Lean Combustion

Technology and Control
 
 
Academic Press
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 1. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 280 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-800577-4 (ISBN)
 

Lean Combustion: Technology and Control, Second Edition outlines and explains the latest advances in lean combustion technology and systems. Combustion under sufficiently fuel-lean conditions can have the desirable attributes of high efficiency and low emissions. The book offers readers both the fundamentals and latest developments in how lean burn (broadly defined) can increase fuel economy and decrease emissions, while still achieving desired power output and performance. This volume brings together research and design of lean combustion systems across the technology spectrum in order to explore the state-of-the-art in lean combustion.

Readers will learn about advances in the understanding of ultra-lean fuel mixtures and how new types of burners and approaches to managing heat flow can reduce problems often found with lean combustion (such as slow, difficult ignition and frequent flame extinction).

This book offers abundant references and examples of real-world applications. New to this edition are significantly revised chapters on IC engines and stability/oscillations, and new case studies and examples. Written by a team of experts, this contributed reference book aims to teach its reader to maximize efficiency and minimize both economic and environmental costs.


  • Presents a comprehensive collection of lean burn technology across potential applications, allowing readers to compare and contrast similarities and differences
  • Provides an extensive update on IC engines including compression ignition (diesel), spark ignition, and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI)
  • Includes an extensive revision to the Stability/Oscillations chapter
  • Includes use of alternative fuels such as biogas and hydrogen for relevant technologies
  • Covers new developments in lean combustion using high levels of pre-heat and heat recirculating burners, as well as the active control of lean combustion instabilities
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 9,67 MB
978-0-12-800577-4 (9780128005774)
0128005777 (0128005777)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Lean Combustion
  • Dedication
  • Lean Combustion: Technology and Control
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • 1 - Introduction and Perspectives
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Brief Historical Perspective
  • 3. Defining Lean Combustion
  • 4. Regulatory Drivers for Lean Combustion Technology Development
  • 4.1 Mobile Sources
  • 4.2 Stationary Sources
  • 5. Lean Combustion Applications and Technologies
  • 6. Brief Highlights of the Chapters
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 2 - Fundamentals of Lean Combustion
  • 1. Combustion and Engine Performance
  • 2. Burning in Flames
  • 2.1 Laminar Flames and Flame Stretch Rate
  • 2.2 Flame Instabilities
  • 2.3 Turbulent Flames and Flame Quenching
  • 2.4 Turbulent Combustion Regimes and Turbulent Burning Velocity
  • 3. Autoignitive Burning
  • 3.1 Ignition Delay Time
  • 3.2 Autoignition Instabilities
  • 3.3 Autoignition in Engines
  • 3.4 Autoignitive Front Propagating Velocities and Detonation
  • 3.5 Engine Performance and the Detonation Peninsula
  • 4. Recirculation of Heat From Burning and Burned Gas
  • 5. Flame Stabilization
  • 6. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 3 - Highly Preheated Lean Combustion
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Moderate and Intense Low Oxygen Dilution Combustion
  • 3. Elementary Processes in MILD Combustion
  • 3.1 HBBI in Well-Stirred Reactors
  • 3.2 HCCI in Batch Reactors
  • 3.3 HCDI in Counterdiffusion Flow Reactor
  • 3.4 HDDI in Counterdiffusion Flow Reactor
  • 3.5 HFFI in Plug Flow Reactor
  • 4. Process and Applications of MILD Combustion in Gas Turbines
  • 4.1 MILD Combustion With External Control
  • 4.2 MILD Combustion With Internal Recirculation
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • 4 - Lean-Burn Internal Combustion Engines
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Fundamental Combustion Thermodynamics
  • 2.1 Ideal Engine Thermal Efficiency and Stoichiometry
  • 2.2 Combustion Pollutants
  • 2.2.1 Carbon Monoxide
  • 2.2.2 Unburned Hydrocarbons
  • 2.2.3 Oxides of Nitrogen
  • 3. Conventional and Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines
  • 3.1 Homogenous-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines
  • 3.1.1 Equivalence Ratio and Engine Emissions in HCSI engines
  • 3.1.2 Combustion Duration in HCSI Engines
  • 3.2 Stratified-Charge Engines
  • 3.3 Hydrogen in Spark-Ignited Engines
  • 3.3.1 Performance of Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon Engines
  • 4. Extending the Lean Limit of Spark-Ignited Engine Operation
  • 4.1 Extending the Lean Limit Through Increased Turbulence Generation
  • 4.1.1 Squish-Jet Combustion Chamber
  • 4.2 Extending the Lean Limit Through Partial Stratification
  • 4.3 Extending Lean Limit Using Microwave-Assisted Spark Ignition
  • 5. Conventional and Advanced Compression-Ignition Engines
  • 5.1 Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engines
  • 5.2 Homogenous-Charge Compression-Ignition Engines
  • 5.2.1 Controlling HCCI Engines
  • 5.2.2 Characterizing Fuel Performance in HCCI Engines
  • References
  • 5 - Lean Combustion in Gas Turbines
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Role of Combustion in the Gas Turbine
  • 1.1.1 Stationary Power
  • 1.1.2 Aviation Gas Turbines
  • 1.1.2.1 MAIN ENGINES
  • 1.1.2.2 AUXILIARY POWER
  • 1.2 Drivers and Evolution of Conditions for Combustors
  • 1.2.1 Stationary Power
  • 1.2.2 Aviation
  • 1.2.2.1 MAIN ENGINES
  • 1.2.2.2 AUXILIARY POWER
  • 2. Background
  • 2.1 Rationale for Lean Combustion in Gas Turbines
  • 2.1.1 Barriers for Lean Combustion in Gas Turbines
  • 2.1.2 Stability
  • 2.1.2.1 STATIC (LEAN BLOW-OFF)
  • 2.1.2.2 DYNAMIC (OSCILLATIONS)
  • 2.1.2.2.1 STATIONARY
  • 2.1.2.2.2 AVIATION
  • 2.1.3 Ignition/Autoignition
  • 2.1.3.1 STATIONARY
  • 2.1.3.2 AVIATION
  • 2.1.4 Flashback
  • 2.1.5 Fuel Flexibility
  • 2.1.5.1 STATIONARY
  • 2.1.5.2 AVIATION
  • 2.1.6 Turndown
  • 2.1.6.1 STATIONARY
  • 2.1.6.2 AVIATION
  • 3. Lean Gas Turbine Combustion Strategies: Status and Needs
  • 3.1 Stationary
  • 3.1.1 Homogeneous Strategies
  • 3.1.1.1 LEAN PREMIXED
  • 3.1.1.2 LEAN DIRECT INJECTION
  • 3.1.2 Heterogeneous Strategies
  • 3.1.2.1 CATALYTIC
  • 3.1.2.2 SURFACE STABILIZED
  • 3.1.2.3 GRADUAL OXIDATION
  • 3.1.3 Current Performance
  • 3.2 Aviation
  • 3.2.1 Lean Premixed Prevaporized
  • 3.2.2 Lean Direct Injection
  • 3.2.3 Heterogeneous
  • 3.2.4 Current Performance
  • 4. Summary
  • References
  • 6 - Lean Premixed Burners
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Principles of Natural Gas Variability
  • 3. Stabilization Methods
  • 3.1 High-Swirl Flame Stabilization for Industrial Burners
  • 3.2 Surface-Stabilized Lean Premixed Industrial Burner Concepts
  • 3.3 Low-Swirl Stabilization Concept
  • 3.3.1 Scaling of Low-Swirl Burner to Industrial Capacities
  • 3.3.2 Development of a Commercial Low-Swirl Burner
  • 3.3.3 Flowfield Characteristics, Turbulent Displacement Flame Speed, and Their Relevance to Low-Swirl Burner Performance
  • 4. Fuel Flexibility Considerations
  • 4.1 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Through Fuel Flexibility
  • 4.2 Combustion Properties of Biomass-Derived Syngas and Digester Gas
  • 4.3 Fuel Delivery and Controls for Fuel-Flexible Operation
  • 5. Summary
  • References
  • 7 - Combustion Instabilities in Lean Premixed Systems
  • 1. Overview and Motivation
  • 2. Combustion Instability Fundamentals
  • 3. Acoustics of Lean Combustion Systems
  • 3.1 Cylindrical Duct
  • 3.2 Cylindrical Annulus
  • 4. Coupling Mechanisms and Flame Oscillations
  • 4.1 Velocity Coupling
  • 4.2 Mixture Coupling
  • 4.3 Entropy Coupling
  • 5. Control Strategies
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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