Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design

Wiley (Verlag)
  • 4. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 1. Februar 2016
  • |
  • 688 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-93617-7 (ISBN)
Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering.
Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.
4. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Chicester
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons
  • 51,04 MB
978-1-118-93617-7 (9781118936177)
1118936175 (1118936175)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Mr Terence Edwards, Engalco Research, UK
Terry Edwards gained a Diploma in Technology (Eng.) at what is now London South Bank University. During his early career he was a senior development engineer for Ultra Electronics. This carried the responsibility for the microminiaturisation of electronics on the control system for the Concorde jet engine. Technology has been a constant theme for his career and he moved into lecturing basic electrical engineering and electronics at High Wycombe College of Technology & Arts. He took on a landmark role of senior lecturer at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia that involved him launching and teaching solid state microwave technology. Until recently he was Executive Director of Engalco Research, a strategic commercial and military industrial consultancy and research organization. Engalco is well known for providing industry and market data reports in the field of microwave products for defense and SATCOM applications. From January 2014 Terry has been leading a new management and technology venture names Edwards Research Associates.
Professor Michael B Steer, North Carolina State University, USA
Michael Steer is the Lampe Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at North Carolina State University (NC State). He is a Fellow of the IEEE (the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). He was Secretary of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) in 1997 and was a member of the MTT-S Administrative Committee from 1998 to 2001, and from 2003 to 2006. He received a Service Recognition Awards from the Society in 1998 and 2001.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • List of Trademarks
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Design Using Microstrip and Planar Lines
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Origins of Microstrip
  • 1.3 RF and Microwave Modules
  • 1.4 Interconnections on RF and Microwave Integrated Circuits
  • 1.5 High-speed Digital Interconnections
  • 1.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Signal Transmission on Interconnects
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Transmission Lines and Interconnects
  • 2.3 Interconnects as Part of a Packaging Hierarchy
  • 2.4 The Physical Basis of Interconnects
  • 2.5 The Physics, a Guided Wave
  • 2.6 When an Interconnect Should be Treated as a Transmission Line
  • 2.7 The Concept of RF Transmission Lines
  • 2.8 Primary Transmission Line Constants
  • 2.9 Secondary Constants for Transmission Lines
  • 2.10 Transmission Line Impedances
  • 2.11 Reflection
  • 2.12 Multiple Conductors
  • 2.13 Return Currents
  • 2.14 Modeling of Interconnects
  • 2.15 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Microwave Network Analysis
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Two-port Networks
  • 3.3 Scattering Parameter Theory
  • 3.4 Signal-flow Graph Techniques and S Parameters
  • 3.5 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Transmission Line Theory
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Transmission Line Theory
  • 4.3 Chain (ABCD) Parameters for a Uniform Length of Loss-free Transmission Line
  • 4.4 Change in Reference Plane
  • 4.5 Working With a Complex Characteristic Impedance
  • 4.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Planar Interconnect Technologies
  • 5.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 5.2 Microwave Frequencies and Applications
  • 5.3 Transmission Line Structures
  • 5.4 Substrates for Planar Transmission Lines
  • 5.5 Thin-film Modules
  • 5.6 Thick-film Modules
  • 5.7 Monolithic Technology
  • 5.8 Printed Circuit Boards
  • 5.9 Multichip Modules
  • 5.10 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Microstrip Design at Low Frequencies
  • 6.1 The Microstrip Design Problem
  • 6.2 The Quasi-TEM Mode of Propagation
  • 6.3 Static-TEM Parameters
  • 6.4 Effective Permittivity and Characteristic Impedance of Microstrip
  • 6.5 Filling Factor
  • 6.6 Approximate Graphically Based Synthesis
  • 6.7 Formulas for Accurate Static-TEM Design Calculations
  • 6.8 Electromagnetic Analysis-based Techniques
  • 6.9 A Worked Example of Static-TEM Synthesis
  • 6.10 Microstrip on a Dielectrically Anisotropic Substrate
  • 6.11 Microstrip and Magnetic Materials
  • 6.12 Effects of Finite Strip Thickness, Metallic Enclosure, and Manufacturing Tolerances
  • 6.13 Pulse Propagation along Microstrip Lines
  • 6.14 Recommendations Relating to the Static-TEM Approaches
  • 6.15 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Microstrip at High Frequencies
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Frequency-dependent Effects
  • 7.3 Approximate Calculations Accounting for Dispersion
  • 7.4 Accurate Design Formulas
  • 7.5 Effects due to Ferrite and to Dielectrically Anisotropic Substrates
  • 7.6 Field Solutions
  • 7.7 Frequency Dependence of Microstrip Characteristic Impedance
  • 7.8 Multimoding and Limitations on Operating Frequency
  • 7.9 Design Recommendations
  • 7.10 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Loss and Power-dependent Effects in Microstrip
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Q Factor as a Measure of Loss
  • 8.3 Power Losses and Parasitic Effects
  • 8.4 Superconducting Microstrip Lines
  • 8.5 Power-handling Capabilities
  • 8.6 Passive Intermodulation Distortion
  • 8.7 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Discontinuities in Microstrip
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 The Main Discontinuities
  • 9.3 Bends in Microstrip
  • 9.4 Step Changes in Width (Impedance Step)
  • 9.5 The Narrow Transverse Slit
  • 9.6 Microstrip Junctions
  • 9.7 Recommendations for the Calculation of Discontinuities
  • 9.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Parallel-coupled Microstrip Lines
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Coupled Transmission Line Theory
  • 10.3 Formulas for Characteristic Impedance of Coupled Lines
  • 10.4 Semi-empirical Analysis Formulas as a Design Aid
  • 10.5 An Approximate Synthesis Technique
  • 10.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Applications of Parallel-coupled Microstrip Lines
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Directional Couplers
  • 11.3 Design Example: Design of a 10 dB Microstrip Coupler
  • 11.4 Frequency- and Length-Dependent Characteristics of Directional Couplers
  • 11.5 Special Coupler Designs with Improved Performance
  • 11.6 Thickness Effects, Power Losses, and Fabrication Tolerances
  • 11.7 Choice of Structure and Design Recommendations
  • 11.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Microstrip Passive Elements
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Lumped Elements
  • 12.3 Terminations and Attenuators
  • 12.4 Microstrip Stubs
  • 12.5 Hybrids and Couplers
  • 12.6 Power Combiners and Dividers
  • 12.7 Baluns
  • 12.8 Integrated Components
  • 12.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Stripline Design
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Symmetrical Stripline
  • 13.3 Asymmetrical Stripline
  • 13.4 Suspended Stripline
  • 13.5 Coupled Stripline
  • 13.6 Double-sided Stripline
  • 13.7 Discontinuities
  • 13.8 Design Recommendations
  • 13.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 14: CPW Design Fundamentals
  • 14.1 Introduction to Properties of Coplanar Waveguide
  • 14.2 Modeling CPWs
  • 14.3 Formulas for Accurate Calculations
  • 14.4 Loss Mechanisms
  • 14.5 Dispersion
  • 14.6 Discontinuities
  • 14.7 Circuit Elements
  • 14.8 Variants on the Basic CPW Structure
  • 14.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Slotline
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Basic Concept and Structure
  • 15.3 Operating Principles and Modes
  • 15.4 Propagation and Dispersion Characteristics
  • 15.5 Evaluation of Guide Wavelength and Characteristic Impedance
  • 15.6 Losses
  • 15.7 End-effects: Open Circuits and Short Circuits
  • 15.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Slotline Applications
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Comparators and Couplers
  • 16.3 Filter Applications
  • 16.4 Magic T
  • 16.5 The Marchand Balun
  • 16.6 Phase Shifters
  • 16.7 Isolators and Circulators
  • 16.8 A Double-sided, Balanced Microwave Circuit
  • 16.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Transitions
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Coaxial-to-microstrip Transitions
  • 17.3 Waveguide-to-microstrip Transitions
  • 17.4 Transitions between CPW and other Mediums
  • 17.5 Slotline Transitions
  • 17.6 Other Microstrip Transitions
  • 17.7 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Measurements of Planar Transmission Line Structures
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Instrumentation Systems for Microstrip Measurements
  • 18.3 Measurement of Scattering Parameters
  • 18.4 Measurement of Substrate Properties
  • 18.5 Microstrip Resonator Methods
  • 18.6 Q Factor Measurements
  • 18.7 Measurements of Parallel-coupled Microstrips
  • 18.8 Time-domain Reflectometry Techniques
  • 18.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Filters Using Planar Transmission Lines
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Filter Prototypes
  • 19.3 Microstrip Filters
  • 19.4 Microstrip Bandpass Filters
  • 19.5 Parallel-coupled Line Bandpass Filters
  • 19.6 Filter Design Accounting for Losses
  • 19.7 Dielectric Resonators and Filters Using Them
  • 19.8 Spurline Bandstop Filters
  • 19.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Magnetic Materials and Planar Transmission Lines
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Microwave Magnetic Materials
  • 20.3 Effective Permeability of Magnetic Materials
  • 20.4 Microstrip on a Ferrite Substrate
  • 20.5 Isolators and Circulators
  • 20.6 Transmission Lines Using Metaconductors
  • 20.7 Frequency Selective Limiter
  • 20.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Interconnects for Digital Systems
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Overview of On-chip Interconnects
  • 21.3 RC Modeling of On-chip Interconnects
  • 21.4 Modeling Inductance
  • 21.5 Clock Distribution
  • 21.6 Resonant Clock Distribution
  • 21.7 Summary
  • References
  • Appendix A: Physical and Mathematical Properties
  • A.1 SI Units
  • A.2 SI Prefixes
  • A.3 Physical and Mathematical Constants
  • A.4 Basis of Electromagnetic SI Units
  • A.5 Relationship of SI Units to CGS Units
  • Appendix B: Material Properties
  • References
  • Appendix C: RF and Microwave Substrates
  • C.1 Hard substrates
  • C.2 Soft Substrates
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Chapter 1
Introduction to Design Using Microstrip and Planar Lines

1.1 Introduction

The microstrip line is the most widely used interconnect at radio frequency (RF) and microwave frequencies. The microstrip line, shown in Figure 1.1, is the main member of a broad class of transmission lines that are built using printed circuit board technology. Here the microstrip line is typically created starting with a low loss dielectric slab or substrate that has a metal sheet bonded to both sides. The strip of the line is formed by patterning the top conductor and etching away the unwanted metal. Sometimes the metal pattern forming the strips is patterned by silk screening or by growing metal in the appropriate place. At RF, microwave and high-speed digital frequencies it is necessary to provide a return current path as well as the signal current path defined by the strip. At low frequencies, below a few tens of megahertz, it is also necessary to provide a signal return path but then it is less critical that the cross-sectional geometries be precisely established. The cross-sectional geometry, the width, , of the strip and the thickness, , of the substrate define the ratio of the voltage and current signals traveling along the microstrip line. This ratio is called the characteristic impedance of the line and it is critical for reliable signal transmission, that is, good signal integrity, that the cross-sectional geometry be the same along the line as then the characteristic impedance of the line is constant.

Figure 1.1 Microstrip transmission line.

When microwave engineers refer to microstrip design they are referring to the design of RF and microwave circuits using the major types of planar transmission line technologies. While simple in concept, it is a technology that needed to be invented. As well as conceptualizing a transmission line that can be realized by etching a planar metallic conductor on the printed circuit board, it is essential to provide the analytic tools that enable the propagation characteristics of the line to be calculated and enable structures such as couplers and filters to be synthesized using planar transmission lines.

1.2 Origins of Microstrip

The origins of microstrip trace back to the development, by Rumseyand Jamieson during the early 1940s, of a coaxial line with a flat center conductor forming a rectangular coaxial line [[1]]. At this time there were also concepts developed for a conductor between two metal slabs, most notably Hewlett Packard Company's slabline tuner. At the same time printed circuit boards were employed for low-frequency circuits. These came together in an understanding in 1949 by Barrett that the thick center conductor of the rectangular coaxial transmission line could be very thin with little effect on the properties of the line. This then meant that low-frequency printed circuit board techniques could be employed in microwave circuits and the transmission line system became known as stripline [[1, 2]]. The conceptual evolution of stripline is shown in Figure 1.2. The stripline configuration is developed by sandwiching a metallic strip between two metal-clad dielectric sheets. As initially envisioned, the strip could be stamped out or silk-screened using silver ink. Today it is most common to begin with a continuous metallic sheet bonded to one or both sides of a dielectric sheet. A pattern of an etch resistant material is then photolithographically defined on the sheet and the strip pattern appears after etching.

Figure 1.2 Evolution of the stripline transmission line: (a) coaxial line with a round center conductor; (b) square coaxial line with a square center conductor; (c) rectangular coaxial line with a flat center conductor; and (d) stripline.

While stripline has tremendous manufacturing advantages compared to the coaxial line, it is difficult to attach lumped components to it (it is after all buried) and to make circuit adjustments such as mechanically adjusting the patterned circuit. The next advance came with the development of microstrip by Grieg and Engelmann in 1952 as they removed one of stripline's ground planes [[3]]. This microstrip line has become the most important microwave transmission line and the basis for all printed microwave circuits, microwave monolithically integrated circuits (MMICs), and radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). Stripline, which can be extended to having multiple levels of strip, is mostly used where the interconnect density must be high, such as with integrated circuit packages and with high speed digital circuits.

Fundamentally the most important aspect of microwave circuits is the provision of a signal current path and a signal return current path on the ground planes in the case of stripline and microstrip. However at tens of megahertz and above the proper electrical design requires a precise ratio of the voltage and current waves on the lines. To design for this characteristic it is necessary to have analytic design formulas. Thus conceptualization of the planar transmission line structures is not sufficient, it is necessary to develop analytic formulas and design curves for the electrical properties of stripline and microstrip. It is not sufficient to rely on electromagnetic (EM) simulation as there is little physical insight provided. Many of the effects that are important and derive from such parameters as strip thickness and roughness cannot be modeled. Indeed many of the effects that impact the performance of microwave planar circuits, for example multimoding, cannot be predicted by EM simulation alone as the undesired effects usually will not show up when perfectly symmetrical geometries and uniform materials are considered. The essential electrical properties of a transmission line are its characteristic impedance, the ratio of the traveling voltage and current waves on the line, and its propagation coefficient which relates to the speed of propagation of the voltage and current waves on the lines. Knowing these is essential in using the lines in RF and microwave circuits. Among the first useful formulas for the electrical characteristics of stripline were those develop by Cohn in 1954 [[4]], and by Pease and Mingins in 1955 [[5]]. Grieg and Engelmann were the first to develop the formulas for the characteristic impedance of microstrip [[3]]. This situation is typical of all microwave and RF design developments: it is not enough to conceptualize a structure, it is necessary to develop the design formulas that enable the structure to be used in design.

Planar transmission line technology has developed considerably over the decades with considerable functionality, such as filtering, derived using patterned planar lines. Overwhelmingly the preference is to realize these functions and interconnections using planar technology and, if space and extremes of frequency operation are not of concern, preferably with microstrip that can be easily adjusted by the user. Once a microstrip design has been optimized, itcan be faithfully and cheaply reproduced using photographically defined geometries.

The value of printed microwave circuits was immediately recognized when stripline and microstrip were introduced. This resulted in significant investments in the development of ever more accurate design formulas as well as the development of circuit structures that enabled such functions as filtering and coupling to be realized in printed circuit technology. This book collects the most important developments and the ones that have emerged as providing the best design insight. Many other types of planar lines have been developed that have properties superior to those of microstrip and stripline in particular applications. All of the planar technologies that are currently used are considered in this book.

1.3 RF and Microwave Modules

The great majority of RF and microwave design engineers are employed in realizing microwave systems using RF and microwave modules. This includes the design of modules using smaller modules such as monolithically integrated circuits (ICs). Economics necessitate that RF integrated circuits be developed for multiple applications, and in RF and microwave module design ICs as well as discrete semiconductor devices are interconnected using planar transmission lines in printed microwave circuit technology. In this section a microwave module implementing a 15 GHz microwave receiver is considered with the aim of illustrating RF and microwave module design. This book considers the technology required to realize such printed microwave circuits.

Most RF and microwave systems convert information at one frequency to information at another frequency that can either be more conveniently processed, in the case of a receiver, or more conveniently radiated, in the case of a transmitter [[6, 7]]. Figure 1.3 is a 15 GHz receiver module which itself consists of interconnected modules. This unit is used in a point-to-point microwave link (a microwave fixed service) employed mostly in cellular systems to communicate between base stations. The subsystem modules such as the amplifiers, frequency multipliers, mixers, circulator, and waveguide adaptor are available as off-the-shelf components from companies that specialize in developing such modules and selling them to a large user base. Using modules enables high-performance systems to be realized cost effectively.

Figure 1.3 A 14.4-15.35 GHz receiver module itself consisting of cascaded modules interconnected by microstrip transmission lines. Surrounding the microwave circuit are DC conditioning and control...

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