective Cation Exchange Capacity
  • 3.4.1 The Effective Cation Exchange Capacity Profile
  • 3.4.2 Management of the Cation Exchange Capacity
  • 3.5 Characteristics of Cation Exchange Reactions
  • 3.5.1 Effects of Valence and Hydration
  • 3.5.2 Complimentary Ion Effect
  • 3.5.3 Dilution Effect .
  • 3.6 The Exchange Cations in Soils
  • 3.6.1 Kinds and Terminology
  • 3.6.2 The Exchangeable Cation Suite
  • 3 .6.3 Serpentine Soils
  • 3.6.4 Saline and Sodic Soils
  • 3.6.5 Summary Statement
  • 3.7 Exchangeable Cations as a Source of Plant Nutrients
  • 3.7.1 Calculation of the Amount of Exchangeable Cations
  • 3.7.2 Exchangeable Cations versus Plant Needs
  • 3.8 Specific Cation Adsorption .
  • 3.9 Anion Adsorption and Exchange
  • 3.9.1 Nonspecific Anion Exchange
  • 3.9.2 Specific Anion Adsorption
  • 3.10 Soils with Equal Amounts of Anion and Cation Exchange Capacity
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Soil Reaction
  • 4.1 Determination of Soil pH
  • 4.1 .1 Common Methods
  • 4.1.2 Factors Affecting Soil pH Measurement
  • 4.2 The Soil pH Continuum
  • 4.2.1 Alkaline Soils
  • 4.2.2 Neutral Soils
  • 4.2.3 Acid Soils
  • 4.2.4 Summary Statement
  • 4.3 Forms of Soil Acidity
  • 4.4 Reaction of Soil Orders
  • 4.4.1 Alkaline and Neutral Soils
  • 4.4.2 Acid Soils Underlain with Alkaline Layers
  • 4.4.3 Acid Soils without Underlying Alkaline Layers
  • 4.5 Atmospheric Inputs
  • 4.5.1 Acid Rain
  • 4.5.2 Dust
  • 4.5.3 Volcanic Ejecta
  • 4.6 Effects of Soil pH on Plant Growth
  • 4.6.1 Acid Soil Infertility
  • 4.6.2 Alkaline Soil Infertility
  • 4.6.3 Soil pH and Plant Growth
  • 4.6.4 Plant Response to Soil pH
  • 4.7 Extreme Weathering Effects on pH
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Soil pH Management
  • 5.1 The pH Preferences of Plants
  • 5.5.1 Marl
  • 5.2 Neutralization Reactions
  • 5.3 The Lime Requirement
  • 5.3.1 Soils with High ECEC and XCa Na
  • 5.3.2 Soils with Low ECEC and XCa Na
  • 5.3.3 Soils with Very Low ECEC and XCa Na
  • 5.4 Liming Practices
  • 5.4.1 Limestone as a Liming Material
  • 5.4.2 Lime Application
  • 5.4.3 Overliming
  • 5.4.4 Effect of Flooding on Lime Needs
  • 5.5 Other Liming Materials
  • 5.5.1 Marl
  • 5.5.2 Blast Furnace and Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag
  • 5.5.3 Wood Ashes
  • 5.6 Selection of a Liming Material
  • 5.7 Culturally Produced Soil Acidity
  • 5.7.1 Acidity and Basicity of Fertilizers
  • 5.7.2 Culturally Produced Acid Soils of the Pacific Northwest
  • 5.7.3 Culturally Produced Acid Soils of the Great Plains
  • 5.8 Soil Acidification
  • 5.8.1 Acidifying Soil Using Sulfur
  • 5.8.2 Other Strategies for Growing Plants on Alkaline Soils
  • 5.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Nitrogen
  • 6.1 The Nitrogen Cycle
  • 6.1.1 Inventory of the Earth's Nitrogen
  • 6.1.2 Factors Affecting Soil Nitrogen Content
  • 6.1.3 The Soil Nitrogen Cycle
  • 6.1.4 Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  • 6.2 Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  • 6.2.1 Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
  • 6.2.2 Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
  • 6.3 Mineralization
  • 6.3.1 Factors Affecting Mineralization
  • 6.3.2 Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio
  • 6.3.3 Mineralization Under Anaerobic Conditions
  • 6.3.4 Effects of Accessibility and Recalcitrance
  • 6.4 Nitrification
  • 6.4.1 Factors Affecting Nitrification
  • 6.4.2 Summary Statement
  • 6.5 Immobilization
  • 6.6 Denitrification
  • 6.6.1 Factors Affecting Denitrification
  • 6.6.2 Denitrification in Wetland Rice Soils
  • 6.7 Ammonium Fixation
  • 6.8 Summary Statement for Soil Nitrogen Cycle
  • 6.9 Nitrogen Uptake by Plants
  • 6.9.1 Enhanced Ammonium Nutrition
  • 6.10 Nitrogen Distribution and Cycling in Ecosystems
  • 6.10.1 Nitrogen and Carbon Pls in Grassland Ecosystems
  • 6.1 0.2 Nitrogen and Carbon Pls in Forest Ecosystems
  • 6.10.3 Nitrogen Cycling in a Natural Ecosystem
  • 6.10.4 Nitrogen Pls and Cycling in Agricultural Soils
  • 6.10.5 Summary Statement
  • 6.11 Basis of Nitrogen Fertilizer Recommendations
  • 6.11.1 Grain Crops
  • 6.11.2 Legume Crops
  • 6.11.3 Crops Grown on Organic Soils
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Phosphorus
  • 7.1 Inventory of the Earth's Phosphorus
  • 7.2 Phosphorus Cycling in Soil Development
  • 7.2.1 Forms in Young and Moderately Weathered Soils
  • 7.2.2 Forms in Strongly and Intensely Weathered Soils
  • 7.3 Phosphorus in Fertilized Agricultural Soils
  • 7.3.1 Soil Solution Phosphorus
  • 7.3.2 Adsorbed Phosphorus
  • 7.4 Precipitated Phosphorus
  • 7 .4.1 Calcareous Soils
  • 7.4.2 Mildly Acid Soils
  • 7.4.3 Strongly Acid Soils
  • 7.5 Biologically Incorporated Phosphorus
  • 7.6 Soil Organic Phosphorus
  • 7.7 Phosphorus Uptake by Plants
  • 7.8 Basis of Phosphorus Fertilizer Recommendations
  • 7.9 Recommendations for Phosphorus Fertilization of Crops
  • 7.10 Environmental Concerns of Soils High in Phosphorus
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Potassium
  • 8.1 The Soil Potassium Cycle
  • 8.2 Mineral Weathering Release of Potassium
  • 8.2.1 Potassium Minerals
  • 8.2.2 Feldspar Weathering and Potassium Release
  • 8.2.3 Mica Weathering and Potassium Release
  • 8.2.4 Weathering Rates and Relative Availability
  • 8.2.5 Weathering of Sedimentary Mica
  • 8.3 Potassium Fixation
  • 8.3.1 Wedge-Zone Fixation.
  • 8.3.2 Expanded Interlayer Space Fixation
  • 8.3.3 Significance of Potassium Fixation
  • 8.3.4 Summary Statement
  • 8.4 Leaching Loss
  • 8.5 Plant and Soil Potassium Relationships
  • 8.5.1 Uptake and Role in Plants
  • 8.5.2 Potassium Uptake from Soils.
  • 8.5.3 Luxury Consumption
  • 8.6 Potassium Buffer Capacity
  • 8.6.1 Quantity and Intensity Relationships
  • 8.7 Factors Affecting Uptake of Potassium
  • 8.7.1 Soil Moisture
  • 8.7.2 Cation Exchange Capacity.
  • 8.7.3 Exchangeable Cation Suite
  • 8.7.4 Soil pH Influences
  • 8.7.5 Soil Aeration
  • 8.7.6 Plant Differences
  • 8.7.7 Topsoil versus Subsoil Potassium
  • 8.8 Basis of Potassium Fertilizer Recommendations
  • 8.9 Replacement of Potassium by Sodium
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, and Chlorine
  • 9.1 Calcium
  • 9.1.1 Forms in Soils
  • 9.1.2 Plant Uptake
  • 9.1.3 Causes of Calcium Deficiency
  • 9.2 Magnesium
  • 9.2.1 Forms in Soils
  • 9.2.2 Plant Uptake
  • 9.2.3 Causes of Magnesium Deficiency
  • 9.3 Sulfur
  • 9.3.1 Sulfur Content of Crops and Atmospheric Deposition
  • 9.3.2 Sulfur Cycles
  • 9.3.3 Plant Responses to Sulfur
  • 9.3.4 Diagnosing Sulfur Deficiencies
  • 9.3.5 Correcting Sulfur Deficiencies
  • 9.4 Chlorine
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Micronutrients
  • 10.1 Classification of Micronutrients and Trace Elements
  • 10.1.1 Essential Micronutrients
  • 10.2 Copper and Zinc
  • 10.2.1 Copper
  • 10.2.2 Zinc
  • 10.3 Manganese and Iron
  • 10.3.1 Manganese
  • 10.3.2 Iron
  • 10.4 Boron and Molybdenum
  • 10.4.1 Boron
  • 10.4.2 Molybdenum
  • 10.5 Trace Elements that May Be Toxic
  • 10.6 Methods of Evaluating Soil Fertility for Micronutrients
  • 10.6.1 Soil Testing for Micronutrients
  • 10.6.2 Tissue Testing for Micronutrients
  • 10.7 Micronutrient Deficiency Symptoms
  • 10.7.1 Zinc
  • 10.7.2 Molybdenum
  • 10.7.3 Manganese
  • 10.7.4 Copper
  • 10.7.5 Boron
  • 10.7.6 Iron
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers
  • 11.1 Nitrogen Fertilizers
  • 11.1.1 The Major Nitrogen Carriers
  • 11.1.2 Anhydrous Ammonia
  • 11.1.3 Urea
  • 11.1.4 Ammonium Nitrate
  • 11.1.5 Nitrogen Solutions
  • 11.1.6 Controlled Release Fertilizers
  • 11.1.7 Other Nitrogen Fertilizers
  • 11.1.8 Nitrogen Carrier Comparisons
  • 11.1.9 Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers
  • 11.2 Phosphorus Fertilizers
  • 11.2.1 Superphosphates
  • 11.2.2 Phosphoric Acid Production
  • 11.2.3 Ammonium Phosphates
  • 11.3 Use of Phosphorus Fertilizers
  • 11.3.1 Use of Rock Phosphate
  • 11.3.2 Use of Superphosphates
  • 11.4 Fate of Applied Fertilizer Phosphorus
  • 11.4.1 Initial Reactions of Soluble Fertilizer Phosphorus
  • 11.4.2 Residual Soil Phosphorus
  • 11.4.3 Effect of No-Till on Soil Phosphorus
  • 11.5 Potassium Fertilizers
  • 11.5.1 Potassium Ore Deposits
  • 11.5.2 Fractional Crystallization Method
  • 11.5.3 Froth Flotation Method
  • 11.5.4 Heavy-Media Separation
  • 11.5.5 Sizing and Granulation
  • 11.5.6 Other Processes and Materials
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Mixed Fertilizers
  • 12.1 Major Fertilizer Systems
  • 12.2 Granular Fertilizers
  • 12.2.1 Melt Granulation
  • 12.2.2 Caking and Dustiness
  • 12.3 Bulk-Blended Fertilizers
  • 12.3.1 Chemical Incompatibility of Intermediates
  • 12.3.2 Segregation
  • 12.4 Fluid Fertilizers
  • 12.4.1 Liquid Fertilizers
  • 12.4.2 Suspension Fertilizers.
  • 12.5 Addition and Incorporation of Micronutrients
  • 12.5.1 Addition to Granular Fertilizers
  • 12.5.2 Addition to Fluid Fertilizers
  • 12.6 Salt Index
  • 12.7 Fertilizer and Pesticide Combinations.
  • 12.7.1 Herbicide and Fertilizer Combination
  • 12.7.2 Insecticide and Fertilizer Combination
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Soil Fertility Evaluation
  • 13.1 Plant-Deficiency Symptoms.
  • 13.2 Soil Tests
  • 13.2.1 Soil Sampling
  • 13.2.2 Types of Tests
  • 13.2.3 Soil Test Correlation
  • 13.2.4 Calibration of Soil Test with Yield Responses
  • 13.2.5 Subsoil Testing
  • 13.3 Plant Analysis
  • 13.3.1 Plant Composition and Yield
  • 13.3.2 Crop Logging
  • 13.3.3 Rapid Plant Tissue Tests
  • 13.3.4 Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Application and Use of Fertilizers
  • 14.1 Fertilizer Application Practices
  • 14.1.1 Injection of Anhydrous Ammonia
  • 14.1.2 Band Application
  • 14.1.3 Broadcast Application
  • 14.1.4 Combining Broadcast Application with Tillage Operations
  • 14.1.5 Application in No-Till Systems
  • 14.1.6 Fertigation
  • 14.1.7 Foliar Application
  • 14.1.8 Deep Soil Placement
  • 14.2 Fertilizer Recommendation Philosophies
  • 14.2.1 Maintenance Fertilizer Recommendations
  • 14.2.2 Nutrient Sufficiency Recommendations
  • 14.2.3 Basic Cation Saturation Ratio
  • 14.2.4 Summary Statement
  • 14.3 Fertilizer and Plant-Water Relations
  • 14.3.1 Water-Use Efficiency
  • 14.3.2 Effect of Water on Nutrient Availability
  • 13.2.3 Soil Test Correlation
  • 14.4 Economics of Fertilizer Use
  • 14.4.1 Profit Maximization from Fertilizer Use
  • 14.5 Environmental Concerns
  • 14.5.1 Nitrogen
  • 14.5.2 The Pre-Sidedress Nitrate Nitrogen Test
  • 14.5.3 Phosphorus
  • 14.6 Site-Specific Fertilizer Application
  • References
  • Index

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