Noise and the Brain

Experience Dependent Developmental and Adult Plasticity
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. September 2013
  • |
  • 392 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-391431-6 (ISBN)
 

In our industrialized world, we are surrounded by occupational, recreational, and environmental noise. Very loud noise damages the inner-ear receptors and results in hearing loss, subsequent problems with communication in the presence of background noise, and, potentially, social isolation. There is much less public knowledge about the noise exposure that produces only temporary hearing loss but that in the long term results in hearing problems due to the damage of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers. Early exposures of this kind, such as in neonatal intensive care units, manifest themselves at a later age, sometimes as hearing loss but more often as an auditory processing disorder. There is even less awareness about changes in the auditory brain caused by repetitive daily exposure to the same type of low-level occupational or musical sound. This low-level, but continuous, environmental noise exposure is well known to affect speech understanding, produce non-auditory problems ranging from annoyance and depression to hypertension, and to cause cognitive difficulties. Additionally, internal noise, such as tinnitus, has effects on the brain similar to low-level external noise.

Noise and the Brain discusses and provides a synthesis of hte underlying brain mechanisms as well as potential ways to prvent or alleviate these aberrant brain changes caused by noise exposure.


  • Authored by one of the preeminent leaders in the field of hearing research
  • Emphasizes direct and indirect changes in brain function as a result of noise exposure
  • Provides a comprehensive and evidence-based approach
  • Addresses both developmental and adult plasticity
  • Includes coverage of epidemiology, etiology, and genetics of hearing problems; effects of non-damaging sound on both the developing and adult brain; non-auditory effects of noise; noise and the aging brain; and more
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 28,84 MB
978-0-12-391431-6 (9780123914316)
0123914310 (0123914310)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Noise and the Brain
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Discovery of Noise as a Cause of Hearing Loss
  • 1.2 Experimental Studies in Animals and the Establishment of the Neural Substrates of Hearing
  • 1.2.1 Early Theories of Hearing
  • 1.2.2 Experimental Tests in Animals
  • 1.2.3 Wever and Bray and after
  • 1.3 Towards the Estimation of Exposure Levels not Causing Permanent Hearing Loss
  • 1.4 Towards Legal Limits of Occupational Noise Exposure Levels
  • 1.5 The Surging Manifestation of Recreational Noise
  • 1.6 The Emergence of Noise Annoyance
  • 1.7 Long-Term Exposure to Sound at Levels Well below the Legal Limits Causes Changes in the Central Auditory System
  • 1.8 The Need to Move beyond Threshold Audiometry as an Indicator of Safe Exposure Levels
  • 1.9 Prevention as the Best Solution
  • References
  • 2 Epidemiology, Etiology and Genetics of Hearing Problems
  • 2.1 Epidemiology and Etiology
  • 2.1.1 Epidemiology of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in the General Population
  • 2.1.2 Effects of Aging
  • 2.1.3 Smoking and Alcohol Consumption
  • 2.1.4 Music-Induced Hearing Impairment
  • 2.1.4.1 Active Musicians' Exposure in Orchestral Performances
  • 2.1.4.2 Passive Exposure at Concerts and Discos
  • 2.1.4.3 Personal Listening Devices
  • 2.1.5 Tinnitus
  • 2.2 Genetic Basis of NIHL
  • 2.2.1 What Goes Wrong in NIHL?
  • 2.2.2 Genetic Studies in Humans
  • 2.2.2.1 Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Impairment
  • 2.2.2.2 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • 2.2.3 Genetic Studies in Animals
  • 2.2.3.1 NIHL and ARHI
  • 2.2.3.2 Apoptosis
  • 2.2.4 Summary of NIHL Related Genes
  • 2.3 Summary
  • References
  • 3 Neural Substrates of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
  • 3.1 Structural Changes in the Auditory System Following Noise Trauma
  • 3.1.1 The Inner Ear
  • 3.1.2 The Central Nervous System
  • 3.2 Behavioral and Neural Changes
  • 3.2.1 Noise-Induced Temporary Threshold Shifts
  • 3.2.2 Noise-Induced Permanent Threshold Shifts
  • 3.2.2.1 Auditory Nerve
  • 3.2.2.2 Cochlear Nucleus
  • 3.2.2.3 Inferior Colliculus
  • 3.2.2.4 Auditory Cortex and Thalamus
  • 3.3 Molecular Changes
  • 3.3.1 Apoptosis in NIHL
  • 3.3.2 Immediate Early Genes
  • 3.3.3 Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
  • 3.3.3.1 GABA
  • 3.3.3.2 Acetylcholine
  • 3.3.3.3 Combined Changes in Neural Transmission
  • 3.4 Summary
  • References
  • 4 Effects of Nondamaging Sound on the Developing Brain
  • 4.1 Animal Studies
  • 4.1.1 Normal Cortical Development
  • 4.1.2 Development in Enhanced Acoustic Environments
  • 4.1.2.1 Auditory Cortex
  • 4.1.2.2 The Auditory Midbrain
  • 4.2 Human Studies
  • 4.2.1 Normal Human Auditory Development
  • 4.2.2 The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  • 4.2.3 Environmental Sound and the Fetus/Preterm Infant
  • 4.3 Effects of Noise on School-Age Children
  • 4.3.1 Auditory Maturation of School-Age Children
  • 4.3.2 Correlations between Structure, Physiology and Behavior
  • 4.3.3 Noise in the Classroom and at Home
  • 4.4 Music and Music Training
  • 4.5 Detection of Affected Brains
  • 4.6 Summary
  • References
  • 5 Effects of Deafness on the Young Brain
  • 5.1 Overview
  • 5.2 Newborn Hearing Screening
  • 5.3 Effects of Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • 5.3.1 Phenomenology of Neonatal Hearing Loss
  • 5.3.2 Mechanisms
  • 5.4 Conductive Hearing Loss
  • 5.5 Effects of Cochlear Implantation
  • 5.5.1 Animal Studies
  • 5.5.2 Findings in Humans with Cochlear Implants
  • 5.5.2.1 Cochlear Implant-Induced Communication Changes Following Deafness
  • 5.5.2.2 Neuroimaging in Cochlear Implant Patients
  • 5.5.3 Electrophysiology of Sound Deprivation
  • 5.6 Performance in Early and Late Implanted Children
  • 5.7 Summary
  • References
  • 6 Speech Understanding in Noise
  • 6.1 Effects of Noise and Reverberation on Speech Perception: Role of Age
  • 6.1.1 Understanding Speech in Noise
  • 6.1.2 Spectrally Distorted Speech
  • 6.1.2.1 Psychoacoustics in Adults
  • 6.1.2.2 Effects on Children
  • 6.1.3 Speech in Reverberation
  • 6.1.3.1 Acoustics
  • 6.1.3.2 Effects of Reverberation on Children
  • 6.2 Adult Hearing in Noise
  • 6.2.1 Effects of Hearing Loss
  • 6.2.2 College Classroom Conditions
  • 6.2.3 Conversational and Social Settings
  • 6.3 Aging and Speech Perception
  • 6.4 Electrophysiology and Imaging
  • 6.5 Summary
  • References
  • 7 Effects of "Nondamaging Sound" on the Adult Auditory Brain
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Auditory Plasticity in Human Adults
  • 7.2.1 Training and Attention
  • 7.2.2 Acclimatization to Hearing Aids
  • 7.3 Animal Studies of Adult Auditory Plasticity
  • 7.3.1 Behavioral Paradigms
  • 7.3.1.1 Nonassociative Learning
  • 7.3.1.2 Classical Conditioning
  • 7.3.1.3 Instrumental or Operant Conditioning
  • 7.3.2 Receptive Field and Tonotopic Map Plasticity in Auditory Cortex
  • 7.3.3 Environmental Enrichment
  • 7.4 Brain Changes Following Long-Term Exposure to "Safe" Noise Levels
  • 7.4.1 The First Demonstration of Adult Cortical Tonotopic Changes as a Result of Passive Sound Exposure
  • 7.4.2 Similar Effects for Lower Sound Levels and Shorter Exposure Durations
  • 7.4.3 Variation on a Theme
  • the Universality of Effects Produced by Different EAEs
  • 7.5 Putative Mechanisms and Implications for Clinical Audiology
  • 7.6 Summary
  • References
  • 8 Noise and the Aging Brain
  • 8.1 Causes of Aging
  • 8.2 Age-Related Hearing Impairment and Presbycusis
  • 8.2.1 Genetic Causes
  • 8.2.2 Environmental Risk Factors
  • 8.3 Animal Models for Age-Related Hearing Impairment
  • 8.3.1 Changes in Cochlea and Auditory Nerve
  • 8.3.1.1 Animal Studies
  • 8.3.1.2 Human Studies
  • 8.3.2 Changes in the Cochlear Nucleus
  • 8.3.3 Changes in the Inferior Colliculus
  • 8.3.4 Changes in the Auditory Cortex
  • 8.3.4.1 Animal Studies
  • 8.3.4.2 Human Studies
  • 8.4 Neural Transmitter and Receptor Changes with Age
  • 8.4.1 Glycine
  • 8.4.2 Glutamate
  • 8.4.3 GABA
  • 8.5 Genetics of Presbycusis
  • 8.6 Psychological Aspects
  • 8.6.1 Speech Perception
  • 8.6.2 Auditory Temporal Processing
  • 8.6.3 Cognitive Changes
  • 8.7 Comparison of ARHI with NIHL
  • 8.7.1 Structural Changes
  • 8.7.2 Physiological and Neural Changes
  • 8.7.3 Changes in Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
  • 8.7.4 Genetic Changes
  • 8.7.5 Interaction between Age and Noise Exposure
  • 8.8 Summary
  • References
  • 9 Music and the Brain
  • 9.1 The "Good" Aspects of Music
  • 9.1.1 Active Music Experience Enlarges Parts of the Brain
  • 9.1.2 Early Training or Genes?
  • 9.1.2.1 Electrophysiological Findings
  • 9.1.2.2 Structural Changes
  • 9.1.3 Nonauditory Benefits of Music
  • 9.2 Music and Language
  • 9.2.1 Comparing the Language and Music Networks of the Brain
  • 9.2.2 A Synthesis of Auditory Sentence and Music Processing Networks in the Brain
  • 9.3 The "Bad" Aspects of Music
  • 9.3.1 Recreational Music Exposure
  • 9.3.2 Exposure of Musicians and Other Music Professionals
  • 9.3.2.1 Classical Musicians
  • 9.3.2.2 Pop/Rock and Jazz Musicians
  • 9.3.2.3 Other Music Professionals
  • 9.4 Benefit of Music after All?
  • 9.5 Summary
  • References
  • 10 Nonauditory Effects of Noise
  • 10.1 Annoyance
  • 10.1.1 Transportation Noise
  • 10.1.2 Wind Turbines
  • 10.1.2.1 The Problem and the Annoyance
  • 10.1.2.2 Physiological Effects of Infrasound in Humans
  • 10.2 Stress
  • 10.2.1 Human Studies
  • 10.2.2 Animal Studies
  • 10.3 Sleep
  • 10.3.1 The Reticular Activating System and Sleep
  • 10.3.2 Influence of Noise on Sleep Stage Pattern
  • 10.3.3 Neuroendocrine and Hormonal Effects
  • Sleep and Stress
  • 10.3.4 Sleep Deprivation
  • 10.3.4.1 Behavioral
  • 10.3.4.2 Electrophysiology
  • 10.3.4.3 Neuroimaging Studies
  • 10.3.5 Neuromodulators and Sleep
  • 10.4 Cardiovascular Effects
  • 10.4.1 Autonomic Nervous System Effects
  • 10.4.2 The Role of Cortical Systems
  • 10.4.3 Cardiovascular Problems in Humans after Noise Exposure
  • 10.4.3.1 Discovering the Risk
  • 10.4.3.2 Epidemiology of the Risk
  • 10.5 What Causes the Nonauditory Effects of Noise?
  • 10.6 Summary
  • References
  • 11 Noise in the Brain
  • 11.1 Phantom Sounds
  • 11.2 Relationship to NIHL and ARHI
  • 11.3 Where in the Brain is Tinnitus?
  • 11.3.1 The Auditory System
  • 11.3.2 Tinnitus and Nonauditory Brain Regions
  • 11.4 Listening to Tinnitus
  • 11.4.1 Tinnitus Pitch
  • 11.4.2 Tinnitus Loudness
  • 11.4.3 Tinnitus Masking and Residual Inhibition
  • 11.5 Nonauditory Effects of Tinnitus
  • 11.5.1 Is Tinnitus a Form of Pain?
  • 11.5.2 Tinnitus as a Conscious Percept
  • 11.5.3 Annoyance and Stress
  • 11.5.4 Tinnitus and Sleep
  • 11.6 Similarities of Tinnitus and Environmental Sound Effects on the Brain
  • 11.7 Summary
  • References
  • 12 Protection Against Noise-Induced Brain Changes
  • 12.1 Drug-Based Protection
  • 12.1.1 Protective Mechanisms
  • 12.1.2 Antioxidants
  • 12.1.3 Preventing Glutamate Excitotoxicity
  • 12.1.4 Preventing Apoptosis
  • 12.2 Sound-Based Protection
  • 12.2.1 Sound Conditioning Pre-Trauma
  • 12.2.2 Sound Treatment Post-Trauma
  • 12.3 The Role of the Olivocochlear Bundle in Protection
  • 12.4 Short Duration Stress Protects
  • 12.5 Hormonal Factors
  • 12.6 Delaying Age-Related Hearing Loss
  • 12.7 Earlier Diagnosis to Reduce the Impact
  • 12.8 Hearing Protection Devices
  • 12.9 Changing the Attitudes about Noise
  • 12.10 Introducing New Legal Standards?
  • 12.11 Summary
  • References
  • Index

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