Analytical Techniques in the Oil and Gas Industry for Environmental Monitoring

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. Juli 2020
  • |
  • 464 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-52333-8 (ISBN)
 
A thorough introduction to environmental monitoring in the oil and gas industry

Analytical Techniques in the Oil and Gas Industry for Environmental Monitoring examines the analytical side of the oil and gas industry as it also provides an overall introduction to the industry. You'll discover how oil and natural gas are sourced, refined, and processed. You can learn about what's produced from oil and natural gas, and why evaluating these sourced resources is important.

The book discusses the conventional analyses for oil and natural gas feeds, along with their limitations. It offers detailed descriptions of advanced analytical techniques that are commercially available, plus explanations of gas and oil industry equipment and instrumentation. You'll find technique descriptions supplemented with a list of references as well as with real-life application examples. With this book as a reference, you can prepare to apply specific analytical methods in your organization's lab environment. Analytical Techniques can also serve as your comprehensive resource on key techniques in the characterization of oil and gas samples, within both refinery and environmental contexts.
* Understand of the scope of oil and gas industry techniques available
* Consider the benefits and limitations of each available process
* Prepare for applying analytical techniques in your lab
* See real examples and a list of references for each technique
* Read descriptions of off-line analytics, as well as on-line and process applications
As a chemist, engineer, instructor, or student, this book will also expand your awareness of the role these techniques have in environmental monitoring and environmental impact assessments.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • |
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • 10,52 MB
978-1-119-52333-8 (9781119523338)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
MELISSA N. DUNKLE, PHD, is currently an Associate Research Scientist at Dow Benelux in The Netherlands. She focuses on R&D projects to advance analytical capabilities and improve the evaluation of natural gas feedstocks.

WILLIAM L. WINNIFORD, PHD, is currently a Fellow at The Dow Chemical Company in Freeport, Texas. His primary field of research is analytical separations, currently focused on comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Part I Scope
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.1 Petroleum Cycle
  • 1.1.2 Well-Known Cases of Environmental Contamination
  • 1.1.2.1 Oil-Drilling Rig Deepwater Horizon
  • 1.1.2.2 Sanchi Oil Tanker Collision
  • 1.1.3 Summary
  • 1.2 Petroleum
  • 1.3 Analytics
  • 1.4 Reservoir Tracers
  • 1.5 Emissions from the Petroleum Industry
  • 1.6 Environmental Analysis and Monitoring
  • 1.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Part II Introduction to the Petroleum Industry
  • Chapter 2 Petroleum: From Wells to Wheels
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Petroleum in the Ancient World
  • 2.3 The Petroleum System
  • 2.3.1 Source Rocks
  • 2.3.2 Generation of Petroleum
  • 2.3.3 Migration and Accumulation
  • 2.4 The Upstream
  • 2.4.1 Exploration
  • 2.4.1.1 Play and Prospect Evaluation
  • 2.4.1.2 Predicting Petroleum Quantity and Quality
  • 2.4.2 Drilling
  • 2.4.2.1 Development of Drilling Technology
  • 2.4.2.2 Modern Drilling Practices
  • 2.4.2.3 Well Logging
  • 2.4.2.4 Development
  • 2.4.3 Production
  • 2.4.3.1 Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Production
  • 2.4.3.2 Surface Oil Sands
  • 2.4.3.3 Unconventional Resources
  • 2.4.3.4 Plug and Abandonment
  • 2.5 Mid-Stream
  • 2.5.1 Transportation
  • 2.5.2 Storage
  • 2.6 Downstream
  • 2.6.1 Evolution of Modern Refining
  • 2.6.2 Modern Refinery Processes
  • 2.6.2.1 Crude Oil Pretreatment
  • 2.6.2.2 Separation
  • 2.6.2.3 Conversion
  • 2.6.2.4 Purification
  • 2.6.2.5 Sweetening and Treating
  • 2.6.3 Fuel Products
  • 2.6.3.1 Mogas (Motor Gasoline)
  • 2.6.3.2 Diesel
  • 2.6.3.3 Jet Fuels/Kerosene
  • 2.6.3.4 Fuel Oil
  • 2.6.3.5 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
  • 2.7 Petrochemicals
  • 2.7.1 Olefins: Prime and Higher Olefins
  • 2.7.2 Aromatics
  • 2.7.3 Lubes
  • 2.7.4 Other Products
  • 2.8 The Future of Petroleum
  • References
  • Part III Analytical Techniques Utilized in the Petroleum Industry
  • Chapter 3 Petroleum Analysis Through Conventional Analytical Techniques
  • 3.1 Introduction to Petroleum Analysis
  • 3.2 Brief History on Petroleum Analysis
  • 3.2.1 How Petroleum Analysis Influenced Developments in Gas Chromatography
  • 3.2.1.1 Detector Technology
  • 3.2.1.2 Column Technology
  • 3.3 Conventional Analysis of Petroleum
  • 3.3.1 Distillation
  • 3.3.2 PIONA Analyzer
  • 3.3.3 Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis
  • 3.3.4 GC-MS Analysis for Unknown and Biomarker Identification
  • 3.3.4.1 Diamondoids
  • 3.3.4.2 Naphthenic Acids
  • 3.3.4.3 Biomarkers
  • 3.3.5 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Their Environmental Impact
  • 3.3.6 Tar Analysis
  • 3.3.7 Analysis of Heteroatoms and Heavy Metals
  • 3.3.7.1 Heteroatoms
  • 3.3.7.2 Heavy Metals
  • 3.3.8 Additional Analytical Applications for Petroleum
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Advanced Analytics for the Evaluation of Oil, Natural Gas, and Shale Oil/Gas
  • 4.1 IRMS in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 4.1.1 IRMS: General
  • 4.1.1.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.1.2 Isotopic Fingerprint
  • 4.1.2 IRMS: The Technique
  • 4.1.2.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.2.2 Ionization
  • 4.1.2.3 Mass Analyzer
  • 4.1.2.4 Detection
  • 4.1.2.5 Referencing
  • 4.1.2.6 Bulk Analysis
  • 4.1.3 Compound Specific IRMS
  • 4.1.3.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.3.2 GC-IRMS
  • 4.1.3.3 LC-IRMS
  • 4.1.3.4 Two-Dimensional GC-IRMS
  • 4.1.4 IRMS Applications in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 4.1.4.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.4.2 Oil Fingerprinting
  • 4.1.4.3 Air Pollution
  • 4.1.4.4 Differentiating Oil Derived Products
  • 4.1.4.5 Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
  • 4.1.5 Conclusions Over Utilization of IRMS in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 4.2 Advanced Analytics for the Evaluation of Oil, Natural Gas, and Shale Oil/Gas: Comprehensive GC (GC?×?GC)
  • 4.2.1 Background
  • 4.2.2 Basic Principles of GC?×?GC: Instrumentation
  • 4.2.3 Basic Principles of GC?×?GC: Columns
  • 4.2.4 Basic Principles of GC?×?GC: Modulators
  • 4.2.5 Basic Principles of GC?×?GC: Detectors
  • 4.2.6 Basic Principles of GC?×?GC: Data Processing
  • 4.2.7 Petrochemical Applications: Group-Type Analysis
  • 4.2.8 Petrochemical Applications: Contaminated Soil and Sediments
  • 4.2.9 Petrochemical Applications: Marine Oil Spills
  • 4.2.10 Petrochemical Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing
  • 4.2.11 Conclusions of Utilizing GC?×?GC in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 4.3 Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Analysis by Gas Chromatography: Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
  • 4.3.1 Introduction to GC-VUV
  • 4.3.2 GC-VUV Data Processing
  • 4.3.2.1 Time Interval Deconvolution (TID) Algorithm
  • 4.3.2.2 Pseudo-absolute Quantitation
  • 4.3.3 GC-VUV Applications
  • 4.3.4 GC-VUV Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Liquid Chromatography: Applications for the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.1 Petroleum Industry
  • 5.1.2 Introduction to Liquid Chromatography
  • 5.2 Group-Type Separations
  • 5.2.1 Group-Type Separations of Heavy Distillates
  • 5.2.2 Other Group-Type Separations
  • 5.3 Molecular-Weight Distribution
  • 5.4 Target Analysis
  • 5.4.1 Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 5.4.2 Naphthenic Acids
  • 5.4.3 Phenols
  • 5.5 LC as a Pre-separation Technique for GC Analysis
  • 5.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Supercritical Fluids in Chromatography: Applications to the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Basics of SFC
  • 6.2.1 Packed Column SFC
  • 6.2.1.1 Implementation
  • 6.2.1.2 Applications of Packed Column SFC
  • 6.2.2 Capillary SFC
  • 6.3 Simulated Distillation (SIMDIST)
  • 6.3.1 Experimental
  • 6.3.2 Results
  • 6.4 Group-Type and Related Separations
  • 6.4.1 Heavy Samples
  • 6.4.2 Additives
  • 6.5 Detailed Separations
  • 6.5.1 Surfactant and Alkoxylate Polymer Analysis by SFC
  • 6.5.1.1 Open Tubular Columns
  • 6.5.1.2 Packed Capillary Column SFC of Surfactants
  • 6.5.2 Packed Column SFC of Surfactants
  • 6.5.2.1 Surfactants by Sub-2 &rmmu
  • m Particle Packed Column SFC
  • 6.5.2.2 Surfactant Characterization by SFC/MS: Software-Assisted Deconvolution of Co-polymers
  • 6.5.2.3 CO2 Cloud Point Pressures of Non-ionic Surfactants by Capillary and Packed Column SFC
  • 6.5.2.4 CO2/Water Partition Coefficients by SFC
  • 6.5.2.5 SFC of Ionic Surfactants
  • 6.5.3 Capillary SFC of Surfactants
  • 6.5.3.1 Large Volume Injection in Capillary SFC
  • 6.5.3.2 Splitless Injection in Capillary SFC
  • 6.5.4 Separations of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • 6.5.5 SFC in Multidimensional Separations
  • 6.5.5.1 LC?×?SFC
  • 6.5.5.2 Feasibility of SFC?×?SFC
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Online and In Situ Measurements for Environmental Applications in Oil and Gas
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Characteristics of On-line Analyzers
  • 7.2.1 Zone Classification
  • 7.2.2 Sampling Systems
  • 7.2.3 Detection
  • 7.3 Water Analysis
  • 7.3.1 General Water Analysis
  • 7.3.2 Application: Benzene in Drinking Water
  • 7.4 Air Quality and Emissions Monitoring
  • 7.4.1 Regulations
  • 7.4.1.1 US Air Monitoring
  • 7.4.1.2 European Union Air Monitoring
  • 7.4.2 Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry for Emission Monitoring
  • 7.5 Sample Conditioning
  • 7.6 Well Drilling and Production
  • 7.6.1 Well Logging
  • 7.6.2 Emissions
  • 7.7 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
  • 7.8 Fenceline Monitoring
  • 7.9 Pipeline and Fugitive Emission Monitoring with Drones
  • 7.10 Types of Continuous Emission Monitors
  • 7.10.1 Nondispersive IR (NDIR)
  • 7.10.2 UV and Dispersive IR
  • 7.10.3 Chemiluminescent NOx/SOx Analyzers
  • 7.10.4 TDL Analyzers
  • 7.10.5 QCL Analyzers
  • 7.11 Portable GCs
  • References
  • Part IV Special Cases and Examples Related to the Petroleum Industry
  • Chapter 8 Tracers for Oil and Gas Reservoirs
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Types of Tracers
  • 8.2.1 Radioactive Water Tracers
  • 8.2.2 Radioactive Gas Tracers
  • 8.2.3 Radioactive Measurement Techniques
  • 8.2.4 Example Studies of Radioactive Tracers
  • 8.2.5 Chemical Water Tracers
  • 8.2.6 Chemical Gas Tracers
  • 8.2.7 Naturally Occurring Tracers
  • 8.2.7.1 Isotopes
  • 8.2.7.2 Biomarkers
  • 8.3 Regulations
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Environmental Impact of Emissions Originating from the Petroleum Industry
  • 9.1 Global Warming
  • 9.1.1 Causes of Global Warming
  • 9.1.2 Combatting Global Warming
  • 9.2 Environmental Impact of Diesel Emissions
  • 9.2.1 Diesel Engine
  • 9.2.2 Diesel Exhaust
  • 9.2.3 Diesel Engine Modifications
  • 9.2.4 Diesel Fuel Modifications
  • 9.2.4.1 Low Sulfur Diesel
  • 9.2.4.2 Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel
  • 9.2.4.3 Biodiesel
  • 9.2.4.4 Modification of Diesel and Biodiesel with Oxygenates
  • 9.2.5 Sulfur Monitoring of Diesel Fuels
  • 9.2.6 Monitoring Air Pollution/Haze
  • 9.3 Environmental Impact of Fossil Fuel Sourcing and Energy Conversion on Global Warming
  • 9.3.1 Coal Mining, Natural Gas Wells, and Methane Release
  • 9.3.1.1 Coal Mine Methane
  • 9.3.1.2 Natural Gas Methane
  • 9.3.2 Fossil Fuel Power Stations
  • 9.3.2.1 Coal-Fired Power Station
  • 9.3.2.2 Gas-Fired Power Station
  • 9.3.3 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Stations
  • 9.3.3.1 Carbon Dioxide
  • 9.3.3.2 Sulfur Dioxide
  • 9.3.3.3 Nitrogen Oxides
  • 9.3.3.4 Particulate Matter (PM)
  • 9.3.3.5 Coal Ash and Heavy Metals
  • 9.3.4 Wastewater from Fossil Fuel Power Stations
  • 9.3.5 Analysis of Ground Water
  • References
  • Part V Environmental Analysis
  • Chapter 10 Environmental Analysis of Soil, Water, and Air
  • 10.1 Water and Soil Monitoring
  • 10.2 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil
  • 10.2.1 Introduction
  • 10.2.2 Soil as a Matrix
  • 10.2.3 Sample Preparation
  • 10.2.3.1 Collection and Preservation
  • 10.2.3.2 Extraction
  • 10.2.3.3 Concentration
  • 10.2.3.4 Cleanup
  • 10.2.4 Sample Analysis
  • 10.3 Volatile Organic Compound Analysis
  • 10.3.1 Introduction
  • 10.3.2 Methane Monitoring
  • 10.3.2.1 Cavity Ring-Down Laser Spectrometry Techniques
  • 10.3.2.2 Mobile Platforms for Bottom-Up Analyses
  • 10.3.2.3 Aircraft-Based Top-Down Analysis
  • 10.3.3 Non-Methane VOC Monitoring
  • 10.3.3.1 Air Sampling
  • 10.3.3.2 Analysis of Air Samples
  • 10.4 Water Analysis
  • 10.4.1 Introduction
  • 10.4.2 Sample Preparation
  • 10.4.3 Sample Analysis
  • 10.5 Portable GCs for Field Monitoring
  • 10.5.1 Introduction
  • 10.5.2 Analyzing Field Samples
  • 10.6 Fingerprinting in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • 10.6.1 Introduction
  • 10.6.2 Hydrocarbon Fingerprinting
  • 10.6.3 Additional Texts on Fingerprinting Oil Spills and Petroleum Products
  • References
  • Part VI Future Trends in the Petroleum Industry
  • Chapter 11 Future Trends
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Climate Change
  • 11.3 Likely Scenarios
  • 11.3.1 Gas Emissions
  • 11.3.2 Water Emissions
  • 11.3.3 Oil Sands
  • 11.3.4 Food Contact - MOSH/MOAH
  • 11.3.5 Industry 4.0 and the 4th Wave of Environmentalism
  • 11.4 Summary
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

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