Biodesulfurization in Petroleum Refining

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 14. September 2018
  • |
  • 1200 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-22408-2 (ISBN)
 

Petroleum refining and process engineering is constantly changing. No new refineries are being built, but companies all over the world are still expanding or re-purposing huge percentages of their refineries every year, year after year. Rather than building entirely new plants, companies are spending billions of dollars in the research and development of new processes that can save time and money by being more efficient and environmentally safer. Biodesulfurization is one of those processes, and nowhere else it is covered more thoroughly or with more up-to-date research of the new advances than in this new volume from Wiley-Scrivener.

Crude oil consists of hydrocarbons, along with other minerals and trace elements. Sulfur is the most abundant element after carbon and hydrogen, then comes after it nitrogen, and they usually concentrated in the higher boiling fractions of the crude oil. The presence of sulfur compounds causes the corrosion of refining facilities and catalysts poisoning. Moreover, the presence of nitrogen-compounds directly impacts the refining processes via; poisoning the cracking catalysts and inhibiting the hydrodesulfurization catalysts. In addition, both have bad impacts on the environment, throughout the sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions. Removing this sulfur and nitrogen from the refining process protects equipment and the environment and creates a more efficient and cost-effective process.

Besides the obvious benefits to biodesulfurization, there are new regulations in place within the industry with which companies will, over the next decade or longer, spend literally tens, if not hundreds, of billions of dollars to comply. Whether for the veteran engineer needing to update his or her library, the beginning engineer just learning about biodesulfurization, or even the student in a chemical engineering class, this outstanding new volume is a must-have. Especially it covers also the bioupgrading of crude oil and its fractions, biodenitrogenation technology and application of nanotechnology on both bio-desulfurization and denitrogenation technologies.

Nour Shafik El-Gendy, PhD, is a Professor of Petroleum and Environmental Biotechnology, vice head for the Department of Process Design & Development and former head manager of the Petroleum Biotechnology Lab at the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI). She is an editor, reviewer, and contributor to many scientific journals, including the Journal of Sustainable Energy Engineering, from Scrivener Publishing. She has numerous awards, papers, and presentations to her credit, including being the author or co-author of several books. She is vice coordinator of the Scientific Research Committee, National Council for Women (NCW) of Egypt and member in the Egyptian Young Academy of Sciences (EYAS). El-Gendy is an expert in the field of environmental pollution, wastewater treatment, biofuel, petroleum upgrading, green chemistry, nanobiotechnology, recycling of wastes and biocorrosion. She has extensive research, teaching, and lecturing experience.

Hussein Mohamed Nabil Nassar, PhD, is a researcher at the Petroleum Biotechnology Laboratory at the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI). He has been the author or co-author of many scholarly papers and has extensive research experience in the field of bioremediation, biofuels, green chemistry, wastewater treatment, petroleum bioupgrading and nanobiotechnology.

1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 8,19 MB
978-1-119-22408-2 (9781119224082)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Nour Shafik El-Gendy, PhD, is a Professor of Petroleum and Environmental Biotechnology, vice head for the Department of Process Design & Development and former head manager of the Petroleum Biotechnology Lab at the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI). She is an editor, reviewer, and contributor to many scientific journals, including the Journal of Sustainable Energy Engineering, from Scrivener Publishing. She has numerous awards, papers, and presentations to her credit, including being the author or co-author of several books. She is vice coordinator of the Scientific Research Committee, National Council for Women (NCW) of Egypt and member in the Egyptian Young Academy of Sciences (EYAS). El-Gendy is an expert in the field of environmental pollution, wastewater treatment, biofuel, petroleum upgrading, green chemistry, nanobiotechnology, recycling of wastes and biocorrosion. She has extensive research, teaching, and lecturing experience.

Hussein Mohamed Nabil Nassar, PhD, is a researcher at the Petroleum Biotechnology Laboratory at the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI). He has been the author or co-author of many scholarly papers and has extensive research experience in the field of bioremediation, biofuels, green chemistry, wastewater treatment, petroleum bioupgrading and nanobiotechnology.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • 1 Background
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 1.1 Petroleum
  • 1.2 Petroleum Composition
  • 1.2.1 Petroleum Hydrocarbons
  • 1.2.2 Petroleum Non-Hydrocarbons
  • 1.2.2.1 Problems Generated by Asphaltenes
  • 1.3 Sulfur Compounds
  • 1.4 Sulfur in Petroleum Major Refinery Products
  • 1.4.1 Gasoline
  • 1.4.2 Kerosene
  • 1.4.3 Jet Fuel
  • 1.4.4 Diesel Fuel
  • 1.4.5 Heating/Fuel Oils
  • 1.4.6 Bunker Oil
  • 1.5 Sulfur Problem
  • 1.6 Legislative Regulations of Sulfur Levels in Fuels
  • References
  • 2 Desulfurization Technologies
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Hydrodesulfurization
  • 2.3 Oxidative Desulfurization
  • 2.4 Selective Adsorption
  • 2.5 Biocatalytic Desulfurization
  • 2.5.1 Anaerobic Process
  • 2.5.2 Aerobic Process
  • References
  • 3 Biodesulfurization of Natural Gas
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Natural Gas Processing
  • 3.3 Desulfurization Processes
  • 3.3.1 Scavengers
  • 3.3.2 Adsorption
  • 3.3.3 Liquid Redox Processes
  • 3.3.4 Claus Plants
  • 3.3.4.1 Classic Claus Plant
  • 3.3.4.2 Split-Flow Claus Plant
  • 3.3.4.3 Oxygen Enrichment Claus Plant
  • 3.3.4.4 Claus Plant Tail Gas
  • 3.3.5 Absorption/Desorption Process
  • 3.3.6 Biodesulfurization
  • 3.3.6.1 Photoautotrophic Bacteria
  • 3.3.6.2 Heterotrophic Bacteria
  • 3.3.6.3 Chemotrophic Bacteria
  • 3.3.7 Other Approaches Concerning the Biodesulfurization of Natural Gas
  • References
  • 4 Microbial Denitrogenation of Petroleum and its Fractions
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Denitrogenation of Petroleum and its Fractions
  • 4.2.1 Hydrodenitrogenation
  • 4.2.2 Adsorptive Denitrogenation
  • 4.2.3 Extractive and Catalytic Oxidative Denitrogenation
  • 4.3 Microbial Attack of Nitrogen Polyaromatic Heterocyclic Compounds (NPAHs)
  • 4.4 Enhancing Biodegradation of NPAHs by Magnetic Nanoparticles
  • 4.5 Challenges and Opportunities for BDN in Petroleum Industries
  • References
  • 5 Bioadsorptive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 ADS by Agroindustrial-Wastes Activated Carbon
  • 5.3 ADS on Modified Activated Carbon
  • 5.4 ADS on Carbon Aerogels
  • 5.5 ADS on Activated Carbon Fibers
  • 5.6 ADS on Natural Clay and Zeolites
  • 5.7 ADS on New Adsorbents Prepared from Different Biowastes
  • References
  • 6 Microbial Attack of Organosulfur Compounds
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Biodegradation of Sulfur Compounds in the Environment
  • 6.3 Microbial Attack on Non-Heterocyclic Sulfur-Containing Hydrocarbons
  • 6.3.1 Alkyl and Aryl Sulfides
  • 6.3.2 Non - Aromatic Cyclic Sulfur - Containing Hydrocarbons
  • 6.4 Microbial Attack of Heterocyclic Sulfur - Hydrocarbons
  • 6.4.1 Thiophenes
  • 6.4.2 Benzothiophenes and Alkyl-Substituted Benzothiophenes
  • 6.4.3 Naphthothiophenes
  • 6.4.4 Dibenzothiophene and Alkyl-Substituted Dibenzothiophenes
  • 6.4.4.1 Aerobic Biodesulfurization of DBT
  • 6.4.4.2 Aerobic Biodesulfurization of Alkylated DBT
  • 6.4.4.3 Anaerobic Biodesulfurization of DBT
  • 6.5 Recent Elucidated DBT-BDS Pathways
  • References
  • 7 Enzymology and Genetics of Biodesulfurization Process
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Genetics of PASHs BDS Pathway
  • 7.2.1 Anaerobic BDS Pathway
  • 7.2.2 Aerobic BDS Pathway
  • 7.2.2.1 Kodama Pathway
  • 7.2.2.2 Complete Degradation Pathway
  • 7.2.2.3 4S-Pathway
  • 7.3 The Desulfurization dsz Genes
  • 7.4 Enzymes Involved in Specific Desulfurization of Thiophenic Compounds
  • 7.4.1 The Dsz Enzymes
  • 7.4.1.1 DszC Enzyme (DBT-Monooxygenase)
  • 7.4.1.2 DszA Enzyme (DBTO2-Monooxygenase)
  • 7.4.1.3 DszB Enzyme (HBPS- Desulfinase)
  • 7.4.1.4 DszD Enzyme (Flavin-Oxidoreductase Enzyme)
  • 7.5 Repression of dsz Genes
  • 7.6 Recombinant Biocatalysts for BDS
  • References
  • 8 Factors Affecting the Biodesulfurization Process
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Effect of Incubation Period
  • 8.3 Effect of Temperature and pH
  • 8.4 Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration
  • 8.5 Effect of Agitation Speed
  • 8.6 Effect of Initial Biomass Concentration
  • 8.7 Effect of Biocatalyst Age
  • 8.8 Effect of Mass Transfer
  • 8.9 Effect of Surfactant
  • 8.10 Effect of Initial Sulfur Concentration
  • 8.11 Effect of Type of S-Compounds
  • 8.12 Effect of Organic Solvent and Oil to Water Phase Ratio
  • 8.13 Effect of Medium Composition
  • 8.14 Effect of Growing and Resting Cells
  • 8.15 Inhibitory Effect of Byproducts
  • 8.16 Statistical Optimization
  • References
  • 9 Kinetics of Batch Biodesulfurization Process
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 General Background
  • 9.2.1 Phases of Microbial Growth
  • 9.2.1.1 The Lag Phase
  • 9.2.1.2 The Log Phase
  • 9.2.1.3 The Stationary Phase
  • 9.2.1.4 The Decline Phase
  • 9.2.2 Modeling of Population Growth as a Function of Incubation Time
  • 9.3 Microbial Growth Kinetics
  • 9.3.1 Exponential Growth Model
  • 9.3.2 Logistic Growth Model
  • 9.4 Some of the Classical Kinetic Models Applied in BDS-Studies
  • 9.5 Factors Affecting the Rate of Microbial Growth
  • 9.5.1 Effect of Temperature
  • 9.5.2 Effect of pH
  • 9.5.3 Effect of Oxygen
  • 9.6 Enzyme Kinetics
  • 9.6.1 Basic Enzyme Reactions
  • 9.6.2 Factors Affecting the Enzyme Activity
  • 9.6.2.1 Enzyme Concentration
  • 9.6.2.2 Substrate Concentration
  • 9.6.2.3 Effect of Inhibitors on Enzyme Activity
  • 9.6.2.4 Effect of Temperature
  • 9.6.2.5 Effect of pH
  • 9.7 Michaelis-Menten Equation
  • 9.7.1 Direct Integration Procedure
  • 9.7.2 Lineweaver-Burk Plot Method
  • 9.7.3 Eadie-Hofstee
  • 9.8 Kinetics of a Multi-Substrates System
  • 9.9 Traditional 4S-Pathway
  • 9.9.1 Formulation of a Kinetic Model for DBT Desulfurization According to 4S-Pathway
  • 9.10 Different Kinetic Studies on the Parameters Affecting the BDS Process
  • 9.11 Evaluation of the Tested Biocatalysts
  • 9.11.1 Kinetics of the Overall Biodesulfurization Reaction
  • 9.11.2 Maximum Percentage of Desulfurization (XBDS MAX %)
  • 9.11.3 Time for Maximum Biodesulfurization tBDSmax (min)
  • 9.11.4 Initial DBT Removal Rate RDBT O (ìmol/L/min)
  • 9.11.5 Maximum Productivity PBDS MAX (%/min)
  • 9.11.6 Specific Conversion Rate (SE %L/g/min)
  • References
  • 10 Enhancement of BDS Efficiency
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Isolation of Selective Biodesulfurizing Microorganisms with Broad Versatility on Different S-Compounds
  • 10.2.1 Anaerobic Biodesulfurizing Microorganisms
  • 10.2.2 Bacteria Capable of Aerobic Selective DBT-BDS
  • 10.2.3 Microorganisms with Selective BDS of Benzothiophene and Dibenzothiophene
  • 10.2.4 Microorganisms with Methoxylation Pathway
  • 10.2.5 Microorganisms with High Tolerance for Oil/Water Phase Ratio
  • 10.2.6 Thermotolerant Microorganisms with Selective BDS Capability
  • 10.2.7 BDS Using Yeast and Fungi
  • 10.3 Genetics and its Role in Improvement of BDS Process
  • 10.4 Overcoming the Repression Effects of Byproducts
  • 10.5 Enzymatic Oxidation of Organosulfur Compounds
  • 10.6 Enhancement of Biodesulfurization via Immobilization
  • 10.6.1 Types of Immobilization
  • 10.6.1.1 Adsorption
  • 10.6.1.2 Covalent Binding
  • 10.6.1.3 Encapsulation
  • 10.6.1.4 Entrapment
  • 10.7 Application of Nano-Technology in BDS Process
  • 10.8 Role of Analytical Techniques in BDS
  • 10.8.1 Gas Chromatography
  • 10.8.1.1 Determination of Sulfur Compounds by GC
  • 10.8.1.2 Assessment of Biodegradation
  • 10.8.2 Presumptive Screening for Desulfurization and Identification of BDS Pathway
  • 10.8.2.1 Gibb's Assay
  • 10.8.2.2 Phenol Assay
  • 10.8.3 More Advanced Screening for Desulfurization and Identification of BDS Pathway
  • 10.8.3.1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography
  • 10.8.3.2 X-ray Sulfur Meter and other Techniques for Determining Total Sulfur Content
  • References
  • 11 Biodesulfurization of Real Oil Feed
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil
  • 11.3 Biodesulfurization of Different Oil Distillates
  • 11.4 BDS of Crude Oil and its Distillates by Thermophilic Microorganisms
  • 11.5 Application of Yeast and Fungi in BDS of Real Oil Feed
  • 11.6 Biocatalytic Oxidation
  • 11.7 Anaerobic BDS of Real Oil Feed
  • 11.8 Deep Desulfurization of Fuel Streams by Integrating Microbial with Non-Microbial Methods
  • 11.8.1 BDS as a Complement to HDS
  • 11.8.2 BDS as a Complementary to ADS
  • 11.8.3 Coupling Non-Hydrodesulfurization with BDS
  • 11.8.4 Three Step BDS-ODS-RADS
  • 11.9 BDS of other Petroleum Products
  • References
  • 12 Challenges and Opportunities
  • List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 New Strains with Broad Versatility
  • 12.3 New Strains with Higher Hydrocarbon Tolerance
  • 12.4 Overcoming the Feedback Inhibition of the End-Products
  • 12.5 Biodesulfurization under Thermophilic Conditions
  • 12.6 Anaerobic Biodesulfurization
  • 12.7 Biocatalytic Oxidation
  • 12.8 Perspectives for Enhancing the Rate of BDS
  • 12.8.1 Application of Genetics in BDS
  • 12.8.2 Implementation of Resting Cells
  • 12.8.3 Microbial Consortium and BDS
  • 12.8.4 Surfactants and BDS
  • 12.8.5 Application of Nanotechnology in the BDS Process
  • 12.9 Production of Valuable Products
  • 12.10 Storage of Fuel and Sulfur
  • 12.11 Process Engineering Research
  • 12.12 BDS Process of Real Oil Feed
  • 12.13 BDS as a Complementary Technology
  • 12.14 Future Perspectives
  • 12.15 Techno-Economic Studies
  • 12.16 Economic Feasibility
  • 12.17 Fields of Developments
  • 12.18 BDS Now and Then
  • 12.19 Conclusion
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • EULA

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