Heinz, Master in Philosophy, Author of 30 International published books.
Co-publisher of bbc.koeln - yes.koeln - Journal.koeln -
Some trans women who feel that their gender transition is complete prefer to be called simply "women," considering "trans woman" or "male-to-female transsexual" to be terms that should only be used for people who are not fully transitioned. Likewise, many may not want to be seen as a "trans woman" owing to society's tendency to "Other" individuals who do not fit into the sex/gender binary, or have personal reasons beyond that not to wish to identify as transgender post-transition. For this reason, many see it as an important and appropriate distinction to include a space in the term, as in "trans woman", thus using "trans" as merely an adjective describing a particular type of woman; this is in contrast to the usage of "transwoman" as one word, implying a "third gender".
The stereotype of the effeminate boy who grows up to live as a woman has a very long history. It is a common misconception and stereotype that all transgender and transsexual women are heterosexual (attracted to males). However, research on the sexual orientation of trans women in the past has been dubious at best. Many studies on this issue have suffered from reporting bias, since many transsexual people feel they must give the "correct" answers to such questions to increase their chances of obtaining hormone replacement therapy. Patrick Califia, author of Sex Changes and Public Sex, has indicated that this group has a clear awareness of what answers to give to survey questions to be considered eligible for hormone replacement therapy and/or sex reassignment surgery:
"None of the gender scientists seem to realize that they, themselves, are responsible for creating a situation where transsexual people must describe a fixed set of symptoms and recite a history that has been edited in clearly prescribed ways to get a doctor's approval for what should be their inalienable right."
A survey of roughly 3000 trans women showed that only 23% of them identified as heterosexual, with 31% as bisexual, 29% as lesbian, 7% as asexual, 7% as queer and 2% as "other".
In a 2008 study, trans women had a higher incidence of decreased libido (34%) than cisgender females (23%), but the difference was not statistically significant and may have been due to chance. As in males, female libido is thought to correlate with serum testosterone levels (with some controversy ) but the 2008 study found no such correlation in trans women.
Trans women, like all gender variant people, face a vast amount of discrimination and transphobia. A survey of roughly 3000 trans women living in the United States, as summarized in the report "Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey", found that trans women reported that:
36% have lost their job due to their gender.
55% have been discriminated against whilst being hired.
29% have been denied a promotion.
25% have been refused medical care.
60% of the trans women that have visited a homeless shelter reported incidents of harassment there.
When displaying identity documents incongruent with their gender identity/expression, 33% have been harassed and 3% have been physically assaulted.
20% reported harassment by police, with 6% reporting physical assaulted and 3% reporting sexual assault by an officer. 25% have been treated generally with disrespect by police officers.
Among jailed trans women, 40% have been harassed by inmates and 38% have been harassed by staff. 21% have been physically assaulted and 20% sexually assaulted.
The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs' report of 2010 anti-LGBTQ violence found that of the 27 people who were murdered because of their LGBTQ identity, 44% were trans women.
Discrimination is particularly severe towards trans women of color, who experience the intersection of racism and transphobia. Multiracial, Latina, Black and American Indian trans women are twice to more than three times as likely as White trans women to be sexually assaulted in prison.
In her book Whipping Girl, Julia Serano refers to the unique discrimination trans women experience as 'transmisogyny'.
Notable trans women
Marja-Sisko Aalto, Finnish former Evangelical-Lutheran priest
Calpernia Addams, American actress, author, autobiographer, entrepreneur, activist, fiddle player
Aderet, Israeli pop singer
Allenina, Chinese-American model, actress, dancer, and director
Rebecca Allison, American cardiologist and past President of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA)
Nadia Almada, Portuguese-British Big Brother UK 2004 winner
Barbra Amesbury, Canadian singer-songwriter
Charlie Jane Anders, writer and co-editor of the blog io9
Enza Anderson, Canadian media personality and political activist
Erica Andrews aka Erica Salazar, Mexican-born American international and national beauty pageant title winner, drag performer, actor and entrepreneur
Anna Anthropy, American video-game designer and critic
Gwen Araujo, American teenage murder victim
Patricia Araujo, Brazilian actress and model
Alexis Arquette, American actress, musician, member of the Arquette family of actors
Nina Arsenault, Canadian writer, actress, columnist and sex-trade worker
April Ashley, British model
Estelle Asmodelle, Australian actress, author, dancer, and transgender activist
Mianne Bagger, Danish-Australian professional golfer
Jenny Bailey, British politician and mayor
Christine Beatty, American writer, musician and transgender activist
Georgina Beyer, New Zealand politician, first transgender person globally to become a mayor (1995) and a member of Parliament (1999)
Alexandra Billings, American actress
Maddie Blaustein, American voice actress
Alejandra Bogue, Mexican actress and TV host
Kate Bornstein, American activist, author, gender theorist, performance artist and playwright
Marci Bowers, American gynaecologist and sex-reassignment surgeon
Wendy Carlos, American composer and electronic musician
Candis Cayne, American actress and entertainer
Parinya Charoenphol, Thai muay thai boxer, actress and model
Jamie Clayton, American model and actress
Roberta Close, Brazilian model
Coccinelle, French actress, entertainer and transgender activist
Canary Conn, American musician and author
Raewyn Connell, Australian sociologist
Joanne Conte, American politician and activist
Lynn Conway, American computer scientist, electrical engineer and transgender activist
Caroline Cossey (a.k.a. Tula), English model
Jayne County, American rock singer
Roberta Cowell, First legally recognised male to female transgender person in the UK (1951), memoirist
Laverne Cox, American actress
Katelynn Cusanelli, cast member on MTV's The Real World: Brooklyn, and the first transgender individual to star on the show.
Michelle Duff, Canadian former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer
Michelle Dumaresq, Canadian downhill mountain bike racer
Lili Elbe, Danish artist, society figure and early recipient of sex reassignment surgery (1930)
Amanda Lepore, American model and performer.
Bülent Ersoy, Turkish singer of Ottoman classical music
Bibiana Fernández, Spanish presenter and actress
Ina Fried, American journalist and senior writer for CNET Networks
Chiya Fujino, Japanese fiction author
BB Gandanghari, a Filipina actress and commercial model
Francis García, Mexican performer and actress
Laura Jane Grace, lead singer and guitarist for punk rock band Against Me!
Anna Grodzka, Polish politician
Harisu, South Korean entertainer, actress, and singer
Choi Han-bit, South Korean model
Ai Haruna, Japanese singer and television personality
Lauren Harries, British media personality
Rebecca Heineman, One of the founders of Interplay and long time video game programmer.
Adela Hernandez, first transgender person elected to political office in Cuba
Jenny Hiloudaki, Greek model
Dana International, Israeli pop singer
Kim Coco Iwamoto, American politician
Juliet Jacques, British journalist
Andrea James, American filmmaker and activist
Aya Kamikawa, Japanese politician
Isis King, American designer and finalist on America's Next Top Model
Victoria Kolakowski, American lawyer and judge
Christine Jorgensen, first person to become widely known in the United States for having male-to-female sex reassignment surgery (1953), celebrity
Jennifer Leitham, American double-bass musician
Chen Lili, Chinese singer, model and actress
Alicia Liu, Taiwanese model and television personality
Deirdre McCloskey, American economist
Janet Mock, Hawaiian transgender activist and writer
Micheline Montreuil, Canadian lawyer, teacher, writer, radio host, trade unionist and politician
Jan Morris, British writer
Ataru Nakamura, Japanese singer
Judiel Nieva, Filipina alleged witness of a Marian apparition
Bell Nuntita, a Thai freelance singer, entertainer and radio D.J
Jessica Orsini, American politician
Kim Petras, German singer
Veronique Renard, Dutch author and Free-Tibet activist
Renée Richards, American tennis player
Miriam Rivera, reality television, Mexican television personality and model
Martine Rothblatt, American lawyer, technological theorist, author and entrepreneur
Joan Roughgarden, American biologist