Food Safety in the 21st Century

Public Health Perspective
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 28. September 2016
  • |
  • 624 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-801846-0 (ISBN)
 

Food Safety in the 21st Century: Public Health Perspective is an important reference for anyone currently working in the food industry or those entering the industry. It provides realistic, practical, and very usable information about key aspects of food safety, while also systematically approaching the matter of foodborne illness by addressing the intricacies of both prevention and control.

This book discusses ways to assess risk and to employ epidemiological methods to improve food safety. In addition, it also describes the regulatory context that shapes food safety activities at the local, national, and international levels and looks forward to the future of food safety.


  • Provides the latest research and developments in the field of food safety
  • Incorporates practical, real-life examples for risk reduction
  • Includes specific aspects of food safety and the risks associated with each sector of the food chain, from food production, to food processing and serving
  • Describes various ways in which epidemiologic principles are applied to meet the challenges of maintaining a safe food supply in India and how to reduce disease outbreaks
  • Presents practical examples of foodborne disease incidents and their root causes to highlight pitfalls in food safety management
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,23 MB
978-0-12-801846-0 (9780128018460)
0128018461 (0128018461)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Copyright page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • About the Editors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • A historical perspective
  • The current situation
  • Changing face of food safety in the 21st century
  • References
  • Section 1 - Epidemiological aspects of foodborne diseases
  • Chapter 1 - Foodborne diseases-disease burden
  • 1.1 - Introduction
  • 1.2 - Factors affecting burden of FBD
  • 1.3 - Foodborne zoonotic diseases
  • 1.4 - Noninfection-based FBD
  • 1.5 - Seasonal variation of FBD
  • 1.6 - Challenges in assessment of burden of FBD
  • 1.7 - Assessment of disease burden
  • 1.8 - WHO estimates of the global burden of FBD
  • 1.9 - WHO region-wise disease distribution
  • 1.10 - FBD in India
  • 1.11 - Public health impact of the burden
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Foodborne infectious diseases
  • 2.1 - Classification
  • 2.2 - Infectious diseases spread by food
  • 2.3 - Infections versus intoxication
  • 2.4 - Transmission
  • 2.5 - Food poisoning
  • 2.5.1 - Typical characteristics
  • 2.5.2 - Classification of food poisoning
  • 2.6 - Salmonellosis
  • 2.6.1 - Source
  • 2.6.2 - Cause of illness
  • 2.6.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.7 - Staphylococcal food poisoning
  • 2.7.1 - Source
  • 2.7.2 - Cause of illness
  • 2.7.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.8 - C. perfringens food poisoning
  • 2.8.1 - Source
  • 2.8.2 - Cause of illness
  • 2.8.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.9 - Botulism food poisoning
  • 2.9.1 - Source
  • 2.9.2 - Cause of illness
  • 2.9.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.10 - B. cereus food poisoning
  • 2.10.1 - Source
  • 2.10.2 - Cause of illness
  • 2.10.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.11 - E. coli food poisoning
  • 2.11.1 - Source
  • 2.11.2 - Cause of illness
  • 2.11.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.12 - Norovirus gastroenteritis
  • 2.12.1 - Source
  • 2.12.2 - Cause
  • 2.12.3 - Clinical features
  • 2.12.4 - Preventive measures for bacterial food poisoning at household level
  • 2.13 - Sanitation of some specific foods
  • 2.14 - Foodborne diseases of fungal origin
  • 2.15 - Aflatoxicosis
  • 2.15.1 - Ergotism
  • 2.15.2 - Fusarium
  • 2.16 - Foodborne diseases caused by toxic agents
  • 2.17 - Lathyrus toxin
  • 2.17.1 - Clinical features
  • 2.18 - Epidemic dropsy
  • 2.19 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - Outbreak investigation of foodborne illnesses
  • 3.1 - Introduction
  • 3.2 - Trigger events
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Surveillance of foodborne illnesses
  • 4.1 - Definition
  • 4.2 - Set objectives
  • 4.3 - Data collection and consolidation
  • 4.4 - Data analysis and interpretation
  • 4.5 - Evaluation
  • 4.6 - Dissemination
  • 4.7 - Integrated disease surveillance project
  • 4.8 - Surveillance systems in the United States of America
  • 4.8.1 - Foodnet
  • 4.8.2 - Other surveillance networks specific to foodborne illnesses in the United States
  • 4.9 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Role of risk analysis and risk communication in food safety management
  • 5.1 - Introduction
  • 5.2 - Risk analysis
  • 5.3 - Risk analysis process
  • 5.4 - Risk assessment
  • 5.5 - Risk assessment policy
  • 5.5.1 - Safety assessment as risk assessment
  • 5.6 - Risk management
  • 5.7 - General principles of food safety risk management
  • 5.8 - Risk management framework
  • 5.8.1 - Preliminary risk management activities
  • 5.8.2 - Implementation of risk management decisions
  • 5.9 - Risk communication
  • 5.10 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 2 - Food safety issues in contemporary society
  • Chapter 6 - An ayurvedic perspective on food safety
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Food safety in modern society-changing trends of food production and consumption
  • 7.1 - Introduction
  • 7.2 - Changing trends in food production
  • 7.3 - Changing trends in food consumption
  • 7.4 - Hazards due to safety aspects of food
  • References
  • Section 3 - Food contamination and adulteration
  • Chapter 8 - Food toxicology-past, present, and the future (the Indian perspective)
  • 8.1 - Introduction
  • 8.2 - The history of food toxicology
  • 8.2.1 - Global picture
  • 8.2.2 - Indian mythology and history
  • 8.2.2.1 - The Puranas
  • 8.2.2.2 - Mahabharata
  • 8.2.2.3 - Vish kanya (vish = poison, kanya = damsel)
  • 8.2.2.4 - Juahar (jiv = life, har = defeat)
  • 8.3 - The modern history
  • 8.3.1 - The Nazi experiments
  • 8.3.2 - The death of Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri
  • 8.3.3 - Midday meal disasters
  • 8.3.4 - Pesticide contamination of food
  • 8.3.5 - Heavy metal poisoning
  • 8.3.5.1 - Minimata disease (Japan)
  • 8.3.5.2 - Mercury menace of India
  • 8.4 - Radiation contamination of food and water
  • 8.4.1 - The Vanderbilt nutrition study (USA)
  • 8.4.2 - Fukushima nuclear disaster (Japan)
  • 8.4.3 - Uranium poisoning (India)
  • 8.5 - Toxic waste imports in India
  • 8.6 - Toxicology and crime
  • 8.6.1 - The Rajneeshee bioterror attack
  • 8.6.2 - The biscuit gangs of India
  • 8.6.3 - Date rape drugs
  • 8.6.4 - The hooch tragedies
  • 8.6.5 - The problem of alcohol
  • 8.7 - Poison control/information centers in India
  • 8.8 - Food safety of VVIPs
  • 8.9 - Food security in India
  • 8.10 - International/national activities for health protection
  • 8.10.1 - Frederick Accum (1769-1838)
  • 8.10.2 - Rachel Carson (1907-64)
  • 8.10.3 - Greenpeace India
  • 8.10.4 - Toxic Links
  • 8.11 - Indian acts/laws for food safety
  • 8.11.1 - Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
  • 8.11.2 - Insecticides Act, 1968
  • 8.11.3 - The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
  • 8.11.4 - Indian Penal Code
  • 8.11.5 - 277 IPC-Fouling water of public spring or reservoir
  • 8.11.6 - 278 IPC-Making atmosphere noxious to health
  • 8.12 - Remedial measures
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Toxicological profile of Indian foods-ensuring food safety in India
  • 9.1 - Introduction
  • 9.1.1 - Effects on the human body
  • 9.2 - Classification of toxins/toxicants
  • 9.2.1 - Natural toxins
  • 9.2.1.1 - Toxins inherently present in foods
  • 9.2.1.1.1 - Phytoalexins
  • 9.2.1.1.2 - Cyanogenic glycosides
  • 9.2.1.1.2.1 - Goiter
  • 9.2.1.1.2.2 - Konzo
  • 9.2.1.1.2.3 - Tropical ataxic neuropathy
  • 9.2.1.1.3 - Alkaloids
  • 9.2.1.1.4 - Carcinogens
  • 9.2.1.1.4.1 - Plant carcinogens
  • 9.2.1.1.4.2 - Animal carcinogens
  • 9.2.1.1.5 - Enzyme inhibitors
  • 9.2.1.1.5.1 - Botulinum toxin
  • 9.2.1.1.5.2 - ß-N-oxalyl-1-a-diamino propionic acid
  • 9.2.1.1.6 - Vitamin antagonists
  • 9.2.1.1.6.1 - Thiaminase
  • 9.2.1.1.6.2 - Chlorogenic acid
  • 9.2.1.2 - Toxins brought in food through spoilage
  • 9.2.1.2.1 - Bacterial contamination of food
  • 9.2.1.2.2 - Fungal contamination of food
  • 9.2.1.2.2.1 - Alkaloids
  • 9.2.1.2.2.2 - Aflatoxins
  • 9.2.1.2.2.3 - Ochratoxins
  • 9.2.1.2.2.4 - 3-Nitropropioninc acid
  • 9.2.1.2.2.5 - Zearalenone
  • 9.2.1.2.2.6 - Trichothecenes
  • 9.2.1.2.3 - Protozoal contamination of food
  • 9.2.1.2.4 - Noninfective food poisoning
  • 9.2.1.2.5 - Algal contamination of food
  • 9.2.1.3 - External factors influencing microbial growth in foods
  • 9.2.1.3.1 - Temperature
  • 9.2.1.3.2 - Oxygen
  • 9.2.1.3.3 - Osmotic pressure
  • 9.2.1.3.4 - pH
  • 9.2.1.3.5 - Processed foods (carcinogens and mutagens)
  • 9.2.2 - Environmental toxicants
  • 9.2.2.1 - Pesticides
  • 9.2.2.1.1 - Organophosphorus compounds
  • 9.2.2.1.2 - Organochlorines
  • 9.2.2.2 - Heavy metals in foods
  • 9.2.2.3 - Food additives and preservatives
  • 9.2.2.3.1 - Coloring agents
  • 9.2.2.3.2 - Food preservatives
  • 9.2.2.3.3 - Flavoring agents
  • 9.3 - Adulteration of foods
  • 9.3.1 - Adulteration and law
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Detection of food adulterants/contaminants
  • 10.1 - Introduction
  • 10.2 - Definition of adulterant/contaminant and adulteration
  • 10.3 - Economic adulteration
  • 10.4 - Common adulterants/contaminants in foods
  • 10.5 - Impact of food adulteration on human health
  • 10.6 - Artificially ripened fruits and mercury pollution in fish
  • 10.7 - List of adulterants/contaminants in foods and their health effects
  • 10.8 - Detection of adulterants/contaminants
  • 10.9 - Simple screening tests for detection of adulteration at home
  • 10.10 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 11 - Recent advances in detection of food adulteration
  • 11.1 - Color as food additive: detection methodologies
  • 11.2 - Preservatives as food additives
  • 11.3 - Harmful aspects of food preservatives
  • 11.4 - Other adulterants: a challenge for detection
  • 11.5 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Role of public health food safety laboratories in detection of adulterants/contaminants
  • 12.1 - Introduction
  • 12.2 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 4 - Food safety from farm-to-fork
  • Chapter 13 - Food-safety issues related to plant foods at farms
  • 13.1 - Introduction
  • 13.2 - Fragmented approach to food safety in past
  • 13.3 - Integrated approach: farm-to-fork
  • 13.4 - Food safety at the farm level
  • 13.4.1 - Chemical hazards
  • 13.4.2 - Biologic hazards
  • 13.4.3 - Physical hazards
  • 13.4.4 - Other hazards
  • 13.5 - Methods to reduce hazards at the farm level
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Food safety from farm-to-fork-food safety issues related to animal foods at farm
  • 14.1 - Animals at farm
  • 14.2 - Safe animal feed
  • 14.3 - Animal welfare
  • 14.4 - Animal health
  • 14.5 - Animal living conditions
  • References
  • Chapter 15 - Food safety from farm-to-fork-food-safety issues related to processing
  • 15.1 - Hygiene of staff
  • 15.2 - Training of staff
  • 15.2.1 - Gaps in the implementation of GMPs
  • 15.3 - Design of plant
  • 15.4 - Maintenance and Sanitation
  • 15.4.1 - Lighting fixture/other glass breakage
  • 15.4.2 - Pest-control systems
  • 15.4.3 - Waste management
  • 15.4.4 - Personal hygiene facilities and toilets
  • 15.5 - Control of operations
  • 15.5.1 - Prevention of microbiologic cross-contamination
  • 15.5.2 - Physical and chemical contamination
  • 15.5.3 - Transport
  • 15.5.4 - Postprocessing contamination
  • 15.5.5 - Traceability
  • 15.5.6 - Mistaken identity of pesticides
  • 15.5.7 - Corrosion of metal containers/equipment/utensils
  • 15.5.8 - Residue from cleaning and sanitizing
  • 15.5.9 - Accidentally adding too much of an approved ingredient
  • 15.5.10 - Natural toxins
  • 15.6 - Product information and consumer awareness
  • 15.7 - Record maintenance for GMPs
  • 15.7.1 - Food-safety implications of lack of correct documentation
  • 15.8 - GMP-system verification
  • 15.8.1 - Withdrawals
  • References
  • Chapter 16 - Food safety issues in production of foods of animal origin and from farm to plate
  • 16.1 - Introduction
  • 16.2 - Food safety issues during primary production
  • 16.3 - Preslaughter safety of meat animals during transportation
  • 16.4 - The Indian Legislation on meat business
  • 16.5 - Slaughtering of animals
  • 16.6 - The slaughterhouse
  • 16.7 - Slaughtering
  • 16.8 - Poultry meat
  • 16.9 - Veterinary inspection
  • 16.10 - Antemortem inspection
  • 16.11 - Postmortem inspection
  • 16.12 - Meat food safety in domestic kitchens
  • 16.13 - Food safety issues during storage
  • 16.14 - Food safety controls
  • 16.15 - Meat processing and marketing
  • 16.16 - Food retailing
  • 16.17 - Role of Consumer
  • 16.18 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 17 - Safe storage and cooking practices for foods of animal origin in home kitchen before consumption
  • 17.1 - Introduction
  • 17.2 - Safe production and storage of foods of animal origin
  • 17.3 - Storage of foods of animal origin
  • 17.4 - Handling and cooking of foods of animal origin in kitchen
  • 17.5 - Preparing food safely at home
  • 17.6 - Cooking of meat or fish
  • 17.7 - Method of thawing of frozen food in a microwave oven
  • References
  • Section 5 - Food safety is a shared responsibility: role of various stakeholders in implementing food safety
  • Chapter 18 - Role of government authorities in food safety
  • 18.1 - History of food laws in India
  • 18.2 - Authorities under PFA
  • 18.2.1 - Fruit Products Order, 1955
  • 18.2.2 - The Meat Food Products Order, 1973
  • 18.2.3 - The Vegetable Oil Products (Regulation) Order, 1998
  • 18.2.4 - Edible Oils Packaging Regulation Order, 1998
  • 18.2.5 - The Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992
  • 18.3 - New era of food laws in India
  • 18.4 - Key provisions of FSSA
  • 18.5 - Important definitions as per FSSA
  • 18.6 - Other highlights of FSSA
  • 18.7 - Challenges
  • 18.8 - Other government agencies working for food safety
  • 18.9 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 19 - Local governing bodies
  • 19.1 - Introduction
  • 19.2 - Local governing bodies in India
  • 19.3 - Responsibilities of the state/district food safety LGB
  • 19.4 - Responsibility of municipal council/corporation
  • 19.5 - Food safety plan
  • 19.6 - Role of Food Safety Officer (FSO)
  • 19.7 - Responsibility of other departments/ministries
  • 19.8 - Conclusions
  • Reference
  • Chapter 20 - Role of food business operators in food safety
  • 20.1 - Responsibilities of FBO
  • 20.2 - Challenges
  • 20.3 - The way forward
  • Reference
  • Chapter 21 - Food handlers
  • 21.1 - Responsibilities of food handler
  • 21.1.1 - Hand washing
  • 21.1.2 - Good personal hygiene and work attire
  • 21.1.2.1 - Hair
  • 21.1.2.2 - Face and neck
  • 21.1.2.3 - Clothes
  • 21.1.2.4 - Apron
  • 21.1.2.5 - Hands and wrists
  • 21.1.2.6 - Nail cutting
  • 21.1.2.7 - Foot wear
  • 21.1.2.8 - Dressing on wounds
  • 21.1.3 - Management during illnesses
  • 21.1.4 - Good hygienic practices at work
  • 21.2 - Food-safety requirements for food handlers under Food Safety and Standards Regulations (FSSR 2011)
  • 21.3 - Training of food handlers
  • 21.4 - Occupational hazards of food handlers
  • 21.4.1 - Temperature
  • 21.4.2 - Lighting
  • 21.4.3 - Noise
  • 21.4.4 - Fire
  • 21.4.5 - Lifting heavy loads
  • 21.4.6 - Chemical hazards
  • 21.4.7 - Biologic hazards
  • 21.4.8 - Mechanical hazards
  • 21.4.9 - Psychosocial hazards
  • 21.5 - Prevention of occupational hazards in food handlers
  • 21.5.1 - Engineering measures
  • 21.5.2 - Medical measures
  • 21.5.2.1 - Preemployment screening of food handlers
  • 21.5.3 - Legal measures
  • 21.5.3.1 - Workforce as food handlers in unorganized sector
  • References
  • Chapter 22 - Consumers
  • 22.1 - Introduction
  • 22.2 - Consumers' perspective about food safety
  • 22.2.1 - Culture of silence
  • 22.2.2 - Low expectations
  • 22.2.3 - Cost cutting
  • 22.3 - Government's initiative in creating consumer awareness
  • 22.3.1 - Home-based detection of adulteration
  • 22.3.2 - IEC campaigns
  • 22.3.3 - Providing compensation to consumers
  • 22.4 - Manufacturer's initiatives to Protect Consumer Welfare
  • 22.5 - Conclusions
  • Chapter 23 - Public health professionals and food safety
  • 23.1 - Studying
  • 23.2 - Teaching and training
  • 23.3 - Disease surveillance
  • 23.4 - Information, Education, and Communication (IEC)
  • 23.5 - Specific advice and professional consultations
  • 23.6 - PHP in Public Health Laboratory (PHL)
  • 23.7 - Early diagnosis of disease
  • 23.8 - Investigation of foodborne outbreak
  • 23.9 - Tackling a new foodborne disease
  • 23.10 - Documentation and reporting
  • 23.11 - Advisories, consultancy, and advocacy
  • 23.12 - Policy making and administration
  • 23.13 - Research
  • 23.14 - Leadership
  • 23.15 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 24 - Role of veterinary experts in food safety
  • 24.1 - Introduction
  • 24.2 - Role of vets in food safety controls and food safety plan
  • 24.3 - Scope of veterinary education in India
  • 24.4 - Role of vets in public health through veterinary public health in implementation of principles of risk analysis in f...
  • 24.5 - Role of vets in preventing antimicrobial resistance in public health
  • 24.6 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 25 - Researchers and food safety
  • 25.1 - Introduction
  • 25.2 - Who is a researcher?
  • 25.3 - Need of research in food safety
  • 25.4 - Research in food safety
  • 25.5 - Food-safety research during food production processes
  • 25.5.1 - Genetically modified seeds and foods
  • 25.5.2 - Fertilizers
  • 25.5.3 - Plant breeding
  • 25.5.4 - Pesticides
  • 25.5.5 - Harvesting
  • 25.6 - Postharvest
  • 25.6.1 - Hi-tech storage
  • 25.6.2 - Temperature-tracking devices
  • 25.6.3 - Radio-frequency identification technology
  • 25.7 - Active packaging
  • 25.7.1 - Containers for viscous fluids
  • 25.7.2 - Antifood-degrading packaging
  • 25.7.3 - Anticorrosives packing
  • 25.7.4 - Modified atmosphere
  • 25.7.5 - Shock detectors
  • 25.7.6 - Security
  • 25.7.7 - Biodegradable plastics
  • 25.8 - Contribution of specific branches of science to food-safety research
  • 25.8.1 - Microbiology
  • 25.8.2 - Laboratory microbiology
  • 25.8.3 - Medicine
  • 25.8.4 - Public health
  • 25.8.5 - Forensic experts
  • 25.8.6 - Veterinary science
  • 25.8.7 - Information Technology
  • 25.8.8 - Nanotechnology
  • 25.8.9 - Behavioral Sciences
  • 25.9 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 26 - Role of hotel management and catering technology institutes in ensuring food safety
  • 26.1 - Hotel and catering industry
  • 26.1.1 - Catering institutions are also classified on the basis of the objectives
  • 26.1.2 - Customer satisfaction
  • 26.1.3 - Food safety and quality control
  • 26.1.4 - Skilled manpower
  • 26.2 - Education and training of hotel and catering industry personnel
  • 26.3 - Government initiative in creating infrastructure for education in this sector
  • 26.3.1 - Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM)
  • 26.3.2 - National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology society
  • 26.4 - Importance of food safety education and training in hotel and catering industry
  • Further Reading
  • Section 6 - Food safetyin large eatingestablishments
  • Chapter 27 - Food safety in large organized eating establishments
  • 27.1 - Introduction
  • 27.2 - Food safety requirements in an EE
  • 27.2.1 - Safe water
  • 27.2.2 - Transportation and handling of prepared food
  • 27.2.3 - Vending/selling units
  • 27.2.4 - Requirements at the point of sale
  • 27.2.5 - Environment and surroundings
  • 27.2.6 - Waste disposal and pest control
  • 27.2.7 - Cleaning and sanitizing
  • 27.3 - Kitchen equipment as food safety hazard
  • 27.3.1 - Special procedures for cleaning and maintenance of specific equipment
  • 27.3.2 - Fixtures
  • 27.3.3 - Use of mops and issue of food safety
  • 27.3.4 - Refrigerator maintenance and food safety
  • References
  • Chapter 28 - Design and construction of eating establishments for ensuring food safety
  • 28.1 - Obtaining approval and permit to operate a food service
  • 28.2 - Characteristics of good kitchen design
  • 28.3 - Internal structures and fittings
  • 28.4 - Workspace dimensions
  • 28.4.1 - Clearances
  • 28.4.2 - Layout and design of food establishment premises
  • 28.5 - Construction requirements
  • 28.5.1 - Location and surroundings
  • 28.5.2 - Structure
  • 28.5.3 - Kitchen height
  • 28.5.4 - Size
  • 28.5.5 - Floors
  • 28.5.6 - Walls, partitions, and ceilings
  • 28.5.7 - Doors and windows
  • 28.5.8 - Finishing materials
  • 28.6 - Equipment design and installation
  • 28.7 - Sinks
  • 28.7.1 - Hand wash basins
  • 28.7.2 - Dishwashing
  • 28.7.3 - Manual dishwashing
  • 28.8 - Storage space
  • 28.9 - Grease traps
  • 28.10 - Pipe work
  • 28.11 - Gratings
  • 28.12 - Waste disposal systems
  • 28.12.1 - Food/general waste disposal system
  • 28.12.2 - Garbage chutes
  • 28.13 - Ventilation
  • 28.13.1 - Natural ventilation
  • 28.13.2 - Exhaust systems
  • 28.13.3 - Airflow plan and design
  • 28.13.4 - Mechanical air replacement
  • 28.14 - Lighting
  • 28.14.1 - Natural and artificial lighting
  • 28.14.2 - Recommended luminance level for a commercial kitchen
  • 28.14.3 - Reflectance
  • 28.14.4 - Emergency lighting
  • 28.14.5 - Energy efficiency measures
  • 28.15 - Insect control
  • 28.16 - Basic fire precautions
  • 28.17 - First-aid kits
  • 28.18 - Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Section 7 - Food safety in small eating establishments and in special situations
  • Chapter 29 - Safe cooking practices and food safety in home kitchen and eating establishment
  • 29.1 - Safe cooking practices and food safety in home kitchen and Eating Establishemnt (EE)
  • 29.1.1 - Preparation of raw material
  • 29.1.1.1 - Cleaning
  • 29.1.1.2 - Cutting and chopping
  • 29.1.1.3 - Thawing
  • 29.1.2 - Cooking
  • 29.1.3 - Hot and cold holding
  • 29.1.4 - Cooling and storing
  • 29.1.5 - Serving
  • 29.1.6 - Reheating of leftover food
  • 29.1.7 - Key points for good cooking practices
  • 29.1.8 - High-Risk foods
  • 29.1.8.1 - Stuffed preparations
  • 29.1.8.2 - Coated preparations
  • 29.1.8.3 - Salads and sandwiches
  • 29.1.8.4 - Meat
  • 29.1.8.5 - Eggs
  • 29.1.8.6 - Fish
  • References
  • Chapter 30 - Food safety in schools, canteens, hostel messes, mid-day meal scheme, ICDS
  • 30.1 - General principles of food safety for community eating establishment
  • 30.1.1 - Procurement and Storage of Raw Material
  • 30.1.2 - Food handlers' hygiene
  • 30.1.3 - Kitchen hygiene and sanitation
  • 30.1.4 - Serving of food
  • 30.2 - Principles of food safety specific to various community eating establishments/programs
  • 30.2.1 - Food safety at mid-day meal programs
  • 30.2.2 - Food safety at anganwadi centers under ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme)
  • 30.2.3 - General tips for maintaining food safety at AWCs
  • 30.2.4 - Food handling and safety measures for hot cooked meal
  • 30.2.5 - Maintaining quality assurance
  • 30.2.6 - Checklist for monitoring and controls
  • References
  • Chapter 31 - Food safety issues related to street vendors
  • 31.1 - Definition of street food
  • 31.2 - Increasing trend of street foods
  • 31.3 - Food safety hazards
  • 31.4 - Food Safety Practices pertaining to street foods and their health implications
  • 31.5 - Food safety regulatory requirements
  • 31.6 - Policy issues for provision of safe food
  • 31.7 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 32 - Food safety during travel
  • 32.1 - Introduction
  • 32.2 - Food Borne Diseases
  • 32.2.1 - Travelers' Diarrhoea
  • 32.2.1.1 - Causes of travelers' diarrhea
  • 32.2.2 - Other diseases
  • 32.3 - Determinants of food safety during travel
  • 32.3.1 - Type of travel and destination
  • 32.3.2 - Duration of stay
  • 32.3.3 - Season of the travel
  • 32.3.4 - Place of stay
  • 32.3.5 - Knowledge on local foods and language
  • 32.3.6 - Mode of travel
  • 32.4 - Common tips for ensuring food safety in all modes of travel
  • 32.5 - Mode of travel
  • 32.5.1 - Roadways
  • 32.5.2 - Railways
  • 32.5.2.1 - Tips to train travelers
  • 32.5.3 - Seaways
  • 32.5.3.1 - Food safety tips for sea travelers
  • 32.5.4 - Airways
  • 32.6 - Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 33 - Food safety during fairs and festivals
  • 33.1 - Introduction
  • 33.2 - Food safety hazards during fairs and festivals
  • 33.3 - Causes of food borne illness during fairs and festivals
  • 33.4 - Measures to ensure food safety during fairs and festivals
  • 33.5 - ConclusionS
  • References
  • Chapter 34 - Food safety during disasters
  • 34.1 - Food safety advice
  • 34.2 - Preparation for food safety before a disaster
  • 34.2.1 - Store food
  • 34.2.2 - Store water
  • 34.2.3 - Brace up for electricity failure
  • 34.3 - Principles of feeding programs during disasters
  • 34.4 - Food safety measures in the aftermath of natural disasters
  • 34.4.1 - Inspecting and salvaging food
  • 34.4.2 - Water hygiene
  • 34.4.3 - Kitchen hygiene
  • 34.4.4 - Provision of food aid and temporary cooking facilities
  • 34.4.5 - Identification and response to foodborne disease outbreaks
  • 34.4.6 - Community education and information
  • 34.5 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 8 - Domestic regulatory scenario of food safety and interface of food safety laws, standards, regulations, and policies at the international level
  • Chapter 35 - Relevant food safety regulations and policies
  • 35.1 - Introduction
  • 35.2 - Evolution of food laws
  • 35.3 - Indian food laws
  • 35.4 - Food safety policies
  • 35.5 - Procedure for implementing food legislations/instructions
  • 35.6 - Registration of petty FBOs
  • 35.7 - Licensing of FBOs
  • 35.8 - International scenario on food safety
  • References
  • Chapter 36 - Food safety policies in agriculture and food security with traceability
  • 36.1 - Introduction
  • 36.2 - Has national agricultural policy taken care of "food safety"?
  • 36.3 - Food safety and food security as part of national agricultural policy
  • 36.4 - Traceability
  • References
  • Chapter 37 - Food safety in international food trade-imports and exports
  • 37.1 - Introduction
  • 37.2 - Principles and guidelines of inspection and certification systems for imports and exports
  • 37.3 - Principles of Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification
  • 37.4 - Guidelines
  • 37.5 - Guidelines on food import-control system
  • 37.6 - Food export-control system
  • 37.7 - Equivalence
  • 37.8 - Inspections
  • 37.9 - Certification systems
  • 37.10 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 38 - Regulation of advertisement for food products in India-advertisement for food products
  • 38.1 - Introduction
  • 38.1.1 - Definition
  • 38.1.2 - Surrogate advertising
  • 38.1.3 - Product placements
  • 38.2 - Advertisement policies for food safety
  • 38.2.1 - FSSAI on advertisement policies for food safety
  • 38.2.2 - The ASCI Code
  • 38.2.3 - International Advertisement Policies
  • 38.3 - Food safety guidelines
  • 38.3.1 - Definition of Advertising for the purpose of the Guidelines
  • 38.3.2 - General Principles
  • 38.4 - Food Safety and Standard Regulations (FSSR), 2011
  • 38.5 - Jago Grahak Jago
  • 38.6 - Who can file a complaint?
  • 38.7 - How to file a complaint?
  • 38.8 - Where to file a complaint?
  • 38.9 - The Horlicks controversy
  • 38.10 - The way forward
  • 38.11 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 9 - Food safety concerns in context of newer developments in agriculture/food science/food processing
  • Chapter 39 - Nutritional labeling
  • 39.1 - Introduction
  • 39.2 - Nutrition labeling as per food safety and standards act (FSSA) 2006
  • 39.3 - Nutrition facts panel
  • 39.4 - Ingredient list
  • 39.5 - Nutrition claims versus Health claims
  • 39.6 - Other claims
  • 39.7 - Percentage (%) daily value
  • 39.8 - Nutritional information and dietary changes
  • 39.9 - Nutrition labels in packaged food: "Eat" in between the lines
  • 39.10 - Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 40 - Nutraceuticals
  • 40.1 - Introduction
  • 40.2 - Nutraceutical
  • 40.3 - Classification of nutraceuticals
  • 40.4 - Mode of action of nutraceuticals
  • 40.5 - Benefits of nutraceuticals
  • 40.6 - Regulation governing nutraceuticals
  • 40.7 - Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 41 - Regulatory requirements for labeling, health, and nutritional claim
  • 41.1 - Introduction
  • 41.2 - General requirements for mandatory labeling
  • 41.3 - Claims
  • 41.3.1 - Disease claim
  • 41.3.2 - Nutrient Content Claims
  • 41.4 - Prohibitions
  • 41.5 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 42 - Genetically modified (GM) foods: the food security dilemma
  • 42.1 - Applications of GM crops
  • 42.1.1 - Enhancing yield
  • 42.1.2 - Enhancing/inculcating plants resistance
  • 42.1.3 - Enhancing quality
  • 42.2 - Pharming
  • 42.2.1 - Impact on Environment
  • 42.2.2 - Impact on health
  • 42.2.3 - Allergens
  • 42.2.4 - Antibiotic resistance
  • 42.2.5 - Decreased nutrients
  • 42.2.6 - Introduced toxins
  • 42.2.7 - Naturally occurring toxins
  • 42.2.8 - Impact on Markets
  • 42.3 - GM crops in India
  • References
  • Chapter 43 - Organic farming: is it a solution to safe food?
  • 43.1 - Introduction
  • 43.2 - Definition of organic agriculture
  • 43.3 - Adverse effects of modern agricultural practices: Indian context
  • 43.4 - Origin of organic farming
  • 43.5 - The concept of food quality and food safety
  • 43.6 - Food safety in organic agriculture: the evidence
  • 43.6.1 - Use of pesticides in agriculture system: is it really a safe option?
  • 43.6.2 - Nutritional quality of organic and non organically grown food
  • 43.7 - Public concern about safe food and its quality
  • 43.7.1 - Healthy and safe foods
  • 43.7.2 - Improvement in soil quality
  • 43.7.3 - Increased crop productivity and income
  • 43.7.4 - Low incidence of pests
  • 43.7.5 - Indirect benefits
  • 43.8 - Technique of organic farming
  • 43.9 - Basic IFOAM principles of organic farming: Complement to food safety
  • 43.10 - Organic agriculture: international perspective
  • 43.11 - Organic farming at national level
  • 43.12 - Promotion of organic foods: what is needed?
  • 43.12.1 - Pricing
  • 43.12.2 - Visibility
  • 43.12.3 - Labeling
  • 43.12.4 - Availability
  • 43.13 - Organic food: certification
  • 43.14 - The way forward
  • References
  • Chapter 44 - Safety and quality of frozen foods
  • 44.1 - Introduction
  • 44.2 - Food spoilage/deterioration leading to unsafe and/or poor quality food
  • 44.2.1 - Food spoilage due to biochemical activity
  • 44.3 - Methods of food preservation for enhancing shelf life of food
  • 44.4 - Freezing as a method of food preservation
  • 44.4.1 - High-pressure freezing
  • 44.4.2 - Concept of MPa and atmospheric pressure
  • 44.4.3 - Dehydrofreezing
  • 44.4.4 - Antifreeze protein and ice nucleation protein
  • 44.4.5 - Antifreeze protein
  • 44.4.6 - Ice nucleation proteins
  • 44.5 - Methods of thawing
  • 44.5.1 - High-pressure thawing
  • 44.5.2 - Microwave thawing
  • 44.5.3 - Ohmic thawing
  • 44.5.4 - Acoustic thawing
  • 44.6 - Safety and quality of frozen foods
  • 44.7 - Moisture loss/freezing injury
  • 44.8 - Microbial growth in the freezer
  • 44.9 - Effect on nutrient value of frozen foods
  • 44.9.1 - Vitamin C
  • 44.9.2 - Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  • 44.9.3 - Vitamin A (Carotene)
  • 44.9.4 - Quality
  • 44.10 - Effect of thawing on safety and quality of food
  • 44.10.1 - In the refrigerator
  • 44.10.2 - In the microwave
  • 44.10.3 - At room temperature
  • 44.10.4 - Cooking without thawing
  • 44.11 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 45 - Ready to eat meals
  • 45.1 - Introduction
  • 45.2 - History
  • 45.3 - The indian setting
  • 45.4 - Limitations
  • 45.5 - Classification
  • 45.6 - Safety aspects of REM foods
  • 45.6.1 - Raw material
  • 45.6.2 - Manufacturing
  • 45.6.3 - Equipment
  • 45.6.4 - Packaging
  • 45.6.5 - Distribution
  • 45.6.6 - Small units
  • 45.7 - Detection of the foodborne pathogenic bacteria
  • 45.8 - Food safety concern for some specific REM
  • 45.8.1 - Chocolates
  • 45.8.2 - Custard and cream-filled foods
  • 45.8.3 - Frozen foods
  • 45.8.4 - Fresh-cut fruits, shakes, and juices
  • 45.8.5 - Statutory regulations
  • 45.9 - Conclusions
  • Reference
  • Chapter 46 - Food packaging
  • 46.1 - Introduction
  • 46.2 - History
  • 46.3 - Why food packaging?
  • 46.3.1 - Advantages of food packaging
  • 46.4 - Principles of packaging
  • 46.5 - Packaging and food safety
  • 46.6 - Packaging material
  • 46.7 - Types of packaging
  • 46.8 - Packaging materials
  • 46.8.1 - Glass
  • 46.8.2 - Aluminum
  • 46.8.3 - Plastic
  • 46.8.4 - Paper
  • 46.8.5 - Tetra packs
  • 46.8.6 - Pouches
  • 46.8.7 - Retort packaging
  • 46.8.8 - Aseptic packaging
  • 46.9 - Labeling
  • 46.10 - Toxic effects
  • 46.10.1 - Leaching
  • 46.10.2 - Metallic contact
  • 46.10.3 - Physical agents
  • 46.11 - Emerging trends
  • 46.11.1 - Active and intelligent packaging
  • 46.11.2 - Nanotechnology
  • 46.12 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 47 - Information technology (IT) in food safety
  • 47.1 - Where are we?
  • 47.2 - Where IT comes in?
  • 47.3 - Prerequsites of IT system
  • 47.3.1 - Principles of IT utilization in key applications
  • 47.4 - Present usage of IT in food safety: developing countries
  • 47.5 - IT in food safety: developed countries
  • 47.5.1 - Supply chain management
  • 47.5.2 - Meat packaging softwares
  • 47.5.3 - Food Adulterant Detection Software
  • 47.5.4 - Detection of Contamination: Smart-phone Technology
  • 47.5.5 - Genome-sequencing of new pathogens
  • 47.5.6 - Fluorescent sensor for pathogen detection
  • 47.5.7 - IT in HACCP
  • 47.5.8 - Use of cloud computing technology
  • 47.6 - Cyber security in food safety
  • 47.7 - Limitations of IT
  • 47.8 - Future of IT in food safety
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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