Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Marsupials of the World

Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Marsupials of the World
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 10. September 2015
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  • 254 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-802712-7 (ISBN)
 

The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Marsupials of the World contains the most up-to-date information on the former order marsupial that is now partitioned by mammalogists into seven separate orders that contain 20 families, 86 genera, and 318 species that live on land or in trees in Oceania and the Americas.

Marsupials, like other vertebrate animals have many different kinds of parasites (e.g. viruses, protozoa, worms, arthropods, etc.), but there is no definitive text that covers any one of these groups found in all marsupials.

Coccidiosis is a serious global problem in most domesticated animals, and under increasing circumstances of loss of habitat and crowding, may also affect some wild animal populations, thus, there is a real need for their identification and control.


  • Offers line drawings and photomicrograph of each parasite from each hosts species, including methods of identification and treatment
  • Presents a complete historical rendition of all known publications on coccidia (and their closest relatives) from all marsupials species on Earth, and evaluates the scientific and scholarly merit of each
  • Provides a complete species analysis of the known biology of every coccidian described from marsupials
  • Reviews the most current taxonomy of marsupials and their phylogenetic relationships needed to help assess host-specificity and evaluate what little cross-transmission work is available


Dr. Duszynski, is Professor Emeritus Biology and past Chair of the Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico (UNM). He spent 33 years in academia, publishing numerous articles, monographs, and books, secured private, state and federal grants exceeding $8 million, and mentored > 25 masters and doctoral students and numerous undergraduates in his laboratory, before spending 8 years in administration. During his 41 year tenure at UNM, he taught many courses including parasitology, tropical biology and marine invertebrate biology, and took >1000 students to the neotropics (Belize, Jamaica, Mexico). Don has been a Visiting Research Associate Professor, Department of Physiology & Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, a Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, and Visiting Research Scholar, Kyoto University, Japan. Among the honors received are the Distinguished Service Award and the Clark P. Read Mentor Award from the American Society of Parasitologists (ASP), and the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Department of Biology, Colorado State University.
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 4,04 MB
978-0-12-802712-7 (9780128027127)
0128027126 (0128027126)
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  • Front Cover
  • THE BIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE COCCIDIA (APICOMPLEXA) OF MARSUPIALS OF THE WORLD
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface and Acknowledgments
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Review: Marsupials and Marsupial Evolution
  • WHAT ARE MARSUPIALS?
  • MARSUPIAL EVOLUTION
  • CREATING ZOONOSES
  • 3 - Order Didelphimorphia-Eimeriidae
  • ORDER DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL, 1872
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
  • FAMILY DIDELPHIDAE GRAY, 1821 (17 GENERA,?87 SPECIES)
  • SUBFAMILY CALUROMYINAE KIRSCH, 1977
  • GENUS CALUROMYS J.A. ALLEN, 1900 (3 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA CALUROMYDIS LAINSON?AND SHAW, 1989
  • EIMERIA HABERFELDI CARINI, 1937
  • GENUS DIDELPHIS L., 1758 (6 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA AURITANENSIS TEIXEIRA, RAUTA, ALBUQUERQUE, AND LOPES, 2007
  • EIMERIA DIDELPHIDIS CARINI, 1936 EMEND. PELLÉRDY, 1974
  • EIMERIA GAMBAI CARINI, 1938
  • EIMERIA INDIANENSIS JOSEPH, 1974
  • EIMERIA MARMOSOPOS HECKSCHER, WICKESBERG, DUSZYNSKI, AND GARDNER, 1999
  • ISOSPORA ARCTOPITHECI (RODHAIN, 1933)
  • GENUS MARMOSOPS MATSCHIE, 1916?(14 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA COCHABAMBENSIS HECKSCHER, WICKESBERG, DUSZYNSKI, AND GARDNER,?1999
  • EIMERIA MARMOSOPOS HECKSCHER, WICKESBERG, DUSZYNSKI, AND GARDNER, 1999
  • GENUS MICOUREUS LESSON, 1842 (6 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA MICOURI HECKSCHER, WICKESBERG, DUSZYNSKI, AND GARDNER, 1999
  • GENUS MONODELPHIS BURNETT, 1830?(18 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA COCHABAMBENSIS HECKSCHER, WICKESBERG, DUSZYNSKI, AND GARDNER,?1999
  • GENUS PHILANDER BRISSON, 1762 (4 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA PHILANDERI LAINSON AND SHAW,?1989
  • GENUS THYLAMYS GRAY, 1843 (10 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA COCHABAMBENSIS HECKSCHER, WICKESBERG, DUSZYNSKI, AND GARDNER,?1999
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 4 - Order Diprotodontia-Eimeriidae
  • ORDER DIPROTODONTIA OWEN, 1866
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
  • SUBORDER VOMBATIFORMES BURNETT, 1830?(2 FAMILIES, 3 GENERA, 4 SPECIES)
  • FAMILY VOMBATIDAE BURNETT, 1830?(2 GENERA, 3 SPECIES)
  • GENUS LASIORHINUS GRAY, 1863 (2 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA URSINI SUPPERER, 1957
  • EIMERIA WOMBATI (GILRUTH AND BULL, 1912) BARKER, MUNDAY, AND PRESIDENTE, 1979
  • GENUS VOMBATUS É. GEOFFROY, 1803?(MONOTYPIC)
  • EIMERIA ARUNDELI BARKER, MUNDAY, AND PRESIDENTE, 1979
  • SUBORDER PHALANGERIFORMES SZALAY, 1982?(6 FAMILIES, 20 GENERA, 63 SPECIES)
  • FAMILY PHALANGERIDAE THOMAS, 1888?(6 GENERA, 27 SPECIES)
  • SUBFAMILY PHALANGERINAE THOMAS, 1888
  • TRIBE TRICHOSURINI FLYNN, 1911
  • GENUS TRICHOSURUS LESSON, 1828?(5 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA TRICHOSURI O'CALLAGHAN AND O'DONOGHUE, 2001
  • SUPERFAMILY PETAUROIDEA BONAPARTE, 1838
  • FAMILY PETAURIDAE BONAPARTE, 1838?(3 GENERA, 11 SPECIES)
  • GENUS PETAURUS SHAW, 1791 (6 SPECIES)
  • SUBORDER MACROPODIFORMES AMEGHINO,?1889?(3 FAMILIES, 16 GENERA, 76 SPECIES)
  • FAMILY HYPSIPRYMNODONTIDAE COLLETT, 1877?(1 GENUS, 1 SPECIES)
  • GENUS HYPSIPRYMNODON RAMSAY, 1876 (MONOTYPIC)
  • EIMERIA HYPSIPRYMNODONTIS BARKER,?O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • EIMERIA KAIRIENSIS BARKER,?O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • EIMERIA SPEAREI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • EIMERIA SPRATTI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • EIMERIA TINAROOENSIS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • FAMILY POTOROIDAE GRAY, 1821 (4 GENERA,?10 SPECIES)
  • GENUS AEPYPRYMNUS GARROD, 1875?(MONOTYPIC)
  • EIMERIA AEPYPRYMNI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • GENUS BETTONGIA GRAY, 1837 (4 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA GAIMARDI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • GENUS POTOROUS DESMAREST, 1804?(4 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA MUNDAYI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • EIMERIA POTOROI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988A
  • FAMILY MACROPODIDAE GRAY, 1821?(11 GENERA, 65 SPECIES)
  • SUBFAMILY MACROPODINAE GRAY, 1821
  • GENUS DENDROLAGUS MÜLLER, 1840?(12 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA DENDROLAGI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • EIMERIA LUMHOLTZI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • GENUS LAGORCHESTES GOULD, 1841 (4 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA LAGORCHESTIS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • GENUS MACROPUS SHAW, 1790 (14 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA DESMARESTI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • EIMERIA FLINDERSI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • EIMERIA GUNGAHLINENSIS MYKYTOWYCZ, 1964
  • EIMERIA HESTERMANI MYKYTOWYCZ, 1964
  • EIMERIA MACROPODIS WENYON AND SCOTT, 1925
  • EIMERIA MARSUPIALIUM YAKIMOFF AND MATSCHOULSKY, 1936
  • EIMERIA MYKYTOWYCZI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • EIMERIA PARMA BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • EIMERIA PARRYI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • EIMERIA PRIONOTEMNI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • EIMERIA TOGANMAIENSIS MYKYTOWYCZ,?1964
  • EIMERIA WILCANNIENSIS MYKYTOWYCZ, 1964
  • EIMERIA YATHONGENSIS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1989
  • GENUS PETROGALE GRAY, 1837?(16 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA BOONDEROOENSIS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • EIMERIA GODMANI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • EIMERIA INORNATA BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • EIMERIA OCCIDENTALIS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • EIMERIA PETROGALE BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • EIMERIA SHARMANI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • EIMERIA XANTHOPUS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, BEVERIDGE, AND CLOSE, 1988C
  • GENUS SETONIX LESSON, 1842 (MONOTYPIC)
  • EIMERIA QUOKKA BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • EIMERIA SETONICIS BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • EIMERIA VOLCKERTZOONI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN,?AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • GENUS THYLOGALE GRAY, 1837 (7 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA OBENDORFI BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • EIMERIA RINGAROOMAENSIS BARKER,?O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • EIMERIA THYLOGALE BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • GENUS WALLABIA TROUESSART, 1905?(MONOTYPIC)
  • EIMERIA BICOLOR BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN, AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • EIMERIA WALLABIAE BARKER, O'CALLAGHAN AND BEVERIDGE, 1988B
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 5 - Order Peramelemorphia-Eimeriidae
  • ORDER PERAMELEMORPHIA AMEGHINO, 1889
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
  • FAMILY PERAMELIDAE GRAY, 1825 (6 GENERA, 18 SPECIES)
  • SUBFAMILY PERAMELINAE GRAY, 1825
  • GENUS ISOODON DESMAREST, 1817 (3 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA QUENDA BENNETT AND HOBBS, 2011
  • GENUS PERAMELES É. GEOFFROY, 1804?(4 SPECIES)
  • EIMERIA KANYANA BENNETT, WOOLFORD, O'HARA, NICHOLLS, WARREN, AND HOBBS, 2006
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • MARSUPIAL ORDERS WITHOUT EIMERIIDAE
  • 6 - Adeleidae in Marsupials
  • EUCOCCIDIORIDA: ADELEIDAE MESNIL, 1903
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
  • KLOSSIELLA IN MARSUPIALS
  • ORDER DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL, 1872
  • FAMILY DIDELPHIDAE GRAY, 1821?(17 GENERA, 87 SPECIES)
  • GENUS DIDELPHIS L., 1758 (6 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA TEJERAI SCORZA, TORREALBA,?AND DAGERT, 1957
  • GENUS MARMOSA GRAY, 1821?(9 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA TEJERAI SCORZA, TORREALBA,?AND DAGERT, 1957
  • ORDER DIPROTODONTIA OWEN, 1866
  • FAMILY MACROPODIDAE GRAY, 1821?(11 GENERA, 65 SPECIES)
  • GENUS LAGORCHESTES GOULD, 1841?(4 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA BEVERIDGEI BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARTLEY, 1985
  • GENUS MACROPUS SHAW, 1790?(14 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA CALLITRIS BARKER, MUNDAY, AND HARRIGAN, 1975
  • KLOSSIELLA RUFI BARKER, MUNDAY, AND HARTLEY, 1985
  • KLOSSIELLA RUFOGRISEI BARKER, MUNDAY, AND HARTLEY, 1985
  • GENUS THYLOGALE GRAY, 1837 (7 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA THYLOGALE BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARTLEY, 1985
  • GENUS WALLABIA TROUESSART,?1905 (MONOTYPIC)
  • KLOSSIELLA SERENDIPENSIS BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARRIGAN, 1975
  • FAMILY POTOROIDAE GRAY, 1821 (4 GENERA,?10 SPECIES)
  • GENUS BETTONGIA GRAY, 1837 (4 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA BETTONGIAE BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARTLEY, 1985
  • FAMILY PSEUDOCHEIRIDAE WINGE, 1893?(6 GENERA, 17 SPECIES)
  • GENUS PETAUROIDES THOMAS, 1888?(MONOTYPIC)
  • KLOSSIELLA SCHOINOBATIS BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARTLEY, 1985
  • GENUS PSEUDOCHEIRUS OGILBY,?1837 (MONOTYPIC)
  • KLOSSIELLA CONVOLUTOR BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARRIGAN, 1975
  • ORDER PERAMELEMORPHIA AMEGHINO, 1889
  • FAMILY PERAMELIDAE GRAY, 1825 (6 GENERA,?18 SPECIES)
  • GENUS ISOODON DESMAREST, 1817 (3 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA QUIMRENSIS BARKER, MUNDAY, AND HARRIGAN, 1975
  • GENUS PERAMELES GEOFFROY, 1804 (4 SPECIES)
  • KLOSSIELLA QUIMRENSIS BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARRIGAN, 1975
  • KLOSSIELLA QUIMRENSIS BARKER, MUNDAY,?AND HARRIGAN, 1975
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 7 - Sarcocystidae: Sarcocystinae (Sarcocystis) in Marsupials
  • EUCOCCIDIORIDA: EIMERIORINA: SARCOCYSTIDAE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SARCOCYSTINAE: SARCOCYSTIS IN MARSUPIALS
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
  • ORDER DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL, 1872
  • FAMILY DIDELPHIDAE GRAY, 1821 (17 GENERA, 87 SPECIES)
  • GENUS DIDELPHIS L., 1758 (6 SPECIES)
  • SARCOCYSTIS DIDELPHIDIS SCORZA, TORREALBA,?AND DAGERT, 1957
  • STILES, 1893
  • SARCOCYSTIS GARNHAMI MANDOUR, 1965
  • SARCOCYSTIS GREINERI CHEADLE, 2001
  • SARCOCYSTIS INGHAMI ELSHEIKHA, FITZGERALD, MANSFIELD, AND SAEED, 2003
  • SARCOCYSTIS LINDSAYI DUBEY, ROSENTHAL?AND SPEER, 2001G
  • SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA DUBEY, DAVIS,?SPEER, BOWMAN, DE LAHUNTA,?GRANSTROM, TOPPER, HAMIR, CUMMINGS,?AND SUTER, 1991A
  • AND LINDSAY, 1999
  • GENUS MARMOSA GRAY, 1821 (9 SPECIES)
  • SARCOCYSTIS MARMOSAE SHAW?AND LAINSON, 1969
  • GENUS PHILANDER BRISSON, 1762 (4 SPECIES)
  • SARCOCYSTIS GARNHAMI MANDOUR, 1965
  • ORDER DIPROTODONTIA OWEN, 1866
  • FAMILY MACROPODIDAE GRAY, 1821 (11 GENERA, 65 SPECIES)
  • GENUS PETROGALE GRAY, 1837 (16 SPECIES)
  • SARCOCYSTIS MUCOSA (BLANCHARD 1885A,B)?LABBÉ, 1889
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 8 - Sarcocystidae: Toxoplasmatinae (Besnoitia, Toxoplasma) in Marsupials
  • EUCOCCIDIORIDA: EIMERIORINA: SARCOCYSTIDAE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TOXOPLASMATINAE: BESNOITIA IN MARSUPIALS
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTION
  • ORDER DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL, 1872
  • FAMILY DIDELPHIDAE GRAY, 1821 (17 GENERA,?87 SPECIES)
  • GENUS DIDELPHIS L., 1758 (6 SPECIES)
  • BESNOITIA DARLINGI (BRUMPT, 1913) MANDOUR, 1965
  • TOXOPLASMATINAE: TOXOPLASMA IN MARSUPIALS
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTION
  • TOXOPLASMA GONDII (NICOLLE AND MANCEAUX, 1908) NICOLLE AND MANCEAUX, 1909
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 9 - Cryptosporidiidae: Cryptosporidium in Marsupials
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE: CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN?MARSUPIALS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN MARSUPIALS
  • SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
  • ORDER DIDELPHIMORPHIA GILL, 1872
  • FAMILY DIDELPHIDAE GRAY, 1821 (17 GENERA, 87 SPECIES)
  • GENUS DIDELPHIS L., 1758 (6 SPECIES)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM TYZZER, 1912
  • ORDER DIPROTODONTIA OWEN, 1866
  • SUBORDER MACROPODIFORMES AMEGHINO,?1889 (3 FAMILIES, 16 GENERA, 76 SPECIES)
  • FAMILY MACROPODIDAE GRAY, 1821 (11 GENERA, 65 SPECIES)
  • SUBFAMILY MACROPODINAE GRAY, 1821 (10 GENERA, 64 SPECIES)
  • GENUS MACROPUS SHAW, 1790 (14 SPECIES)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM FAYERI RYAN, POWER,?AND XIAO, 2008
  • THOMPSON, AND OLSON, 2002
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM MACROPODUM POWER?AND RYAN, 2008
  • AND SMITH,?2009
  • GENUS PETROGALE GRAY, 1837 (16 SPECIES)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM FAYERI RYAN, POWER,?AND XIAO, 2008
  • GENUS WALLABIA TROUESSART, 1905 (MONOTYPIC)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM MACROPODUM POWER?AND RYAN, 2008
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM TYZZER, 1912
  • SUBORDER VOMBATIFORMES BURNETT, 1830 (2 FAMILIES, 3 GENERA, 4 SPECIES)
  • FAMILY PHASCOLARCTIDAE OWEN, 1839 (1 GENUS, 1 SPECIES)
  • GENUS PHASCOLARCTOS DE BLAINVILLE,?1816 (MONOTYPIC)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM FAYERI RYAN, POWER,?AND XIAO, 2008
  • ORDER PERAMELEMORPHIA?AMEGHINO, 1889
  • FAMILY THYLACOMYIDAE BENSLEY, 1903 (1 GENUS, 2 SPECIES)
  • GENUS MACROTIS REID, 1837 (2 SPECIES)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM MURIS (TYZZER, 1907)?TYZZER, 1910
  • FAMILY PERAMELIDAE GRAY, 1825 (6 GENERA, 18 SPECIES)
  • SUBFAMILY PERAMELINAE GRAY, 1825 (2 GENERA, 7 SPECIES)
  • GENUS PERAMELES E. GEOFFROY, 1804 (4 SPECIES)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM FAYERI RYAN, POWER,?AND XIAO, 2008
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 10 - Species Inquirendae in Marsupials
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIES INQUIRENDAE (68+)
  • BESNOITIA SP. OF CONTI-DIAZ ET AL., 1970
  • BESNOITIA SP. OF STABLER AND WELCH, 1961
  • COCCIDIUM SP. OF JOHNSTON, 1910A
  • COCCIDIUM SP. OF JOHNSTON, 1910B
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM: BRUSHTAIL POSSUM?GENOTYPE I OF RYAN AND POWER, 2012
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM/HOMINIS-LIKE OF RYAN AND POWER, 2012
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP.: KANGAROO GENOTYPE I OF YANG ET AL., 2011
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. OF BARKER ET AL., 1978
  • (IN RYAN ET AL., 2008)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. OF O'DONOGHUE, 1985
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. OF O'DONOGHUE, UNPUB. OBSERV. (IN RYAN ET AL., 2008)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. OF PHILLIPS ET AL., UNPUB. OBSERV. (IN RYAN ET AL., 2008)
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. OF POWER ET AL., 2003
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. OF ZANETTE ET AL., 2008
  • EIMERIA KOGONI OF MYKYTOWYCZ, 1964
  • EIMERIA RUFUSI OF PRASAD, 1960
  • EIMERIA SP. OF BARKER ET AL., 1963
  • EIMERIA SP. OF BARKER ET AL., 1988B
  • EIMERIA SP. OF BARKER ET AL., 1988C
  • EIMERIA SP. OF MACKERRAS, 1958
  • AND MUNDAY, 1990
  • EIMERIA SP. OF O'CALLAGHAN AND MOORE,?1986
  • EIMERIA SP. OF O'DONOGHUE, 1997
  • EIMERIA SP. OF O'DONOGHUE, 1997
  • EIMERIA SP. OF O'DONOGHUE AND ADLARD,?2000
  • EIMERIA SP. OF O'DONOGHUE AND ADLARD,?2000
  • EIMERIA SP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1984
  • EIMERIA SP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1984
  • EIMERIA SP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1989
  • EIMERIA SP. OF WINTER, 1959
  • EIMERIA SPP. 1 AND 2 OF BENNETT AND HOBBS, 2011
  • EIMERIA SPP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1984
  • "EIMERIINA" SP. OF YAMADA ET AL., 1981
  • ISOSPORA SP. OF ERNST ET AL., 1969
  • ISOSPORA SP. OF JOSEPH, 1974
  • AND SHAW, 1989
  • KLOSSIELLA SP. OF BARKER ET AL., 1975
  • KLOSSIELLA SP. OF MACKERRAS, 1958
  • KLOSSIELLA SP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1984
  • KLOSSIELLA SP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1984
  • "SARCOCYSTIDAE" SP. OF MERINO ET AL., 2008
  • "SARCOCYSTIDAE" SP. OF MERINO ET AL., 2009
  • "SARCOCYSTIDAE" SP. OF ZHU ET AL., 2009
  • SARCOCYSTIS BETTONGIAE BOURNE, 1934
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF CARINI, 1939
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF DUBEY ET AL., 2001B
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF DUSZYNSKI AND BOX, 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF MACKERRAS, 1958
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF MACKERRAS ET AL., 1953
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 1 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 2 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 3 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SPP.(?) 4 A AND B OF MUNDAY?ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. (SPP.?) 5 OF MUNDAY?ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 6 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 7 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 8 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 9 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. 10 OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP (SPP.?) 11 OF MUNDAY?ET AL., 1978
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF SENEVIRATNA ET AL., 1975
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF SCHOLTYSECK ET AL., 1982
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF SPEARE ET AL., 1989
  • SARCOCYSTIS SP. OF TRIFFITT, 1927
  • TOXOPLASMA SP. OF MUNDAY ET AL., 1978
  • TOXOPLASMA SPP. OF O'DONOGHUE?AND ADLARD, 2000
  • TYZZERIA SP. OF BARKER ET AL., 1988C
  • DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
  • 11 - Discussion, Summary, and Conclusions
  • ADELIIDAE
  • CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE
  • EIMERIIDAE
  • SARCOCYSTIDAE
  • SPECIES INQUIRENDAE
  • TYPE SPECIMENS
  • THE VALUE OF ARCHIVING TYPES
  • MOLECULAR TOOLS
  • REVISIONARY TRENDS
  • Biodiversity Vacuum
  • Discoveries to Date
  • FUTURE OF TAXONOMY OF APICOMPLEXANS
  • TABLE 11.1 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ALL APICOMPLEXAN PARASITES COVERED IN THIS BOOK AND THE MARSUPIAL HOSTS FROM WHICH THEY HAVE BEE...
  • TABLE 11.2 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ALL MARSUPIAL ORDERS, FAMILIES, GENERA, AND SPECIES COVERED IN THIS BOOK, AND THE APICOMPLEXA PA...
  • TABLE 11.3 A LIST OF ALL EIMERIA SPECIES COVERED IN CHAPTERS 3, 4, 5 OF THIS BOOK, TO DETERMINE IF THERE MAY BE ANY UNIFYING PAT...
  • References
  • Glossary and Abbreviations
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • V
  • W
  • Z
  • Back Cover
Chapter 1

Introduction


Abstract


This chapter presents a simple overview of the phylum Apicomplexa and its principal component taxa that are covered in the remaining chapters. Although most of this book deals with the morphology of the most readily available exogenous stage (sporulated oocyst) of these apicomplexan species, morphometrics alone are no longer sufficient to identify many coccidian species such as Cryptosporidium and Sarcocystis, which have very small oocysts and sporocysts, with insignificant structural characters to distinguish them. In addition to morphology, identifications now should be supplemented with detailed biological information (e.g., endogenous developmental stages, cross-transmission studies, etc.), and as much molecular data as can be incorporated from amplification of DNA, sequencing of gene fragments, and phylogenetic analysis of those sequences.

Keywords


Besnoitia; Coccidia; Cryptosporidium; Cystoisospora; Eimeria; Klossiella; Marsupials; Sarcocystis; Species; Systematics; Taxonomy; Toxoplasma   There have been a number of review articles, monographs, and books on the coccidian parasites of several vertebrate host groups that precede this one; they are listed in the Preface. Like the others, this book is intended to be the most comprehensive discourse, to date, describing the structural and biological knowledge on the coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa) that infect marsupials. The phylum Apicomplexa Levine, 1970, was created to provide a descriptive name that was better suited to the organisms contained within it than was the long-used Sporozoa Leuckart, 1879. The latter name became unsuitable and unwieldy, because it was a catch-all category for any protist that was not an amoeba, a ciliate, or a flagellate; thus, it contained many organisms that did not have "spores" in their life cycle, as well as many groups, such as the myxo- and microsporidians, that were not closely related to the more traditional sporozoans, such as malaria and intestinal coccidia. Two things about this phylum name bear mentioning. First, it was not possible to create the name for, and classify organisms in, the phylum until after the advent of the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The widespread use of the TEM in the 1950s and 1960s, examining the fine structure of "zoites" belonging to many different protists, revealed a suite of common, shared structures (e.g., polar ring, conoid, rhoptries, etc.) at one end (now termed anterior) of certain life stages; these structures, in whatever combination, were termed the apical complex. When parasitic protozoologists sought a more unifying and, hopefully, more phylogenetically relevant term, Dr Norman D. Levine, from the University of Illinois, came up with "Apicomplexa." Unfortunately-and this is only my opinion-the name is incorrect because it means, "complex bee," having the prefix, Api- (L), a bee. When Levine created the name he should have coined Apicalcomplexa, with the prefix Apical- (L), meaning "the top," or "at the top." No matter; the phylum Apicomplexa is almost universally recognized now as a valid taxon. Within the Apicomplexa, the class Conoidasida Levine, 1988 (organisms with all organelles of the apical complex present), has two principal lineages: the gregarines and the coccidia. Within the coccidia, the order Eucoccidiorida Léger and Duboscq, 1910, is characterized by organisms in which merogony, gamogony, and sporogony are sequential life cycle stages, and they are found in both invertebrates and vertebrates (Lee et al., 2000; Perkins et al., 2000). There are two suborders in the Eucoccidia: Adeleorina Léger, 1911 and Eimeriorina Léger, 1911. Species within the Eimeriorina differ in two biologically significant ways from those in the Adeleorina: (1) Their macro- and microgametocytes develop independently (i.e., without syzygy); and (2) their microgametocytes usually produce many microgametes versus the small number of microgametes produced by microgametocytes of adeleids (Upton, 2000). Coccidians from these two groups are commonly found in the marsupials that have been examined for them, and are represented by about 86 species that fit taxonomically into seven genera in four families. In the Adeleorina: Klossiellidae Smith and Johnson, 1902, 11 Klossiella species; and in the Eimeriorina: Cryptosporidiidae Léger, 1911, 6 Cryptosporidium species; Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903, 56 Eimeria and 1 Isospora species; Sarcocystidae Poche, 1913, 1 Besnoitia, 10 Sarcocystis species, and Toxoplasma gondii. The taxonomy and identification of coccidian parasites used to be a relatively simple affair based on studying the morphology of oocysts found in the feces. Morphology of sporulated oocysts is still a useful tool, as demonstrated in this book by most of the Eimeria and Isospora species now known from marsupials. My interest here is not just in taxonomy per se, but simply to derive as robust and reasonable a list of all apicomplexan species that occur naturally in marsupials, and use the gastrointestinal or urinary tracts to discharge their resistant propagules. However, morphology alone is no longer sufficient to identify many coccidian species, especially those in genera such as Cryptosporidium and Sarcocystis, which have species with oocysts and sporocysts, respectively, that are very small in size and have an insignificant suite of structural characters. In addition to morphology, identifications now should be supplemented with as much knowledge as can be gleaned from multiple data sets including, but not limited to, location of sporulation (endogenous vs exogenous), length of time needed for exogenous sporulation at a constant temperature, morphology and timing of some or all of the developmental stages in their endogenous cycle, length of prepatent and patent periods, host-specificity via cross-transmission experiments, observations on histological changes, and pathology due to asexual and sexual endogenous development, and others, to clarify the complex taxonomy of these parasites. Amplification of DNA, sequencing of gene fragments, and phylogenetic analysis of those sequences are now sometimes needed to correctly assign a parasite to a group, genus, or even species (e.g., see Merino et al., 2008, 2009, 2010). Thus, there seems a clear need to use molecular tools to ensure accurate species identifications in groups where it is needed most, if we are to truly understand the host-parasite associations of these species and genera. It needs to be kept in mind, however, that molecular data alone are insufficient for a species description and name, although their use as a valuable tool can help sort out many taxonomic problems. For example, molecular methods helped differentiate between the Isospora species with and without Stieda bodies; those with Stieda bodies share a phylogenetic origin with the eimeriid coccidia, while those without Stieda bodies may best be placed in the Cystoisospora (Carreno and Barta, 1999). Molecular techniques also have helped resurrect some genera (Modrý et al., 2001), and have allowed proper phylogenetic assignment when only endogenous developmental stages were known (Garner et al., 2006). Tenter et al. (2002) proposed that we need an improved classification system for parasitic protists, and that to build one we need to include molecular data to supplement morphological and biological information. Such combined data sets will enable phylogenetic inferences to be made, which in turn will result in a more stable taxonomy for the coccidia. We seem to slowly be moving in the right direction. As a quick overview, Chapter 2 presents some basic information about the physical characteristics of marsupials, and recent thoughts on how and when they evolved. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 cover the 56 Eimeria and 1 Isospora species in the Eimeriidae (Eimeriorina) that have been reported from the three marsupial orders (Didelphimorphia, Diprotodontia, and Peramelemorphia) in which they were found. In Chapter 6, I outline what we know about the 11 Klossiella species in the Klossiellidae (Adeleorina) known from marsupials. Along with the Eimeriidae, the other important apicomplexan family is the Sarcocystidae; it has two subfamilies, Sarcocystinae Poche, 1913 (Sarcocystis) and Toxoplasmatinae Biocca, 1957 (Besnoitia, Toxoplasma, others). These are covered separately in Chapters 7 and 8, respectively. Chapter 9 documents the six Cryptosporidium species known to date from marsupials. Chapter 10 entitled Species Inquirendae, details all of the apicomplexans that have been mentioned to occur in marsupials, but from which there is not enough clear documentation to label them "species" that really exist in nature. Chapter 11 offers a brief summary of the salient data and ideas presented in the previous chapters, and reiterates some of those topics/issues discussed in previous works, including an overview of where we stand now regarding examining vertebrate hosts for apicomplexans. The formal chapters are followed, in order, by three Tables (11.1. parasite-host; 11.2....

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